Tyrimai, susiejantys pornografijos naudojimą su „nevienodais požiūriais“ į moteris

un-egalitarian

Įvadas

This page collects findings that debunk the popular sexology claim that porn use promotes egalitarian attitudes toward women (page also contains a few studies linking porn use to un-egalitarian attitudes towards males).

Let’s begin with the XNUMX study that inspired the creation of this page -“Ar pornografija tikrai susijusi su „neapykantos moterimi“? Pornografijos vartotojai reprezentatyviame amerikiečių pavyzdyje turi daugiau lyčių požiūrių nei nevartotojai.” It has been heavily cited by pro-porn activists as strong evidence that porn use leads to greater egalitarianism and less sexist attitudes. Actually, this Taylor Kohut study (like a XNUMX Kohut paper) provides an instructive example of how to twist methodology to achieve a desired result.

The Taylor Kohut study framed egalitarizmas as: (XNUMX) Support for abortion, (XNUMX) Feminist identification, (XNUMX) Women holding positions of power, (XNUMX) Belief that family life suffers when the woman has a full-time job, and oddly enough (XNUMX) Holding more negative attitudes toward the traditional family. No matter what you personally believe, its easy to see that religious populations would score far sumažinti on Taylor Kohut’s XNUMX-part “egalitarianism” assessment.

The key: secular populations, which tend to be more liberal, have far higher rates of porn use than religious populations. By choosing these criteria and ignoring endless other variables, lead author Taylor Kohut knew he would end up with porn users scoring higher on his study’s carefully chosen selection of what constitutes “egalitarizmas.” Then he chose a title that spun it all. In this XNUMX presentation Gary Wilson exposes the truth behind XNUMX questionable and misleading studies, including both Kohut studies: Pornografiniai tyrimai: faktas ar fantastika?

Taylor Kohut has a history of publishing ‘creative’ studies designed to  find little or no problems arising from the use of porn. In this XNUMX study, Kohut appears to have skewed the sample to produce the results he was seeking. Whereas most studies show that a tiny minority of porn users’ female partners use porn, in this study XNUMX% of the women used porn on their own (XNUMX% of the women had used porn since the beginning of the relationship)! Reality: Cross-sectional data from the largest US survey (General Social Survey) reported that only XNUMX% of women had visited a “pornographic website” in the last month.

Kohut’s new Interneto svetainė ir jo bandymas rinkti lėšas suggest that he just may have an agenda. Kohut’s bias is also revealed in a recent brief written for the Standing Committee on Health Regarding Motion M-XNUMX (Canada). In the brief Kohut and his coauthors are guilty of cherry-picking a few outlying studies while misrepresenting the current state of the research on porn’s effects. Their distorted and laughable description of the published neurological studies on porn users leaves no doubt as to their bias. In XNUMX Kohut confirmed his extreme agenda-driven bias when he joined his allies in trying to silence YourBrainOnPorn.com. Kohut and his friends at www.realyourbrainonporn.com are engaged in neteisėtas prekių ženklų pažeidimas ir grobimas.

The truth is that nearly every study assessing porn use and egalitarianism (sexual attitudes) has reported that porn use is associated with attitudes toward women that both liberals and conservatives regard as extremely problematic. (Please note that these studies all reported findings about požiūris. Studies that did not report attitude correlations are not included, even if they did report a link between porn consumption and actual aggression. For those studies, see Studies linking porn use to sexual offending, sexual aggression, and sexual coercion (addresses claims about rape rates & porn.

Atitinkamų tyrimų ir metaanalizių sąrašas (sąrašas prasideda literatūros apžvalgomis ir metaanalizėmis):

Media and Sexualization: State of Empirical Research, XNUMX–XNUMX. (XNUMX)  - A review of the literature. Ištrauka:

Seksualiai objektyvūs moterų vaizdai yra dažni pagrindinėse žiniasklaidos priemonėse, todėl kyla klausimų apie galimą šio turinio poveikio kitiems moterų įspūdžiams ir pačių moterų požiūrių poveikį. Šios peržiūros tikslas buvo sintezuoti empirinius tyrimus, tiriant žiniasklaidos seksualizacijos poveikį. Pagrindinis dėmesys buvo skiriamas moksliniams tyrimams, publikuotiems recenzuojamuose anglų kalbos žurnaluose tarp 1995 ir 2015. A total of XNUMX publications that contained XNUMX studies were reviewed. The findings provided consistent evidence that both laboratory exposure and regular, everyday exposure to this content are directly associated with a range of consequences, including higher levels of body dissatisfaction, greater self-objectification, greater support of sexist beliefs and of adversarial sexual beliefs, and greater tolerance of sexual violence toward women. Moreover, experimental exposure to this content leads both women and men to have a diminished view of women’s competence, morality, and humanity.

Pagrindinės seksualinės žiniasklaidos poveikio seksualinėms nuostatoms, suvokiamoms tarpusavio normoms ir seksualinei elgsenai indėlis: meta-analizė (2019) - Ištraukos:

Decades of research have examined the impact of exposure to nonexplicit portrayals of sexual content in media. There is only one meta-analysis on this topic, which suggests that exposure to “sexy media” has little to no effect on sexual behavior. There are a number of limitations to the existing meta-analysis, and the purpose of this updated meta-analysis was to examine associations between exposure to sexual media and users’ attitudes and sexual behavior.

Atlikta išsami literatūros paieška siekiant rasti atitinkamus straipsnius. Kiekvienas tyrimas buvo užkoduotas ryšiams tarp seksualinės žiniasklaidos ir vieno iš šešių rezultatų, įskaitant seksualinį požiūrį (leistinas požiūris, bendraamžių normos ir rapsų mitai) ir seksualinį elgesį (bendras seksualinis elgesys, seksualinio elgesio amžius ir rizikingas seksualinis elgesys).

Apskritai, ši metaanalizė rodo nuoseklų ir tvirtą ryšį tarp žiniasklaidos poveikio ir seksualinio požiūrio bei elgesio, apimančio daugelį rezultatų ir daugialypės terpės. Žiniasklaida vaizduoja seksualinį elgesį kaip labai paplitusią, laisvalaikio ir santykinai rizikingą [3], o mūsų analizė rodo, kad žiūrovo paties lytinių sprendimų priėmimas iš dalies gali būti suformuluotas peržiūrint šių tipų vaizdus. Mūsų išvados prieštarauja ankstesnei metaanalizei, kuri leido manyti, kad žiniasklaidos poveikis seksualiniam elgesiui buvo nereikšmingas arba neegzistuoja [4]. Ankstesnė metaanalizė naudojo 38 efektų dydžius ir nustatė, kad „seksuali“ terpė buvo silpnai ir triviškai susijusi su seksualiniu elgesiu (r = .08), o dabartinė metaanalizė buvo didesnė nei 10 kartų didesnė už efektų dydį (n = 394) ir nustatė, kad efektas beveik dvigubai didesnis (r = .14).

Pirma, radome teigiamų ryšių tarp seksualinės žiniasklaidos ir paauglių ir jaunų žmonių leistino seksualinio požiūrio ir jų bendraamžių seksualinės patirties suvokimo.

Antra, seksualinės žiniasklaidos turinys buvo susijęs su didesniu bendrų rapsų mitų priėmimu.

Galiausiai buvo nustatyta, kad seksualinės žiniasklaidos poveikis prognozuoja seksualinį elgesį, įskaitant seksualinės pradžios amžių, bendrą seksualinę patirtį ir rizikingą seksualinį elgesį. Šie rezultatai sutapo su įvairiomis metodikomis ir remia teiginį, kad žiniasklaida prisideda prie jaunų žiūrovų seksualinės patirties.

Nors metaanalizė parodė reikšmingą seksualinės žiniasklaidos poveikio poveikį seksualiniam požiūriui ir elgesiui visuose dominančiuose kintamuosiuose, šiuos efektus moderavo keletas kintamųjų. Svarbiausias poveikis buvo akivaizdus visoms amžiaus grupėms; tačiau, the effect was more than twice as large for adolescents as for emerging adults, perhaps reflecting the fact that older participants likely have more comparative, real-world experience to draw on than younger participants [XNUMX, XNUMX]. In addition, the effect was stronger for males compared with femalesgalbūt todėl, kad seksualiniai eksperimentai tinka vyriškam seksualiniam scenarijui [18] ir dėl to, kad seksualinio inicijavimo metu vyrams skiriama mažiau bausmės už moterų simbolius [38].

Šios išvados turi reikšmingos įtakos paauglių ir besiformuojančių suaugusiųjų fizinei ir psichinei sveikatai. Suvokus aukštą bendraamžių seksualinės veiklos lygį ir seksualinį leistinumą, gali padidėti vidinio spaudimo eksperimentuoti seksualiai jausmai [39]. Vieno tyrimo metu buvo pastebėta, kad ankstyvoje paauglystėje seksualinės žiniasklaidos turinys paveikė seksualinį iniciavimą 9e17 mėnesių [40]; savo ruožtu ankstyvi eksperimentai gali padidinti psichinės ir fizinės sveikatos riziką [37].

Čia rasti efektų dydžiai yra panašūs į kitų tiriamų žiniasklaidos psichologijos sričių dydžius, pvz., Žiniasklaidos poveikį smurtui [41], prosocialinį elgesį [42] ir kūno įvaizdį [43]. Kiekviename iš šių atvejų, nors žiniasklaidos naudojimas sudaro tik dalį viso interesų skirtumų, žiniasklaida atlieka svarbų vaidmenį. Šie palyginimai rodo, kad seksualinės žiniasklaidos turinys yra nedidelis, bet iš to kylantis veiksnys, skatinantis paauglių ir kylančių suaugusiųjų seksualinį požiūrį ir elgesį.

YBOP komentarai: There’s some interesting background related to this paper. (See excerpt from its Conclusion below the Abstract). The Abstract states that only one other meta-analysis on this subject has been published. That other paper found that, “The impact of media on teen sexuality was minimal with effect sizes near to zero.” It was co-authored by Christopher J. Ferguson: Does Sexy Media Promote Teen Sex? A Meta-Analytic and Methodological Review (XNUMX)

Jau daugelį metų „Ferguson“ užpuolė internetinės priklausomybės sąvoką, tuo pat metu intensyviai kovodama su interneto žaidimų sutrikimu iš ICD-11. (Jis prarado tą 2018, bet jo kampanija tęsiasi daugeliu sričių.) Ferguson ir Nicole Prause iš tiesų buvo bendraautoriai pagrindiniame dokumente, bandančiame diskredituoti interneto priklausomybę. (Jų teiginiai buvo atskleisti ekspertų serijoje) šis klausimas Elgesio priklausomybių leidinys.) Čia meta-analizės autoriai aprašo, kaip Ferguson įtariamas parametrų pasirinkimas lemia jo rezultatą.

Pornografija ir požiūriai, skatinantys smurtą prieš moteris: pakartotinis ryšys be eksperimentinių tyrimų (2010) - A review of the literature. Ištrauka:

Buvo atlikta metaanalizė siekiant nustatyti, ar neišbandyti tyrimai atskleidė ryšį tarp vyrų pornografijos vartojimo ir jų požiūrio, skatinančio smurtą prieš moteris. Metaanalizė ištaisė problemas, susijusias su anksčiau paskelbta meta-analize, ir pridėjo naujausias išvadas. Priešingai nei ankstesnė metaanalizė, the current results showed an overall significant positive association between pornography use and attitudes supporting violence against women in nonexperimental studies. In addition, such attitudes were found to correlate significantly higher with the use of sexually violent pornography than with the use of nonviolent pornography, although the latter relationship was also found to be significant.

The remaining studies are listed in chronological order:

Pornography and Sexual Callousness and the Trivialization of Rape (XNUMX) - Ištrauka:

Explored the consequences of continued exposure to pornography on beliefs about sexuality in general and on dispositions toward women in particular. Found that massive exposure to pornography resulted in a loss of compassion toward women as rape victims and toward women in general.

Pornografija ir požiūris į moteris ir išprievartavimą: koreliacinis tyrimas (1986) - Ištrauka:

Compared to a group that had watched a control film, male subjects who were shown the violent film agreed more with items endorsing interpersonal violence against women nei kontrolės subjektai. Tačiau, priešingai nei prognozuojama, abiejų grupių statistiškai reikšmingo skirtumo tarp rapsų mitų nebuvo, nors prognozuojama kryptimi buvo tendencija.

Matydami vyriškus vyrus, seksualias moteris ir lyčių skirtumus: pornografijos ir pažintinių lytinių konstrukcijų poveikis (1997) - Ištrauka:

 In Studies XNUMX and XNUMX, high exposure men were more likely than low exposure men to think that most men perform masculine behaviors. In Studies XNUMX and XNUMX, high exposure men were also more likely lo generate sexual descriptions of women spontaneously. Finally, in Study XNUMX, high exposure men perceived the most gender differences after viewing sexual or sexual/violent music videos; low exposure men perceived the most differences after viewing sexual or romantic ones. These studies suggest that exposure to pornography is related to broad and fundamental ways of understanding men, women, and gender relations.

Seksizmo ir pornografijos naudojimas: aiškinant ankstesnius (nulinius) rezultatus (2004) – This one is an outlier, but interesting. Excerpt:

1 tyrimas parodė atvirkštinę koreliaciją tarp šiuolaikinio seksizmo ir pornografijos, todėl dalyviai, kurie naudojasi pornografija, dažniau parodė mažiau seksistinių požiūrių. Study XNUMX found a positive correlation between pornography use and benevolent sexism, such that participants who used pornography more frequently displayed more benevolent sexism. Our studies provide insight into the largely inconclusive findings of previous research on pornography use and sexist attitudes toward women.

Pornografijos ir savęs pranešimo apie seksualinį smurtą tarp paauglių naudojimas (2005)

This cross-sectional study examined XNUMX adolescents, boys and girls, aged from XNUMX to XNUMX years, attending different types of high schools in the northwest of Italy. The main goals were: (i) to investigate the relationship between active and passive forms of sexual harassment and violence and the relationship between pornography (reading magazines and viewing films or videos) and unwanted sex among adolescents; (ii) to explore the differences in these relationships with respect to gender and age; and (iii) to investigate the factors (pornography, gender and age) that are most likely to promote unwanted sex. The findings showed that active and passive sexual violence and unwanted sex and pornography were correlated.

Cybersex priklausomybės, lyties egalitarizmo, seksualinio požiūrio ir seksualinės prievartos paaugliams santykiai (2007)

This study was done to investigate cybersex addiction, gender egalitarianism, sexual attitude and the allowance of sexual violence in adolescents, and to identify the relationships among these variables. The participants were XNUMX students from two middle schools and three high schools in Seoul. Cybersex addiction, gender egalitarianism, sexual attitude and the allowance of sexual violence in adolescents were different according to general characteristics. Gender egalitarianism, sexual attitude and the allowance of sexual violence paaugliams įtakos turėjo priklausomybė nuo cybersex.

Paauglių poveikio seksualinės žiniasklaidos aplinkai ir moterų, kaip sekso objektų, samprata (2007) - Ištrauka:

This study was designed to investigate whether adolescents’ exposure to a sexualized media environment is associated with stronger beliefs that women are sex objects [on-line survey of XNUMX Dutch adolescents aged XNUMX to XNUMX]. More specifically, we studied whether the association between notions of women as sex objects and exposure to sexual content of varied explicitness (i.e., sexually non-explicit, semi-explicit, or explicit) and in different formats (i.e., visual and audio-visual) can be better described as cumulative or as hierarchical. Seksualinio pobūdžio medžiagos poveikis tiesioginiuose filmuose buvo vienintelė poveikio priemonė, labai susijusi su įsitikinimais, kad moterys yra seksualiniai objektai galutiniame regresijos modelyje, in which exposure to other forms of sexual content was controlled. The relationship between exposure to a sexualized media environment and notions of women as sex objects did not differ for girls and boys

„Hongkongo“ jaunų vyrų kiberpornografijos naudojimas kai kuriems psichosocialiniams korelatams (2007) - Ištrauka:

This study examined the prevalence of online pornography viewing and its psychosocial correlates among a sample of young Chinese men in Hong Kong. Moreover, participants who reported to have more online pornography viewing were found to score higher on measures of premarital sexual permissiveness and proclivities toward sexual harassment.

X-Rated: Seksualinis požiūris ir elgesys, susijęs su JAV ankstyvo paauglio seksualinės žiniasklaidos poveikiu (2009) - Ištrauka:

Naudojimo ir vėlesnių lytinių nuostatų ir elgesio koreliacijos, kurias numato seksualiai aiškus turinys suaugusiems žurnaluose, „X-rated“ filmuose ir internete, buvo išnagrinėtos perspektyvinėje įvairių ankstyvųjų paauglių imties apžvalgoje (vidutinis amžius pradiniame etape = 13.6 metai; N = 967).

Longitudinal analyses showed that early exposure for males predicted less progressive gender role attitudes, daugiau leistinų seksualinių normų, seksualinio priekabiavimo ir seksualinės lyties bei lytinių santykių dvejus metus. Ankstyvas poveikis moterims numatė vėliau mažiau progresyvų lyčių lygybės požiūrį, and having oral sex and sexual intercourse.

Paauglių poveikio seksualinio pobūdžio internetinei medžiagai ir moterų, kaip lytinių objektų, sampratai: priežastingumo ir pagrindinių procesų įvertinimas (2009) - Ištrauka:

The aim of this study was to clarify causality in the previously established link between adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and notions of women as sex objects. On the basis of data from a three-wave panel survey among XNUMX Dutch adolescents, structural equation modeling initially showed that exposure to SEIM and notions of women as sex objects had a reciprocal direct influence on each other. The direct impact of SEIM on notions of women as sex objects did not vary by gender. However, the direct influence of notions of women as sex objects on exposure to SEIM was only significant for male adolescents. Further analyses showed that, regardless of adolescents’ gender, liking of SEIM mediated the influence of exposure to SEIM on their beliefs that women are sex objects, as well as the impact of these beliefs on exposure to SEIM.

Japanese College Students’ Media Exposure to Sexually Explicit Materials, Perceptions of Women, and Sexually Permissive Attitudes (XNUMX) - Ištrauka:

The present study examined Japanese college students’ (N  = XNUMX) use of sexually explicit material (SEM) and associations with perceptions of women as sex objects and sexually permissive attitudes. Results indicate that Japanese college students used print media most frequently as a source for SEM followed by the Internet and the television/video/DVD. Male participants used SEM significantly more than females. In addition, sexual preoccupancy mediated the relationship between exposure to SEM and perceptions of women as sex objects, whereas exposure to SEM in mass media had a direct association with Japanese participants’ sexually permissive attitudes.

Seksualiai aiškios interneto medžiagos ir bendraamžių įtaka stereotipiniams įsitikinimams apie moterų lytinius vaidmenis: paauglių ir suaugusiųjų panašumai ir skirtumai (2011) - Ištrauka:

We used data from two nationally representative two-wave panel surveys among XNUMX Dutch adolescents and XNUMX Dutch adults, focusing on the stereotypical belief that women engage in token resistance to sex (i.e., the notion that women say “no” when they actually intend to have sex). Finally, adults, but not adolescents, were susceptible to the impact of SEIM on beliefs that women engage in token resistance to sex.

Pornografijos peržiūra tarp brolijos vyrų: poveikis bisterno intervencijai, rapsų mito priėmimui ir elgesio ketinimui padaryti seksualinį išpuolį (2011) - Ištrauka:

Šiame tyrime buvo ištirta 62% brolijos gyventojų Midwestern viešajame universitete apie jų pornografijos žiūrėjimo įpročius, stebėtojų efektyvumą ir stebėtojų norą padėti galimose prievartavimo situacijose. Rezultatai parodė, kad vyrai, kurie žiūri į pornografiją, yra mažiau linkę įsikišti kaip pašalinis, praneša apie padidėjusį elgesio ketinimą išprievartauti ir labiau tiki, kad prievartos mitai.

Pornografija ir seksualistiniai požiūriai tarp heteroseksualų (2013) - Ištrauka:

Using a probability-based sample of young Danish adults and a randomized experimental design, this study investigated effects of past pornography consumption, experimental exposure to nonviolent pornography, perceived realism of pornography, and personality (i.e., agreeableness) on sexist attitudes (i.e., attitudes toward women, hostile and benevolent sexism). Further, sexual arousal mediation was assessed. Results showed that, among men, an increased past pornography consumption was significantly associated with less egalitarian attitudes toward women and more hostile sexism. Further, lower agreeableness was found to significantly predict higher sexist attitudes. Significant effects of experimental exposure to pornography were found for hostile sexism among low in agreeableness participants and for benevolent sexism among women.

„Centerfold“ sindromo aktyvinimas: poveikio ekspozicija, seksualinis aiškumas, ankstesnė ekspozicija su objektyvia medžiaga (2013) - Ištrauka:

This experimental study tested whether exposure to female centerfold images causes young adult males to believe more strongly in a set of beliefs clinical psychologist Gary Brooks terms “the centerfold syndrome.” The centerfold syndrome consists of five beliefs: voyeurism, sexual reductionism, masculinity validation, trophyism, and nonrelational sex. Past exposure to objectifying media was positively correlated with all five centerfold syndrome beliefs. Recent exposure to centerfolds had immediate strengthening effects on the sexual reductionism, masculinity validation, and nonrelational sex beliefs of males who view objectifying media less frequently. These effects persisted for approximately XNUMX hours.

Pornografijos vartojimas ir protestas prieš teigiamus veiksmus moterims: perspektyvi studija (2013) - Ištrauka:

Our study investigated a potential source of social influence that has often been hypothesized to reduce compassion and sympathy for women: pornography. National panel data were employed. Data were gathered in XNUMX, XNUMX, and XNUMX from XNUMX adults ranging in age from XNUMX to XNUMX at baseline. Pornography viewing was indexed via reported consumption of pornographic movies. Attitudes toward affirmative action were indexed via opposition to hiring and promotion practices that favor women. Consistent with a social learning perspective on media effects, prior pornography viewing predicted subsequent opposition to affirmative action even after controlling for prior affirmative action attitudes and a number of other potential confounds. Gender did not moderate this association. Practically, these results suggest that pornography may be a social influence that undermines support for affirmative action programs for women.

Psychological, Relational, and Sexual Correlates of Pornography Use on Young Adult Heterosexual Men in Romantic Relationships (XNUMX) - Ištrauka:

The purpose of this study was to examine theorized antecedents (i.e., gender role conflict and attachment styles) and consequences (i.e., poorer relationship quality and sexual satisfaction) of men’s pornography use among XNUMX young adult heterosexual men. Findings revealed that both frequency of pornography use and problematic pornography use were related to greater gender role conflict, more avoidant and anxious attachment styles, poorer relationship quality, and less sexual satisfaction. In addition, the findings provided support for a theorized mediated model in which gender role conflict was linked to relational outcomes both directly and indirectly via attachment styles and pornography use.

Ar pornografija susijusi su seksualine agresija prieš moteris? Konflikto modelio pakartotinis tyrimas su trečiosiomis kintamosiomis aplinkybėmis (2015) - Ištrauka:

The Confluence Model of sexual aggression (Malamuth, Addison, & Koss, XNUMX) states that pornography use, thought to promote sexual coercion of women through presentation of submissive female imagery, works in conjunction with sexual promiscuity (SP) and hostile masculinity (HM), proposed sexual aggression risk factors, to produce anti-woman sexual aggression. An Internet based survey (N = XNUMX adult males) replicated results of previous Confluence Model research, such that men who were high in HM and SP were more likely to report sexual coercion when they frequently, rather than infrequently, used pornography. Exploring new ground, this study also found that HM and SP together were strong predictors of consumption of violent sexual media, in comparison to non-violent sexual media, which suggests that men at high risk of sexual aggression consume different types of sexual material than men at low risk.

Nacionalinė perspektyvinė pornografijos vartojimo ir lyčių požiūrio į moteris analizė (2015) - Ištrauka:

The present study explored associations between pornography consumption and nonsexual gender-role attitudes in a national, two-wave panel sample of US adults. Pornography consumption interacted with age to predict gender-role attitudes. Specifically, pornography consumption at wave one predicted more gendered attitudes at wave two for older—but not for younger—adults.

Ankstyvieji paauglių poveikio įvairiems seksualinio pobūdžio internetams medžiaga: išilginis tyrimas (2015) – Shows correlation between violent porn use and assessment of hyper-masculine and hyper-feminine attitudes. An Excerpt:

The present two-wave panel survey among XNUMX Dutch adolescents addressed these lacunae by studying exposure to affection-themed, dominance-themed and violence-themed SEIM. Younger adolescents were more often exposed to affection-themed SEIM, while older adolescents and adolescents with higher levels of academic achievement were more frequently exposed to dominance-themed SEIM. Hyper masculine boys and hyper feminine girls were more frequently exposed to violence-themed SEIM.

„Tai visada tėra jūsų veiduose“: jaunų žmonių nuomonė apie pornografiją (2015) - Ištrauka:

Findings highlight that many young people are exposed to porn both intentionally and unintentionally. Furthermore, they are concerned about gendered norms that reinforce men’s power and subordination over women. A link between porn exposure, young men’s sexual expectations and young women’s pressure to conform to what is being viewed, has been exposed.

Kas yra pritraukimas? Pornografija Naudokite motyvus, susijusius su Bystander intervencija (2015) - Ištrauka:

Mes nustatėme, kad keletas motyvų peržiūrėti pornografiją buvo siejami su noro įsikišti kaip šalininkais slopinimu, netgi kontroliuojant pornografijos naudojimo dažnumą. Šis tyrimas yra susijęs su kitais pasiūlymais, susijusiais su pornografijos naudojimu ir kankinimu į seksualinį smurtą.

Penkiasdešimties atspalvių (2015) seksualinės nuostatos, susijusios su naujausiomis suaugusiųjų moterų skaitytojais - Ištrauka:

Stereotypical sexist representations of men and women in popular culture reinforce rigid views of masculinity (e.g., males as being strong, in control, masterful, and aggressive) and femininity (e.g., women as being fragile and weak, unassertive, peaceful, irrational, and driven by emotions). The present study examined associations between the fictional series Fifty Shades-one popular culture mechanism that includes pervasive traditional gender role representations-and underlying sexist beliefs among a sample of XNUMX women ages XNUMX-XNUMX years. Analyses revealed associations between Fifty Shades readership and sexism, as measured through the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Namely women who reported reading Fifty Shades had higher levels of ambivalent, benevolent, and hostile sexism. Further, those who interpreted Fifty Shades as “romantic” had higher levels of ambivalent and benevolent sexism.

Eksperimentinė jaunų moterų požiūrio į vyrišką žvilgsnį analizė po to, kai susiduria su įvairaus ryškumo centriniais vaizdais (2015) – Women exposed to explicit centerfolds had greater acceptance of men staring at them sexually.

This study measured young women’s attitude toward the male gaze following exposure to centerfolds of varying explicitness. Explicitness was operationalized as degree of undress. Women exposed to more explicit centerfolds expressed greater acceptance of the male gaze than women exposed to less explicit centerfolds immediately after exposure and at a XNUMX hour follow-up. These results support the view that the more media depictions of women display women’s bodies, the stronger the message they send that women are sights to be observed by others. They also suggest that even brief exposure to explicit centerfolds can have a nontransitory effect on women’s sociosexual attitudes.

Vyrams prieštaraujančių žiniasklaidos priemonių suvartojimas, moterų nustatymas ir požiūris į smurtą prieš moteris (2016) - Ištrauka:

Vadovaudamiesi konkretaus ir abstraktaus seksualinio scenarijaus koncepcijomis, kai Wright'as gauna seksualinį scenarijų, aktyvuoja, pritaiko seksualinės žiniasklaidos socializaciją this study proposed that the more men are exposed to objectifying depictions, the more they will think of women as entities that exist for men’s sexual gratification (specific sexual scripting), and that this dehumanized perspective on women may then be used to inform attitudes regarding sexual violence against women (abstract sexual scripting).

Data were gathered from collegiate men sexually attracted to women (N = XNUMX). Consistent with expectations, associations between men’s exposure to objectifying media and attitudes supportive of violence against women were mediated by their notions of women as sex objects. Specifically, frequency of exposure to men’s lifestyle magazines that objectify women, reality TV programs that objectify women, and pornography predicted more objectified cognitions about women, which, in turn, predicted stronger attitudes supportive of violence against women.

„Mažai tikėtina, kad pornografijos žiūrovai laikys teigiamą požiūrį į moteris“ (2016 m.) - Ištrauka:

Frequent viewers of soft-core pornography, such as photographs of naked and semi-naked female models, are unlikely to think positively about women and are likely to have become desensitised to soft-core pornography common in newspapers, advertising and the media. The results indicated that people who frequently viewed soft-core pornographic images were less likely to describe these as pornographic than people who had low levels of exposure to these images.  People who were desensitised to these images were more likely than others to endorse rape myths. Be to, people who frequently viewed these images were less likely to have positive attitudes to women.

Pornografija, seksualinė prievarta ir piktnaudžiavimas jaunimo intymiais santykiais: Europos tyrimas (2016) - Ištrauka:

New technology has made pornography increasingly accessible to young people, and a growing evidence base has identified a relationship between viewing pornography and violent or abusive behavior in young men. This article reports findings from a large survey of XNUMX young people aged XNUMX to XNUMX in five European countries which illuminate the relationship between regular viewing of online pornography, sexual coercion and abuse and the sending and receiving of sexual images and messages, known as “sexting.” In addition to the survey, which was completed in schools, XNUMX interviews were undertaken with young people who had direct experience of interpersonal violence and abuse in their own relationships.

Rates for regularly viewing online pornography were very much higher among boys and most had chosen to watch pornography. Boys’ perpetration of sexual coercion and abuse was significantly associated with regular viewing of online pornography. In addition, boys who regularly watched online pornography were significantly more likely to hold negative gender attitudes. The qualitative interviews illustrated that, although sexting is normalized and perceived positively by most young people, it has the potential to reproduce sexist features of pornography such as control and humiliation.

Ilgalaikis vaizdo žaidimų suvartojimas, tarpasmeninė agresija, priešiškumas ir rapsų mito priėmimas: auginimo perspektyva (2016) Not porn, but not far from it. Excerpt:

In this study, we conducted a survey (N = XNUMX) of male and female adults and used structural equation modeling to analyze relationships among video game consumption, trait interpersonal aggression, ambivalent sexism, and first-order (percentage of false rape accusations) and second-order cultivation effects (RMA). We found support for the hypothesized cultivation model, indicating a relationship between video game consumption and RMA via interpersonal aggression and hostile sexism. Although these findings cannot be interpreted causally, we discuss the implications of these associations and future directions for research.

Internetinės pornografijos ir moterų seksualinio objektyvumo ryšys: pornografinio raštingumo švietimo silpninimas (2017) - Ištrauka:

 n this longitudinal study among XNUMX XNUMX–XNUMX‐year‐olds, we started to address this lacuna by examining the potential of porn literacy education at schools to attenuate the longitudinal relationship between exposure to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and views of women as sex objects. A two‐way interaction effect emerged: The relationship between SEIM and sexist views became weaker, the more users had learned from porn literacy education. No gender or age differences occurred. This study thus provides some first evidence for the role of media education in reducing undesirable media effects.

Pirmojo pornografijos poveikio amžius formuoja vyrų požiūrį į moteris (2017) - Ištrauka:

Dalyviai (N = 330) buvo pagrindiniai vyrai dideliame Midwestern universitete, kurių amžius svyravo nuo 17-54 metų (M = 20.65, SD = 3.06). Dalyviai daugiausia buvo identifikuojami kaip baltieji (84.9%) ir heteroseksualūs (92.6). Pateikę informuotą sutikimą dalyviai baigė studiją internete.

Results indicated that lower age of first exposure to pornography predicted higher adherence to both the Power over Women and the Playboy masculine norms. Additionally, regardless of the nature of the men’s first exposure to pornography (i.e., intentional, accidental, or forced), participants adhered equally to the Power over Women and the Playboy masculine norm. Various explanations may exist to understand these relationships, but the results show the importance of discussing age of exposure in clinical settings with men.

Daugiau nei žurnalas: Ryšys tarp lelijų ženklų, išžaginimo mitų priėmimas ir prievartavimo prokliatyvumas (2017) - Ištrauka:

Exposure to some magazines aimed at young male readers- lads’ mags-has recently been associated with behaviors and attitudes that are derogatory toward women, including sexual violence. In the present study, a group of Spanish adult men was exposed to the covers of a lads’ mag while a second group was exposed to the covers of a neutral magazine. Results showed that, compared with participants in the second group, participants who were exposed to covers of lads’ mags who also showed high rape myth acceptance and legitimized the consumption of such magazines reported higher rape proclivity in a hypothetical situation.

Prostitucijos mitas, patvirtinimas: seksizmo, seksualinės aukų prevencijos istorijos, pornografijos ir savikontrolės (2018) poveikio vertinimas - pornografijos naudojimas, susijęs su prostitucijos mito palaikymu (kad tai suteikia moterims galios) - ištrauka:

Women in the sex trade have experienced victim blame from first responders and victimization from buyers and traffickers. Women’s ability to exit the sex trade may be negatively affected by bias from prostitution myth adherence that has normalized sexual exploitation and violence against women. Lyčių aspektas, padidėjęs seksistinis požiūris į moteris, pornografijos vartojimo dažnumas ir savikontrolės deficitas žymiai prognozavo prostitucijos mito laikymąsi.

Kaip tradicinis vyriškumas susijęs su vyrais ir moterų probleminiu pornografijos vaizdu? (2018) - Ištrauka:

Greater dominance and avoidance of femininity ideology were predictive of men’s excessive use of pornography. Men’s restrictive emotionality and heterosexist ideologies predicted control difficulties with pornography use and using pornography to escape negative emotions. Additionally, men’s avoidance of femininity ideology predicted excessive pornography use and control difficulties.

Eksperimentinis poveikis, susijęs su žeminančiu ir erotiniu pornografijos poveikiu vyrams dėl reakcijos į moteris: objektyvizavimas, seksizmas, diskriminacija (2018) – A rare experimental study where male undergrads were exposed to XNUMX types of porn: degrading pornography (i.e., nonviolent, debasing, dehumanizing), erotic pornography (i.e., non-degrading, nonviolent, consensual). I’m surprised the study actually found a difference considering its XNUMX, and the subjects were college-age guys (many probably watch degrading porn). Excerpts:

In the current study, XNUMX undergraduate men were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (degrading, erotica, or control); within each condition they were randomly assigned to watch one of two approximately XNUMX-minute clips: degrading pornography (i.e., nonviolent, debasing, dehumanizing), erotic pornography (i.e., non-degrading, nonviolent, consensual), or a news clip as a control condition.

Exposure to erotica (vs. degrading) generated less objectification of the porn actress [and] exposure to erotica (vs. control) also generated the greatest discrimination toward the fictitious woman, although the omnibus for the latter was non-significant. Exposure to degrading pornography (vs. erotica or control) generated the strongest hostile sexist beliefs and the greatest amount of objectification of the woman in the clip.

Kitų vyrų seksualinės mažumos seksualinio objektyvumo prognozuotojai (2019) - Ištraukos:

Given the link between sexual objectification experiences and negative psychological and mental health outcomes for sexual minority men, it is important to explore which men are more likely to enact sexually objectifying behavior. We examined predictors of sexual minority men’s sexual objectification of other men (e.g., engaging in body evaluations, making unwanted sexual advances), including focusing on appearance, involvement in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) community, pornography use, and men’s gender role conflict among XNUMX gay and bisexual men. Our findings revealed that importance placed on appearance, involvement in the LGBTQ community, and pornography use and less restrictive affectionate behavior between men were uniquely related to sexually objectifying other men.

Vyriškumas ir probleminė pornografija: mažėjantis savigarbos vaidmuo (2019) - Problemiškas pornografijos naudojimas buvo susijęs su noru turėti valdžią moterims. Nelabai egalitarinis. Ištraukos:

Controlling for pornography viewing frequency, religious identity, and sexual orientation, structural equation modeling revealed power over women and playboy norms as associated with increased problematic pornography viewing, whereas emotional control and winning norms were negatively related to problematic pornography viewing. Of these associations, power over women norms produced consistent positive direct effects across all dimensions…

Interactions similarly evidenced positive relationships between conformity to playboy norms and problematic pornography viewing, with an exacerbation effect for those low in self-esteem. Findings suggest that men’s pornography viewing may be tied to their expressions of traditional masculinity.

Asociacija tarp smurto pornografijos ir paauglių smurto prieš 10 aukštųjų mokyklų moksleivius (2019) – Study reported that greater exposure to violent pornography was related to acceptance of rape myths and less gender equitable attitudes. However, the study’s main finding was:

Violent pornography exposure was associated with all types of TDV, though patterns differed by gender. Boys exposed to violent pornography were XNUMX–XNUMX times more likely to report sexual TDV perpetration and victimization and physical TDV victimization, while girls exposed to violent pornography were over XNUMX times more likely to be perpetrate threatening TDV compared to their non-exposed counterparts.

#(Me)too much? The role of sexualizing online media in adolescents’ resistance towards the metoo-movement and acceptance of rape myths (XNUMX) - Ištraukos:

The current study addresses how sexualizing online media practices, i.e., exposure to sexually explicit internet material and receiving negative appearance feedback on social media, relate to the acceptance of sexist attitudes among adolescents. Specifically, it extends previous research on the acceptance of rape myths by exploring a construct related to these beliefs, i.e., resistance towards the metoo-movement.

The results showed that exposure to sexually explicit internet material, but not receiving negative appearance feedback on social media, was related to more resistance towards the metoo-movement and the acceptance of rape myths through notions of women as sex objects. Self-objectification did not function as a valid mediator in the examined relations. Gender and self-esteem did not moderate the proposed relations.

Moterų požiūris ir požiūris į vyrus ir moteris keičiasi dėl minkštos branduolio pornografijos, skiriasi agresijos laipsnis (2019) - Ištrauka:

This paper used a classic pre-post-test design to elucidate what effects this material has on female participants (N= XNUMX). Through the use of the Attitudes towards Women Scale and the Attitudes toward Men scale it was found that females did not experience significant attitude changes towards other females, upon exposure. However, they do show changes in their hostile male beliefs for clips depicting sexual aggression, and benevolent beliefs for clips depicting a flirtatious interaction, a romantic erotic scene, and, for a scene depicting rape. These findings are reviewed and discussed in light of the Gender-Schema Theory, Sexual Objectification Theory and Empathetic Viewer Theory.

Pornografija ir seksualinių partnerių dehumanizavimo procesas (2020 m.) – Mostly female subjects. Excerpt:

In a correlational study, XNUMX participants (XNUMX% women; MAge = 30.79, SD = 8.89) atsakė į demografinius rodiklius, nesvarbu, ar jie yra santykiai, ar ne, ar jie naudojosi internetine pornografija, ar ne ir kiek jie priskyrė pirmines ir antrines emocijas savo seksualiniams partneriams. The results showed that people who consume pornography dehumanize their sexual partners but only when they are not in a romantic relationship. These results are relevant because dehumanization has severe consequences such as discrimination, violence, harsher punishments and prosocial behavior inhibition. Once we know when it happens, we have the chance to create strategies to neutralize it.

Vyrų bendraamžių palaikymas ir seksualinis užpuolimas: ryšys tarp aukšto profilio, dalyvavimo sporto mokyklose ir seksualinio grobuoniškumo (2020 m.) – Higher levels of porn use correlated positively with measures of: Likelihood to Rape, Sexual Assault Perpetration, Sexual Entitlement, and Hostility toward Women. Table with basic correlations. #XNUMX is Pornography Consumption:

un-egalitarian

Seksualinės agresijos sąveikos modelis: taikymas su paaugliais vyrais (2020 m.) - Study on XNUMXth grade boys finds that violent pornography exposure was associated with perpetrating noncontact sexual aggression in the last XNUMX months, along with Contact sexual aggression, Acceptance of rape myths, Engaging in more bullying, Homophobic teasing, Having more aggressive friends. Table:

un-egalitarian

Jaunų eritreanų pornografijos poveikis: tiriamasis tyrimas (2021) - Ištrauka:

Vienpusiai ANOVA rezultatai atskleidžia, kad statistiškai reikšmingas požiūris į moteris skiriasi tarp respondentų, kurie per pastaruosius metus žiūrėjo pornografiją, ir respondentų, kurie ne. Tiksliau, respondentų, kurie praėjusiais metais žiūrėjo pornografiją, laikėsi neigiamesnio, mažiau vienodo požiūrio į moteris.

Intymių partnerių internetinis pokalbis, seksizmas, pornografija ir sekstingas paaugliams: nauji seksualinio švietimo iššūkiai (2021) - Ištraukos:

We also found that both hostile and benevolent sexism were positively related to pornography consumption and sexting behavior. Hence, berniukai ir mergaitės, labiau nusiteikę seksistiškai, sunaudojo daugiausia pornografinio turinio and performed more sexting behaviors.

Therefore, our results show that girls who consumed more pornographic content cyberstalked their partner more. In addition, more benevolent sexist boys and girls who performed more sexting behaviors tended to cyber-monitor their partner more.

Veiksniai, numatantys seksualinį smurtą: keturių santakos modelio ramsčių išbandymas įvairiose kolegijų vyrų imtyse (2021 m.) - Ekstremalus pornografijos naudojimas buvo susijęs su daugeliu neigiamų rezultatų, įskaitant  hostile masculinity, contact sexual aggression, contact sexual coercion, and non-contact sexual offenses:


This research about objectification may be relevant:

When a ‘she’ becomes an ‘it’ (XNUMX) (press release)

Vertinant neuroninius atsakymus į objektyvius žmogaus tikslus ir objektus, siekiant nustatyti seksualinio objektyvumo procesus, kurie viršija metaforą (2019) (full study)