Iloiloga o Tulaga Fa'apitoa mo Fa'aletonu Fa'aoga Initaneti (ACSID-11): Fa'aofiina o se mea faigaluega su'esu'e fou e pu'eina ai ta'iala ICD-11 mo le fa'aletonu o ta'aloga ma isi fa'alavelave fa'aoga Initaneti (2022)

Fa'ailoga mo le Tusitala o vaisu amio

FAʻAALIGA I LE FAAALIGA: Na faia e le au su'esu'e ma fa'ata'ita'i se meafaigaluega su'esu'e fou, e fa'avae i luga ole fa'atonuga ole ICD-11 Gaming Disorder a le Faalapotopotoga o le Soifua Maloloina a le Lalolagi. Ua mamanuina e iloilo ai le tele o faʻafitauli faʻaoga faʻaoga i luga ole Initaneti (faʻaogaina o amioga i luga ole laiga) e aofia ai “le fa'aogaina o ata mataga.”

O le au suʻesuʻe, o loʻo aofia ai se tasi o taʻutaʻua taʻutaʻua i le lalolagi i uiga faʻamalosi faʻafeusuaiga / vaisu porn. Matthias Brand, fautuaina i le tele o taimi e mafai ona faʻavasegaina le "faʻaoga faʻaoga leaga" i 6C5Y Isi Fa'afitauli Fa'apitoa ona o Amioga Fa'asu i le ICD-11,
 
Faatasi ai ma le aofia ai o le faaletonu o taaloga i le ICD-11, na faʻafeiloaʻi ai tuʻutuʻuga faʻamaonia mo lenei maʻi fou. O nei taʻiala e mafai foʻi ona faʻaoga i isi faʻafitauli faʻapitoa faʻaoga Initaneti, lea e mafai ona faʻavasegaina i le ICD-11 e pei o isi faʻafitauli e mafua mai i amioga ua fai ma vaisu, pei ole fa'atauga i luga ole laiga-fa'atauga fa'aletonu, luga ole laiga fa'aletonu le fa'aogaina o ponokalafi, fa'aletonu le fa'aogaina o feso'ota'iga feso'ota'iga, ma le fa'aletonu o taaloga faitupe i luga o le initaneti. [faaopoopo le faamamafa]
 
Na faailoa mai e le au suʻesuʻe o faʻamaoniga o loʻo i ai nei e lagolagoina le faʻavasegaina o le faʻalavelave faʻafeusuaiga faʻaleagaina e avea o se vaisu o amioga nai lo le faʻavasegaina o le faʻalavelave faʻafuaseʻi:
 
O le ICD-11 o loʻo lisiina ai le faʻalavelave faʻafeusuaiga faʻaleagaina (CSBD), lea e manatu le toʻatele o faʻafitauli faʻaogaina ponokalafi o se faʻailoga autu o amioga, e pei o se faʻalavelave faʻalavelave. Fa'atauva'a fa'atau-fa'atau fa'atau o lo'o lisiina e fai ma fa'ata'ita'iga i lalo o le vaega 'isi fa'ama'oti fa'atonuga fa'aletonu' (6C7Y) ae aunoa ma le va'aiga i le va o le initaneti ma le tuusa'o ese'esega. O lenei eseesega e le o faia foi i fesili e sili ona masani ona faʻaaogaina e fuaina ai faʻatau faʻatau (Maraz et al., 2015Müller, Mitchell, Vogel, & de Zwaan, 2017). E le'i iloiloina i le ICD-11 le faaletonu o feso'ota'iga feso'ota'iga-fa'aoga. Ae ui i lea, o loʻo i ai faʻamaoniga faʻavae faʻamaoniga mo faʻafitauli taʻitasi e tolu e faʻavasegaina o ni amioga ua fai ma vaisu (Brand et al., 2020Gola et al., 2017Müller et al., 2019Stark et al., 2018Wegmann, Müller, Ostendorf, & Brand, 2018). [faaopoopo le faamamafa]
 
Mo nisi fa'amatalaga i le Fa'alapotopotoga o le Soifua Maloloina a le Lalolagi ICD-11 Su'esu'ega Fa'afeusuaiga Fa'amalosi vaʻai le itulau lea.

 

lē faʻatino

Faʻamatalaga ma sini

Faatasi ai ma le aofia ai o le faaletonu o taaloga i le ICD-11, na faʻafeiloaʻi ai tuʻutuʻuga faʻamaonia mo lenei maʻi fou. O nei taʻiala e mafai foʻi ona faʻaoga i isi faʻafitauli faʻapitoa faʻaoga Initaneti, lea e mafai ona faʻavasegaina i le ICD-11 e pei o isi faʻafitauli ona o amioga faʻamalosi, e pei o le faʻatau-faʻatauga i luga ole laiga, faʻaoga ponokalafi i luga ole laiga, faʻaoga fesoʻotaʻiga-faʻaogaina. faaletonu, ma le faaletonu o taaloga faitupe i luga o le initaneti. Ona o le eseesega i meafaifaʻaili o loʻo i ai nei, matou te faʻamoemoe e atiaʻe se fua faʻatatau ma le tamaoaiga o ituaiga tetele o faʻafitauli faʻaoga Initaneti faʻapitoa e faʻavae i luga o le ICD-11 tulaga mo le faʻalavelave taʻaloga.

Metotia

O le 11-item Assessment of Criteria for Specific Internet-use Disorders (ACSID-11) e fuaina ai le lima o vaisu o amioga ma le seti tutusa o mea e ala i le mulimuli i mataupu faavae o le WHO's ASSIST. O le ACSID-11 na fa'atinoina i tagata fa'aoga Initaneti (N = 985) faʻatasi ai ma se fetuunaiga o le Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) ma suʻesuʻega mo le soifua maloloina o le mafaufau. Sa matou fa'aogaina le Confirmatory Factor Analyzes e iloilo ai le fa'atulagaina o le ACSID-11.

i'uga

O le fa'ailoga fa'avae fa'apitoa na fa'amaonia ma e sili atu nai lo le fofo fa'atasi. E fa'atatau lea i le fa'aletonu o ta'aloga ma isi fa'afitauli fa'aoga fa'aoga Initaneti. ACSID-11 togi faʻatasi ma le IGDT-10 faʻapea foʻi ma fuataga o faʻalavelave faʻapitoa.

Talanoaga ma Faaiuga

O le ACSID-11 e foliga mai e talafeagai mo le suʻesuʻeina faifaipea o (mafai) faʻapitoa faʻaoga Initaneti e faʻavae i luga ole ICD-11 faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻataʻitaʻiga mo le le atoatoa o taaloga. O le ACSID-11 atonu o se meafaigaluega aoga ma le tamaoaiga mo le suʻesuʻeina o vaisu amioga eseese ma mea tutusa ma faʻaleleia le faʻatusatusaina.

faʻatomuaga

O le fa'asoaina ma le faigofie ona maua le Initaneti e fa'apitoa ai auaunaga i luga ole laiga ma ofoina atu le tele o fa'amanuiaga. E ese mai i faʻamanuiaga mo le tele o tagata, o amioga i luga ole laiga e mafai ona avea ma vaisu le pulea i nisi tagata (faʻataʻitaʻiga, Tupu & Potenza, 2019Talavou, 2004). Ae maise o taaloga ua avea ma mataupu tau soifua maloloina lautele (Faust & Prochaska, 2018Rumpf et al., 2018). Ina ua mae'a le fa'ailoaina o le 'Internet gaming disorder' i le toe iloiloga lona lima o le Su'esu'ega ma Fa'amaumauga Tusia o Fa'afitauli o le Mafaufau (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) e avea o se tuʻutuʻuga o suʻesuʻega atili, ua faʻapipiʻiina nei le le atoatoa o taaloga e avea o se suʻesuʻega aloaʻia (6C51) i le 11th revision o le International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11; Faalapotopotoga o le Soifua Maloloina a le Lalolagi, 2018). O se laasaga taua lea i le foia o luitau o le lalolagi e mafua mai i le faʻaogaina leaga o tekinolosi numera (Billieux, Stein, Castro-Calvo, Higushi, & Tupu, 2021). O le fa'ateleina o le fa'aletonu o ta'aloga i le lalolagi atoa e fa'atatau i le 3.05%, e fa'atusaina i isi fa'aletonu o le mafaufau e pei o fa'afitauli o le fa'aaogaina o vaila'au po'o le fa'alavelave fa'amalosi (obssive-compulsive disorders).Stevens, Dorstyn, Delfabbro, & Tupu, 2021). Ae ui i lea, o fua faatatau masani e matua eseese lava e faalagolago i le meafaigaluega suʻesuʻe na faʻaaogaina (Stevens et al., 2021). I le taimi nei, o le laufanua o mea faifa'aili e tele. Ole tele o fua fa'atatau e fa'avae ile DSM-5 ta'iala mo le fa'aletonu o ta'aloga Initaneti ma e leai se mea e foliga mai e sili atu (Tupu et al., 2020). E faapena foi ona faatatau i isi amioga e ono fai ma vaisu i luga o le Initoneti, e pei o le faafitauli o le faaaogaina o ponokalafi i luga o le initaneti, fesootaiga faaagafesootai, po o faatauga i luga o le initaneti. O nei faʻafitauli faʻafitauli i luga ole laiga e mafai ona tupu faʻatasi ma le le atoatoa o taaloga (Burleigh, Griffiths, Sumich, Stavropoulos, & Kuss, 2019Müller et al., 2021), ae e mafai foi ona avea ma se tagata lava ia. Fa'avae fa'ata'ita'iga lata mai e pei o le Fa'ata'ita'iga o le Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) (Brand, Young, Laier, Wölfling, & Potenza, 2016Brand et al., 2019) fa'apea o faiga fa'ale-mafaufau fa'apenei e fa'avaeina ai ituaiga eseese o (i luga ole laiga) amioga fa'afaigata. O manatu e ogatusa ma auala muamua e mafai ona faʻaaogaina e faʻamatala ai mea masani i le va o faʻafitauli o mea ua fai ma vaisu, faʻataʻitaʻiga, e uiga i le neuropsychological mechanisms (Bechara, 2005Robinson & Berridge, 1993), itu tau kenera (Blum et al., 2000), po'o vaega masani (Griffiths, 2005). Ae ui i lea, o se meafaigaluega su'esu'e atoatoa mo (mafai) fa'aletonu fa'aoga Initaneti e fa'avae i luga o tulaga tutusa e le o iai i le taimi nei. O su'esu'ega tutusa i ituaiga fa'aletonu eseese ona o amioga fa'afaisu e taua tele e iloa ai mea masani ma eseesega sili atu ona aoga.

I le ICD-11, o lo'o lisiina atu le faaletonu o taaloga i tua atu o le faaletonu o taaloga faitupe i le vaega 'fa'aletonu ona o amioga ua fai ma vaisu'. O ta'iala fa'ata'ita'i (mo mea uma e lua) o le: (1) fa'aletonu le pulea o le amio (fa'ata'ita'iga, amata, fa'atele, malosi, umi, fa'amutaina, fa'amatalaga); (2) fa'ateleina le fa'amuamua e tu'uina atu i le amio i le tulaga e fa'amuamua ai le amio nai lo isi mea e fiafia i ai ma gaoioiga i aso uma; (3) fa'aauauina po'o le fa'atuputeleina o le amio e ui lava i a'afiaga leaga. E ui lava e le o taʻua tuusaʻo e avea ma taʻiala faʻaopoopo, e faʻamalosia mo le suʻesuʻeina o le amio faʻataʻitaʻiga e oʻo atu ai i le (4) faʻaletonu o galuega i vaega taua o le olaga i aso taitasi (faʻataʻitaʻiga, mataupu patino, aiga, aʻoaʻoga, poʻo agafesootai) ma / poʻo faʻamaʻi faʻalavelave (Faalapotopotoga o le Soifua Maloloina a le Lalolagi, 2018). O le mea lea, e tatau ona aofia uma vaega e lua pe a suʻesuʻeina amioga e ono fai ma vaisu. I le aotelega, o nei taʻiala e mafai foi ona faʻaogaina i le vaega 'isi faʻamaʻi faʻapitoa ona o amioga ua fai ma vaisu' (6C5Y), lea e mafai ona faʻavasegaina ai le faʻatau-faʻatau, faʻaoga ponokalafi, ma le faʻaogaina o fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga (Brand et al., 2020). Fa'atauga fa'atau-fa'atauga i luga ole laiga e mafai ona fa'amatalaina e ala ile tele, fa'aletonu ole fa'atauina i luga ole laiga o oloa fa'atau e tupu fa'afuase'i e ui lava i a'afiaga leaga ma fa'apea e ono fa'atupuina ai se fa'afitauli fa'apitoa ole fa'aogaina ole Initaneti (Müller, Laskowski, et al., 2021). O le fa'aogaina o ponokalafi-fa'aoga fa'aletonu o lo'o fa'aalia i le fa'aitiitia o le pulea o le taumafaina o mea fa'afeusuaiga (i luga o le initaneti), lea e vavae'ese mai isi amioga fa'afeusuaiga fa'amalosi (Kraus, Martino, & Potenza, 2016Kraus et al., 2018). E mafai ona faʻamatalaina le faʻaogaina o fesoʻotaʻiga faʻaagafesootai e ala i le faʻaogaina tele o fesoʻotaʻiga lautele (e aofia ai upega tafaʻilagi ma isi fesoʻotaʻiga i luga ole laiga) faʻaalia i le faʻaitiitia o le puleaina o le faʻaogaina, faʻateleina le faʻamuamua e tuʻuina atu i le faʻaogaina, ma le faʻaauauina o le faʻaogaina o fesoʻotaʻiga lautele e ui lava o'o i a'afiaga leaga (Andreassen, 2015). O vaisu uma e tolu e mafai ona fai ma vaisu e aofia ai faʻalavelave faʻapitoa faʻapitoa e faʻaalia ai mea e tutusa ma isi amioga ua fai ma vaisu (faʻataʻitaʻiga, Brand et al., 2020Griffiths, Kuss, & Demetrovics, 2014Müller et al., 2019Stark, Klucken, Potenza, Brand, & Strahler, 2018).

O meafaigāluega e su'esu'eina ai ituaiga fa'aletonu o le fa'aogaina ole Initaneti e fa'atatau lava ile manatu muamua, e pei ole suiga ole Su'ega a Young's Internet Addiction Test (fa'ata'ita'iga, Laier, Pawlikowski, Pekal, Schulte, & Brand, 2013Wegmann, Stodt, & Brand, 2015) po'o fua "Bergen" e fa'atatau i vaega o vaisu a Griffiths (fa'ata'ita'iga, Andreassen, Torsheim, Brunborg, & Pallesen, 2012Andreassen et al., 2015), po'o latou fuaina fau fa'avae e fa'atatau ile DSM-5 ta'iala mo le fa'aletonu o ta'aloga (fa'ata'ita'iga, Lemmens, Valkenburg, & Nuuese, 2015Van den Eijnden, Lemmens, & Valkenburg, 2016) poo le faaletonu o taaloga faitupe (mo se toe iloiloga taga'i Otto et al., 2020). O nisi o faiga muamua na faʻaaogaina mai faiga mo le faʻaletonu o taaloga faitupe, faʻafitauli o le faʻaaogaina o vailaʻau poʻo na fausia faʻatasi (Laconi, Rodgers, & Chabrol, 2014). O le tele o nei meafaifaaili e faʻaalia ai vaivaiga o le mafaufau ma le le tutusa e pei ona faʻaalia i iloiloga eseese (Tupu, Haagsma, Delfabbro, Gradisar, & Griffiths, 2013Lortie & Guitton, 2013Petry, Rehbein, Ko, & O'Brien, 2015). King et al. (2020) faʻaalia 32 meafaifaʻaili eseese e suʻesuʻeina ai le le atoatoa o taaloga, lea e faʻaalia ai le le ogatasi i totonu o le suʻesuʻega. E oʻo lava i mea faifaʻaili e sili ona taʻua ma faʻaaoga lautele, e pei ole Young's Internet Addiction Test (Talavou, 1998), aua le fa'atusaina lelei le fa'ata'ita'iga mo le fa'aletonu o ta'aloga, e le o le DSM-5 po'o le ICD-11. King et al. (2020) faʻamatalaga atili i vaivaiga psychometric, mo se faʻataʻitaʻiga, le leai o se faʻamaoniga faʻamaonia ma o le tele o meafaifaʻaili na mamanuina e faʻavae i luga o le manatu o se fausaga e le masani ai. O lo'o fa'ailoa mai ai o le aofa'iga o fa'ailoga ta'ito'atasi e faitaulia nai lo le va'ava'ai i le taimi ma le malosi fa'apitoa. Le Su'ega Fa'aletonu Taaloga Initaneti Sefulu (IGDT-10; Király et al., 2017) i le taimi nei e foliga mai o loʻo maua lelei le DSM-5 tuʻutuʻuga ae o le aotelega e leai se mea faigaluega na foliga mai e sili ona lelei (Tupu et al., 2020). Talu ai nei, o le tele o fua na faʻalauiloaina e avea ma meafaifaʻaili suʻesuʻe muamua e puʻeina ai le ICD-11 taʻiala mo le le atoatoa o taaloga (Balhara et al., 2020Higuchi et al., 2021Jo et al., 2020Paschke, Austermann, & Thomasius, 2020Pontes et al., 2021) faʻapea foʻi ma le faʻaogaina o fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga (Paschke, Austermann, & Thomasius, 2021). I se tulaga lautele, e mafai ona fa'apea e le o fa'a'ailoga ta'itasi e fa'apea e tutusa le oo i ai, mo se fa'ata'ita'iga, tutusa le tele pe tutusa le malosi. E foliga mai e mana'omia le mafai e meafaigaluega su'esu'e ona pu'eina uma e lua, o le aotelega o fa'amaoniga, ma le aofa'iga o fa'ailoga ta'itasi. Ae, e mafai ona su'esu'e se fa'ailoga tele po o le fea fa'a'ailoga e saofagā ma'oti, po'o vaega 'ese'ese, i le atina'eina ma le tausiga o se fa'afitauli fa'afitauli, e feso'ota'i ma le maualuga maualuga o mafatiaga, pe ua na'o se mea e sili atu lona taua.

O faʻafitauli faʻapena ma le le tutusa e aliali mai pe a vaʻavaʻai i meafaifaʻaili e iloilo ai isi ituaiga o faʻafitauli faʻapitoa faʻaoga Initaneti, e pei o le faʻatau-faʻatauga i luga ole laiga, faʻaoga ponokalafi i luga o le initaneti, ma le faʻaogaina o fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga. O nei faʻafitauli faʻapitoa faʻaoga Initaneti e leʻo faʻavasegaina aloaia i le ICD-11 faʻatusatusa i faʻalavelave taʻaloga ma taaloga faitupe. Aemaise lava i le tulaga o le faaletonu o taaloga faitupe, ua tele meafaifa'aili su'esu'e ua iai, ae o le tele lava e leai ni fa'amaoniga (Otto et al., 2020), ma e le fa'atatauina le ICD-11 tulaga mo le faaletonu o taaloga faitupe pe taula'i i le tele o le faaletonu o taaloga faitupe i luga o le initaneti (Albrecht, Kirschner, & Grüsser, 2007Dowling et al., 2019). O le ICD-11 o loʻo lisiina ai le faʻalavelave faʻafeusuaiga faʻaleagaina (CSBD), lea e manatu le toʻatele o faʻafitauli faʻaogaina ponokalafi o se faʻailoga autu o amioga, e pei o se faʻalavelave faʻalavelave. Fa'atauva'a fa'atau-fa'atau fa'atau o lo'o lisiina e fai ma fa'ata'ita'iga i lalo o le vaega 'isi fa'ama'oti fa'atonuga fa'aletonu' (6C7Y) ae aunoa ma le va'aiga i luga ole laiga ma fa'asalalauga tu'ufa'atasi. O lenei eseesega e le o faia foi i fesili e sili ona masani ona faʻaaogaina e fuaina ai faʻatau faʻatau (Maraz et al., 2015Müller, Mitchell, Vogel, & de Zwaan, 2017). E le'i iloiloina i le ICD-11 le faaletonu o feso'ota'iga feso'ota'iga-fa'aoga. Ae ui i lea, o loʻo i ai faʻamatalaga faʻavae faʻamaoniga mo faʻafitauli taʻitasi e tolu e faʻavasegaina o ni amioga ua fai ma vaisu (Brand et al., 2020Gola et al., 2017Müller et al., 2019Stark et al., 2018Wegmann, Müller, Ostendorf, & Brand, 2018). E ese mai i le leai o se maliega e uiga i le faʻavasegaina ma faʻamatalaga o nei faʻafitauli faʻapitoa faʻaoga Initaneti, o loʻo i ai foi le le tutusa i le faʻaogaina o mea faigaluega suʻesuʻe (mo iloiloga vaʻai Andreassen, 2015Fernandez & Griffiths, 2021Hussain & Griffiths, 2018Müller et al., 2017). Mo se faʻataʻitaʻiga, e sili atu i le 20 meafaifaʻaili e tatau ona fuaina faʻafitauli faʻaoga ponokalafi (Fernandez & Griffiths, 2021) ae leai se mea e aofia lelei ai le ICD-11 taʻiala mo faʻafitauli ona o amioga fai ma vaisu, e latalata tele i le ICD-11 taʻiala mo le CSBD.

E le gata i lea, o nisi faʻafitauli faʻapitoa faʻaoga Initaneti e foliga mai e tupu faʻatasi, aemaise lava le faʻaogaina o taaloga ma fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga (Burleigh et al., 2019Müller et al., 2021). Fa'aaogaina o su'esu'ega fa'alilolilo, Charzyńska, Sussman, ma Atroszko (2021) fa'ailoa mai o feso'ota'iga fa'aagafesoota'i fa'aletonu ma fa'atauga fa'apea fo'i le fa'aogaina o ta'aloga ma ponokalafi e masani ona tutupu fa'atasi. O le talaaga e aofia ai tulaga maualuga i luga o faʻafitauli uma o le faʻaogaina o Initaneti na faʻaalia ai le maualalo o le soifua manuia (Charzyńska et al., 2021). O lo'o fa'amamafaina ai fo'i le taua o se su'esu'ega autasi ma le tutusa i amioga eseese e fa'aoga Initaneti. Sa i ai ni taumafaiga e fa'aoga seti tutusa o aitema i fa'afitauli eseese o le fa'aogaina o le Initaneti, e pei o le Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale (Bőthe et al., 2018), o le Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (Andreassen, Pallesen, & Griffiths, 2017) po'o le Fa'atauga i luga ole Initaneti ole Vaisu Fa'atau (Zhao, Tian, ​​& Xin, 2017). Ae ui i lea, o nei fua na mamanuina i luga o le faavae o vaega faʻataʻitaʻiga e Griffiths (2005) ma e le aofia ai le ta'iala o lo'o iai nei mo fa'aletonu ona o amioga fa'afaisu (cf. Faalapotopotoga o le Soifua Maloloina a le Lalolagi, 2018).

I se aotelega, o le ICD-11 na tuʻuina atu faʻataʻitaʻiga suʻesuʻe mo faʻafitauli e mafua mai (tele luga ole lugalaina) amioga faʻamalosi, e taʻua o le faʻaletonu o taaloga faitupe ma le le atoatoa o taaloga. Faʻafitauli faʻafitauli faʻaoga ponokalafi i luga ole laiga, faʻatau-faʻatauga i luga ole laiga, ma faʻaogaina fesoʻotaʻiga lautele e mafai ona tuʻuina atu i le ICD-11 subcategory 'isi faʻafitauli faʻapitoa ona o amioga ua fai ma vaisu' lea e mafai ona faʻaogaina ai tulaga tutusa (Brand et al., 2020). E o'o mai i le taimi nei, o le fa'afanua o meafaigāluega su'esu'e mo nei fa'afitauli fa'apitoa e fa'aoga i luga ole Initaneti e matua le fetaui. Ae ui i lea, o le fuaina faifaipea o fausaga eseese e taua tele e faʻagasolo ai suʻesuʻega i mea masani ma eseesega i ituaiga eseese o faʻafitauli ona o amioga faʻafefe. O la matou faʻamoemoe o le atinaʻeina lea o se meafaigaluega suʻesuʻe puʻupuʻu mo ituaiga eseese (mafai) faʻapitoa faʻaoga Initaneti e aofia ai le ICD-11 faʻavae mo le faʻaletonu o taaloga ma le le atoatoa o taaloga faitupe, e fesoasoani i le vave faʻamaonia o faʻafitauli faʻapitoa i luga ole laiga.

Metotia

Tagata e Auai

Na fa'auluina i luga ole laiga i luga ole laiga e ala i se 'au'aunaga a le panel avanoa lea na maua ai le totogi ta'ito'atasi. Na matou aofia ai tagata fa'aoga Initaneti mai le eria e tautala Siamani. Matou te le aofia ai faʻamaumauga e leʻi atoatoa ma mea na faʻaalia ai le faʻatamala tali. O le mea mulimuli na faʻaalia e ala i totonu-fua (mea faʻatonu tali ma fua lipoti a le tagata lava ia) ma post-hoc (taimi tali, mamanu tali, Mahalanobis D) taʻiala (Godinho, Kushnir, & Cunningham, 2016Meade & Craig, 2012). O le faʻataʻitaʻiga mulimuli e aofia ai N = 958 tagata auai (499 tane, 458 fafine, 1 divers) i le va o le 16 ma le 69 tausaga le matutua (M = 47.60, SD = 14.50). O le tele o tagata auai sa faigaluega tumau (46.3%), i (vave) litaea (20.1%), po'o faigaluega faavaitaimi (14.3%). O isi o tamaiti a'oga, tagata a'oga, tina fai fale/-tane, pe le'i faigaluega mo nisi mafuaaga. O le maualuga o aʻoaʻoga faʻapitoa na tufatufa atu i aʻoaʻoga faʻa-maea-i-kamupani (33.6%), tikeri i le iunivesite (19.0%), faʻamaeʻaina aʻoaʻoga-aʻoga (14.1%), faʻauʻu mai se aʻoga matua / aʻoga faʻapitoa (11.8%). , ma fa'ailoga polytechnic (10.1%). O isi sa i a'oga/a'oga pe leai ni tikeri. O le faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻapitoa faʻataʻitaʻiga na faʻaalia ai se tufatufa tutusa o suiga faʻa-socio-demographic e pei o le faitau aofaʻi o tagata faʻaoga Initaneti Siamani (cf. Statista, 2021).

Fua

Su'esu'ega o Tulaga mo Fa'afitauli Fa'apitoa Fa'aoga Initaneti: ACSID-11

Faatasi ai ma le ACSID-11 na matou faʻamoemoe e fausia se mea faigaluega mo le suʻesuʻeina o faʻafitauli faʻapitoa i luga ole Initaneti i se auala puupuu ae atoatoa, ma faifai pea. Na atiaʻe e faʻavae i luga o aʻoaʻoga e se vaega faʻapitoa o suʻesuʻega o vaisu ma fomaʻi. O mea na maua mai i le tele o talanoaga ma fonotaga autasi e faʻavae i luga ole ICD-11 taʻiala mo faʻafitauli ona o amioga ua fai ma vaisu, e pei ona faʻamatalaina mo taʻaloga ma taaloga faitupe, faʻapea o se fausaga multifactorial. Sa'ili'iliga o se Talanoaga-A'ili'iliga na fa'aogaina e fa'amanino ai le fa'amaoni o mataupu ma le malamalama o mea (Schmidt et al., tuuina atu).

O le ACSID-11 e aofia ai mea e 11 o loʻo puʻeina ai le ICD-11 taʻiala mo faʻafitauli ona o amioga faʻafefe. O taʻiala autu e tolu, faʻaletonu le pulea (IC), faʻateleina le faʻamuamua e tuʻuina atu i luga o le initaneti (IP), ma le faʻaauau / faʻateleina (CE) o le faʻaogaina o le Initaneti e ui lava i aʻafiaga leaga, o loʻo faʻatusalia e ni mea taʻitasi. E lua mea faʻaopoopo na faia e iloilo ai le faʻaletonu o galuega i le olaga i aso taʻitasi (FI) ma faʻailoga faʻalavelave (MD) ona o le gaioiga i luga ole laiga. I se suʻesuʻega muamua, na faʻatonuina tagata auai e faʻaalia po o fea gaoioiga i luga o le Initaneti na latou faʻaogaina i nisi taimi i le 12 masina talu ai. O gaoioiga (fa'atusa, 'taaloga', 'fa'atauga i luga ole laiga', 'fa'aogaina o ponokalafi i luga ole laiga', 'fa'aogaina o feso'ota'iga feso'ota'iga', 'taaloga i luga ole laiga', ma 'isi') sa lisiina fa'atasi ai ma fa'auigaga tutusa ma tali tali 'ioe. ' pe 'leai'. O tagata auai na tali 'ioe' na'o le 'isi' aitema na fa'amatu'u ese. O isi uma na maua mea ACSID-11 mo na gaoioiga uma na taliina i le 'ioe'. O lenei faiga fa'ale-va'aiga e fa'avae i luga ole Su'ega Su'esu'ega a le WHO's Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement (ASSIST; WHO ASSIST Working Group, 2002), lea e va'aia ai vaega tetele o le fa'aogaina o vaila'au ma ona a'afiaga leaga fa'apea fo'i fa'ailoga o amioga fa'asu'esu'e i se auala faifaipea i luga o mea fa'apitoa.

I se fa'atusa i le ASSIST, o mea uma e fa'atulagaina i se auala e mafai ai ona tali sa'o mo gaioiga ta'itasi. Na matou faʻaaogaina se faʻatulagaga tali e lua-vaega (vaai Mati. 1), lea e tatau i tagata auai ona faailoa mai aitema taitasi mo gaoioiga taitasi e faafia na latou maua le poto masani i le 12 masina talu ai (0: 'leai', 1: 'seasea', 2: 'o nisi taimi', 3: 'masani'), ma a itiiti ifo "seasea", e maeu le malosi o aafiaga taitasi na faia i le 12 masina talu ai (0: ‚e leai lava se malosi’, 1: ‚e le malosi’, 2: ‚e malosi’, 3: ‚malosi'). E ala i le iloiloina o taimi faʻapea foʻi ma le malosi o faʻaʻailoga taʻitasi, e mafai ona suʻesuʻeina le tupu mai o se faʻaʻailoga, ae faʻapea foʻi ma le pulea pe faʻafefea ona vaʻaia faʻamaoniga i tua atu o taimi. O mea o le ACSID-11 (fa'aliliuga fa'aPeretania fuafuaina) o lo'o fa'aalia i totonu Laulau 1. O mea muamua (Siamani) e aofia ai suʻesuʻega muamua ma faʻatonuga e mafai ona maua i le Faʻaopoopoga (vaai faaopoopoga A).

Fig. 1.
 
Fig. 1.

Fa'ata'ita'iga o le ACSID-11 (fa'aliliuga fa'aPeretania fa'a-Peretania o le ulua'i mea Siamani) fa'aalia le fuaina o taimi (koluma agavale) ma le malosi (koluma taumatau) o tulaga e feso'ota'i ma gaioiga patino i luga ole laiga. Faamatalaga. O le ata o loʻo faʻaalia ai se mea faʻataʻitaʻi o le faʻaletonu o le Pulea (IC) e pei ona faʻaalia A) i se tagata na te faʻaogaina uma gaioiga i luga ole laiga e lima e pei ona faʻaalia i le suʻega muamua (vaai faaopoopoga A) ma le B) i se tagata na fa'aalia e fa'aoga na'o fa'atauga i luga ole laiga ma feso'ota'iga lautele.

Fa'amatalaga: Tusitala o Vaisu Amio 2022; 10.1556 / 2006.2022.00013

Laulau 1.

Aitema ole su'esu'ega ole ACSID-11 mo fa'aletonu fa'apitoa ole fa'aogaina ole Initaneti (fa'aliliuga fa'aPeretania fuafuaina).

meafesili
IC1I le 12 masina ua tuanaʻi, pe na e faʻalavelave i le siakiina o le taimi na e amataina ai le gaioiga, o le a le umi, o le a le malosi, poʻo le a le tulaga na e faia ai, poʻo le taimi na e taofi ai?
IC2I le 12 masina ua tuanaʻi, pe na e lagonaina le manaʻo e taofi pe faʻatapulaʻa le gaioiga ona na e matauina ua e faʻaaogaina tele?
IC3I le 12 masina ua tuanaʻi, na e taumafai e taofi pe faʻatapulaʻa le gaioiga ae le manuia?
IP1I le 12 masina ua tuanaʻi, pe ua e tuʻuina atu le gaoioiga i se faʻamuamua maualuga atu nai lo isi gaioiga poʻo mea e fiafia i ai i lou olaga i aso faisoo?
IP2I le 12 masina ua tuanaʻi, po ua mou atu lou fiafia i isi gaoioiga sa masani ona e fiafia ai ona o le gaoioiga?
IP3I le 12 masina ua tuanaʻi, po ua e tuulafoaʻia pe lafoaʻia isi gaoioiga po o mea e fiafia i ai sa masani ona e fiafia i ai ona o le gaoioiga?
CE1I le 12 masina talu ai, pe na e faʻaauau pe faʻateleina le gaioiga e ui lava na faʻamataʻu pe mafua ai ona e leiloa se mafutaga ma se tasi e taua ia te oe?
CE2I le 12 masina ua tuana'i, pe na e fa'aauau pe fa'ateleina le gaioioiga e ui lava na mafua ai ni fa'afitauli i le a'oga/a'oga/galuega?
CE3I le 12 masina ua tuana'i, pe na e fa'aauau pe fa'ateleina le gaioioiga e ui lava na e fa'aoso ai fa'asea/ma'i i le tino pe mafaufau?
FI1Pe a mafaufau i vala uma o lou olaga, po ua mātaulia ea lou olaga i le gaoioiga i le 12 masina ua tuanaʻi?
MD1Pe a mafaufau i vala uma o lou olaga, pe na faapogaia ea le gaoioiga na e mafatia ai i le 12 masina ua tuanaʻi?

Faamatalaga. IC = fa'aletonu le pulea; IP = faʻateleina le faʻamuamua; CE = fa'aauau/fa'ateleina; FI = faaletonu o galuega; MD = fa'ailoga mafatia; O mea muamua Siamani e mafai ona maua i totonu faaopoopoga A.

Su'ega Fa'aletonu Taaloga Initaneti Sefulu: IGDT-10 – ASSIST version

I le avea ai o se fua faʻatatau o le faʻamaonia, matou te faʻaaogaina le IGDT-10 mea e sefulu (Király et al., 2017) i se lomiga fa'alautele. O le IGDT-10 o loʻo faʻaogaina le iva DSM-5 faʻavae mo le faʻaletonu o taaloga Initaneti (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). I lenei suʻesuʻega, na matou faʻalauteleina le faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻapitoa taʻaloga ina ia suʻesuʻeina ituaiga uma o faʻafitauli faʻaoga Initaneti. Ina ia faʻatinoina lenei mea, ma faʻatumauina le faiga faʻatusa, na matou faʻaogaina foʻi le faʻatulagaina o tali faʻapitoa i le faʻataʻitaʻiga a le ASSIST iinei. Mo lenei mea, na suia ai mea ina ia suia ai le 'taaloga' i le 'gaioiga'. Ona tali uma lea o aitema mo gaoioiga uma i luga ole laiga na muai faailoa mai e le au auai e faaaoga (mai se filifiliga o 'taaloga', 'fa'atau i luga ole laiga', 'fa'aogaina o ponokalafi i luga ole laiga', 'fa'aogaina o feso'ota'iga fa'aagafesootai', ma le 'fa'atauga i luga ole laiga' ). I mea ta'itasi, o gaoioiga ta'itasi sa fa'atatauina ile fua fa'atatau e tolu-point Likert (0 = 'leai', 1 = 'o nisi taimi', 2 = 'masani'). O le sikoa e tutusa ma le uluai kopi o le IGDT-10: E maua e fa'ailoga ta'itasi se togi o le 0 pe afai o le tali e 'leai' pe 'o nisi taimi' ma le togi o le 1 pe a fai o le tali e 'masani'. O aitema 9 ma le 10 o lo'o fa'atusalia ai le fa'ata'ita'iga tutusa (fa'ata'ita'iga, 'tumau po'o le leiloa o se mafutaga taua, galuega, po'o se a'oa'oga po'o avanoa faigaluega ona o le auai i ta'aloga Initaneti') ma faitau fa'atasi le tasi 'ai pe a ausia se tasi po'o mea uma e lua. Sa fuafuaina le aofa'iga mulimuli o sikoa mo gaoioiga taitasi. E mafai ona maua mai i le 0 i le 9 ma togi maualuga e faʻaalia ai le maualuga o le faʻamaʻi. E tusa ai ma le le atoatoa o taaloga, o le togi e lima pe sili atu e faʻaalia ai le talafeagai ile falemaʻi (Király et al., 2017).

Fesili mo le Soifua Maloloina-4: PHQ-4

Ole Su'esu'ega ole Soifua Maloloina-4 (PHQ-4; Kroenke, Spitzer, Williams, & Löwe, 2009) o se fua fa'apu'upu'u o fa'ailoga o le atuatuvale ma le popole. E aofia ai mea e fa mai le Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 fua ma le PHQ-8 module mo le atuatuvale. E tatau i tagata auai ona faʻaalia le tele o faʻalavelave faʻaalia i luga o le fa-point Likert scale mai le 0 ('leai') i le 3 ('toetoe lava i aso uma'). O le aofaʻi o togi e mafai ona vaʻaia i le va o le 0 ma le 12 o loʻo faʻaalia ai e leai se / laʻititi, agamalu, feololo, ma le ogaoga o le faʻalavelave o le mafaufau ma togi mai le 0-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12, faasologa ((Kroenke et al., 2009).

Soifua manuia lautele

Sa su'esu'eina le fa'amalieina lautele o le olaga e fa'aaoga ai le Fua Puupuu Fa'amalieina o le Ola (L-1) i le fa'aliliuga muamua a Siamani (Beierlein, Kovaleva, László, Kemper, & Rammstedt, 2015) tali ile 11-point Likert scale e amata mai i le 0 ('e le'i fa'amalieina uma') i le 10 ('fa'amalieina atoatoa'). Ole fua ole aitema e tasi e fa'amaonia lelei ma fa'amaopoopo malosi ma fua fa'atatau e tele-aitema e iloilo ai le fa'amalieina o le olaga (Beierlein et al., 2015). Na matou fesili foʻi mo le faamalieina patino o le olaga i le tulaga o le soifua maloloina (H-1): 'Ia mafaufau i mea uma, o le a le faamalieina o oe i lou soifua maloloina i nei aso?' tali i le fua tutusa 11-point (cf. Beierlein et al., 2015).

taualumaga

O le su'esu'ega na faia i luga ole laiga ile fa'aogaina ole meafaigaluega ole su'esu'ega i luga ole laiga Limesurvey®. O le ACSID-11 ma le IGDT-10 na faʻatinoina i se auala e naʻo gaoioiga na filifilia i le muaʻi fesili na faʻaalia mo mea taʻitasi. Na maua e tagata auai so'oga ta'ito'atasi mai le 'au'aunaga a le au'aunaga lea na ta'ita'ia ai le su'esu'ega i luga ole laiga na matou faia. Ina ua mae'a, na toe fa'afo'i sui auai ile upegatafa'ilagi a le kamupani e maua ai le latou fa'ailoga. O faʻamaumauga na aoina i le vaitaimi mai ia Aperila 8 ia Aperila 14 i le 2021.

Suʻesuʻega faʻamaumauga

Na matou fa'aogaina le fa'amaonia o mea e su'esu'e ai (CFA) e fa'ata'ita'i ai le tele ma fausia le fa'amaoni o le ACSID-11. O suʻesuʻega na faʻatautaia ma le Mplus version 8.4 (Muthén & Muthén, 2019) fa'aogaina o sikuea pito sili ona mamafa ma fa'atatauga fetu'una'i ese'ese (WLSMV). Ina ia iloilo le fetaui lelei, matou te faʻaogaina le tele o faʻailoga, e taʻua o le chi-square (χ 2) su'ega mo le fetaui tonu, le Fa'asinomaga Fa'atusatusa (CFI), le Tucker-Lewis fit index (TLI), Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR), ma le Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). Ae faimai foi Hu ma Bentler (1999), o le tipiina o tau mo le CFI ma le TLI> 0.95, mo le SRMR <0.08, ma mo le RMSEA <0.06 fa'aalia le fetaui lelei. E le gata i lea, o le chi-square tau e vaevaeina i tikeri o le saolotoga (χ2/df) <3 o le isi fa'ailoga mo le fa'ata'ita'iga talafeagai (Carmines & McIver, 1981). Cronbach's alpha (α) ma le Guttman's Lambda-2 (λ 2) sa fa'aaogaina e fai ma fua fa'atatau o le fa'atuatuaina ma fa'atatau > 0.8 (> 0.7) fa'ailoa mai ai le lelei (talitonuina) fa'atasi i totonu (Bortz & Döring, 2006). Sa fa'aogaina su'esu'ega fa'atasi (Pearson) e fa'ata'ita'i ai le sa'o fe'avea'i i le va o fua fa'atatau o mea tutusa po'o mea fa'atatau. O nei suʻesuʻega sa faʻatautaia ma le IBM SPSS fuainumera (faiga 26). Ae faimai foi Cohen (1988), o se tau o |r| = 0.10, 0.30, 0.50 o loʻo faʻaalia ai se laʻititi, feololo, tele aʻafiaga, taʻitasi.

Amio Taualoa

O suʻesuʻega na faʻatinoina e tusa ai ma le Tautinoga a Helsinki. O le suʻesuʻega na faʻamaonia e le komiti o amio a le vaega o Faʻasaienisi Faakomepiuta ma Faʻasaienisi Faʻaaogaina Faʻamatalaga i le Faculty of Engineering o le Iunivesite o Duisburg-Essen. O mataupu uma na logoina e uiga i le suʻesuʻega ma tuʻuina atu uma le faʻatagaina.

i'uga

I totonu o le faʻataʻitaʻiga o loʻo i ai nei, o le faʻaogaina o le Initaneti faʻaogaina amioga sa tufatufaina e pei ona taua i lalo: Taʻaloga na faʻaalia e 440 (45.9%) tagata taʻitoʻatasi (tausaga: M = 43.59, SD = 14.66; 259 tane, 180 fafine, 1 divers), 944 (98.5%) o tagata taʻitoʻatasi o loʻo faia faʻatauga i luga ole laiga (tausaga: M = 47.58, SD = 14.49; 491 tane, 452 fafine, 1 divers), 340 (35.5%) o tagata taʻitoʻatasi na faʻaogaina ponokalafi i luga ole laiga (tausaga: M = 44.80, SD = 14.96; 263 tane, 76 fafine, 1 divers), 854 (89.1%) o tagata taʻitoʻatasi na faʻaogaina fesoʻotaʻiga lautele (tausaga: M = 46.52, SD = 14.66; 425 tane, 428 fafine, 1 divers), ma le 200 (20.9%) tagata taʻitoʻatasi na auai i taaloga faitupe i luga ole laiga (tausaga: M = 46.91, SD = 13.67; 125 tane, 75 fafine, 0 tagata su'esu'e). Le toaitiiti o tagata auai (n = 61; 6.3%) fa'ailoa e fa'aaoga na'o le tasi le gaioiga. Tele tagata auai (n = 841; 87.8%) na fa'aogaina fa'atauga fa'ainitaneti fa'atasi ma feso'ota'iga feso'ota'iga ma 409 (42.7%) oi latou na fa'aalia fo'i e ta'alo i ta'aloga i luga ole laiga. E onosefulu valu (7.1%) o tagata auai na faʻaalia e faʻaoga uma gaioiga i luga ole laiga.

Talu ai ona o le faaletonu o taaloga ma taaloga faitupe o ituaiga ia e lua o faaletonu ona o amioga ua fai ma vaisu ua aloaia aloaia ma tuuina atu o le numera o tagata i la matou faataitaiga na lipotia mai e fai taaloga i luga o le initaneti e fai si tapulaa, o le a matou taulai muamua i taunuuga e uiga i le iloiloga. o taʻiala mo le faʻalavelave taʻaloga ma le ACSID-11.

Fuainumera faʻamatala

E tusa ai ma le faaletonu o taaloga, o mea uma ACSID-11 o loʻo i ai faʻailoga i le va o le 0 ma le 3 lea e atagia mai ai le maualuga maualuga o tau aoga (silasila i Laulau 2). O aitema uma o lo'o fa'aalia ai le maualalo o tau fa'atatau ma se fa'asoa sa'o e pei ona fa'amoemoeina i se fa'ata'ita'iga e le fa'apitoa. Faigata e sili ona maualuga mo mea Faʻaauau / Faʻateleina ma Faʻailoga Faʻafitauli ae o le Faʻaletonu Pulea (aemaise lava IC1) ma mea Faʻamuamua Faʻateleina e sili ona faigata. Kurtosis e sili ona maualuga mo le mea muamua o le Faʻaauau / Faʻateleina (CE1) ma le mea Faʻailoga Faʻailoga (MD1).

Laulau 2.

Fa'amatalaga fa'amaumauga o mea ACSID-11 e fuaina ai le fa'aletonu o ta'aloga.

Leai.meaminMaxM(SD)SkewnessKurtosisfaigatā
a)Fua fua
01aIC1030.827(0.956)0.808-0.52127.58
02aIC2030.602(0.907)1.2370.24920.08
03aIC3030.332(0.723)2.1633.72411.06
04aIP1030.623(0.895)1.1800.18920.76
05aIP2030.405(0.784)1.9132.69813.48
06aIP3030.400(0.784)1.9032.59713.33
07aCE1030.170(0.549)3.56112.7185.68
08aCE2030.223(0.626)3.0388.7977.42
09aCE3030.227(0.632)2.9337.9987.58
10aFI1030.352(0.712)1.9973.10811.74
11aMD1030.155(0.526)3.64713.1075.15
b)Fua o le malosi
01bIC1030.593(0.773)1.1730.73219.77
02bIC2030.455(0.780)1.7002.09015.15
03bIC3030.248(0.592)2.6426.9818.26
04bIP1030.505(0.827)1.5291.32916.82
05bIP2030.330(0.703)2.1994.12310.98
06bIP3030.302(0.673)2.3024.63310.08
07bCE1030.150(0.505)3.86715.6725.00
08bCE2030.216(0.623)3.1599.6237.20
09bCE3030.207(0.608)3.22510.1226.89
10bFI1030.284(0.654)2.5346.1729.47
11bMD1030.139(0.483)3.99716.8584.62

FaamatalagaN = 440. IC = fa'aletonu le pulea; IP = faʻateleina le faʻamuamua; CE = fa'aauau/fa'ateleina; FI = faaletonu o galuega; MD = fa'ailoga fa'anoanoa.

E tusa ai ma le soifua maloloina o le mafaufau, o le faʻataʻitaʻiga atoa (N = 958) e iai le averesi o le PHQ-4 togi o le 3.03 (SD = 2.82) ma fa'aalia tulaga feololo le fa'amalieina i le olaga (L-1: M = 6.31, SD = 2.39) ma le soifua maloloina (H-1: M = 6.05, SD = 2.68). I le vaega laiti ta'aloga (n = 440), 13 tagata taʻitoʻatasi (3.0%) e oʻo atu i le IGDT-10 tipi mo mataupu faʻapitoa faʻapitoa o faʻamaʻi taʻaloga. Ole sikoa ole IGDT-10 e eseese ile va ole 0.51 mo le faʻatau-faʻatau faʻatau ma le 0.77 mo fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga faʻaoga faʻaletonu (vaai Laulau 5).

Faʻamaumauga faʻamaonia

Fa'ata'ita'iga fa'ata'ita'iga

Na matou fa'ata'ita'iina le fa'atulagaina o le fa'avae o le ACSID-11 e ala i le tele o CFAs, tasi i le fa'aogaina o le Initaneti fa'apitoa ma tu'ueseese mo fa'asologa o taimi ma le malosi. O mea taua (1) Fa'aletonu le Pulea, (2) Fa'ateleina le Fa'amuamua, ma le (3) Fa'aauau/Fa'ateleina na fa'avaeina e mea ta'i tolu. O mea fa'aopoopo e lua e fuaina ai le fa'aletonu o galuega i le olaga i aso ta'itasi ma fa'ailoga fa'alavelave ona o le gaioiga i luga ole laiga na fausia ai le fa'aopoopoga fa'aopoopo (4) Fa'aletonu o galuega. O le faʻavae faʻavae o le ACSID-11 e lagolagoina e faʻamaumauga. O faʻailoga fetaui e faʻaalia ai se fetaui lelei i le va o faʻataʻitaʻiga ma faʻamaumauga mo ituaiga uma o faʻafitauli faʻaoga Initaneti ua iloiloina e le ACSID-11, e taʻua o le le atoatoa o taaloga, faʻatauga faʻatau-faʻatau i luga ole laiga, ma le faʻaogaina o fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga, faʻaoga ponokalafi i luga ole laiga. fa'aletonu, ma le fa'aletonu o taaloga faitupe i luga ole laiga (va'ai Laulau 3). E tusa ai ma le faʻaogaina o ponokalafi i luga o le initaneti ma le faʻaletonu o taaloga faitupe i luga ole laiga, TLI ma RMSEA e mafai ona faʻaituau ona o laʻititi laʻititi lapopoa (Hu & Bentler, 1999). O fa'ailoga fa'ailoga ma fa'asologa o totoe mo le CFA o lo'o fa'aaogaina se fa'ata'ita'iga fa'atusa o lo'o fa'aalia i totonu. Mati. 2. Mo le matauina, o nisi o faʻataʻitaʻiga o loʻo faʻaalia tulaga taua faʻapitoa (faʻataʻitaʻiga, le lelei o le eseesega o totoe mo se fesuiaiga latent poʻo faʻamaopoopo tutusa pe sili atu i le 1).

Laulau 3.

Fa'ailoga fa'atatau o fa'ata'ita'iga CFA fa'afa, tasidimensional, ma fa'atonuga lua mo fa'afitauli fa'apitoa (mafai) fa'aoga Initaneti e fuaina e le ACSID-11.

  Taʻaloga tauvaga
  faisoʻogaMalosiaga
faʻataʻitaʻigadfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ dfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ df
Fa'ailoga fa'atusa380.9910.9870.0310.0512.130.9930.9900.0290.0431.81
Fa'ata'ita'iga tutasi270.9690.9610.0480.0874.320.9700.9630.0470.0823.99
Fa'ata'ita'iga fa'asologa lona lua400.9920.9880.0310.0471.990.9920.9890.0320.0451.89
  Fa'atauga i luga ole laiga-fa'atauga fa'aletonu
  faisoʻogaMalosiaga
faʻataʻitaʻigadfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ dfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ df
Fa'ailoga fa'atusa380.9960.9940.0190.0342.070.9950.9920.0200.0372.30
Fa'ata'ita'iga tutasi270.9810.9760.0370.0705.580.9860.9820.0310.0563.98
Fa'ata'ita'iga fa'asologa lona lua400.9960.9940.0210.0362.190.9940.9920.0230.0382.40
  Fa'aoga ponokalafi i luga ole laiga
  faisoʻogaMalosiaga
faʻataʻitaʻigadfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ dfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ df
Fa'ailoga fa'atusa380.9930.9890.0340.0541.990.9870.9810.0380.0652.43
Fa'ata'ita'iga tutasi270.9840.9790.0440.0752.910.9760.9700.0460.0823.27
Fa'ata'ita'iga fa'asologa lona lua400.9930.9910.0330.0491.830.9840.9790.0390.0682.59
  Fa'aletonu le fa'aogaina o feso'ota'iga lautele
  faisoʻogaMalosiaga
faʻataʻitaʻigadfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ dfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ df
Fa'ailoga fa'atusa380.9930.9900.0230.0493.030.9930.9890.0230.0523.31
Fa'ata'ita'iga tutasi270.9700.9630.0480.0968.890.9770.9720.0390.0857.13
Fa'ata'ita'iga fa'asologa lona lua400.9920.9890.0270.0533.390.9910.9880.0250.0563.64
  Fa'aletonu o taaloga faitupe i luga ole laiga
  faisoʻogaMalosiaga
faʻataʻitaʻigadfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ dfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ df
Fa'ailoga fa'atusa380.9970.9960.0270.0591.700.9970.9960.0260.0491.47
Fa'ata'ita'iga tutasi270.9940.9920.0400.0782.200.9910.9890.0390.0802.28
Fa'ata'ita'iga fa'asologa lona lua400.9970.9960.0290.0541.580.9970.9950.0290.0531.55

Faamatalaga. Fa'ata'ita'i lapo'a e 'ese'ese mo ta'aloga (n = 440), fa'atauga i luga ole laiga (n = 944), fa'aoga ponokalafi i luga ole laiga (n = 340), fa'aoga feso'ota'iga feso'ota'iga (n = 854), ma taaloga faitupe i luga ole laiga (n = 200); ACSID-11 = Su'esu'ega o Tulaga mo Fa'afitauli Fa'apitoa Fa'aoga Initaneti, 11-aitema.

Fig. 2.
 
Fig. 2.

Fa'ailoga o uta ma fa'asologa o totoe o fa'ata'ita'iga fa'atusa o le ACSID-11 (teletele) mo le (A) fa'aletonu ta'aloga, (B) fa'aletonu o taaloga faitupe i luga o le initaneti, (C) fa'atauga fa'atau-fa'atauga i luga ole laiga, (D) fa'aoga ponokalafi i luga ole laiga. , ma le (E) fa'aletonu feso'ota'iga feso'ota'iga-fa'aoga. Faamatalaga. Fa'ata'ita'i lapo'a e 'ese'ese mo ta'aloga (n = 440), fa'atauga i luga ole laiga (n = 944), fa'aoga ponokalafi i luga ole laiga (n = 340), fa'aoga feso'ota'iga feso'ota'iga (n = 854), ma taaloga faitupe i luga ole laiga (n = 200); Ole fua ole malosi ole ACSID-11 na faʻaalia ai iʻuga tutusa. ACSID-11 = Iloiloga o Tulaga Fa'atonu mo Fa'afitauli Fa'apitoa Fa'aoga Initaneti, 11-aitema; O tau o lo'o fa'atusalia ai uta fa'avasegaina, fa'asologa fa'atasi, ma fa'asologa fa'aletonu. O tala fa'atatau uma sa taua ile p <0.001.

Fa'amatalaga: Tusitala o Vaisu Amio 2022; 10.1556 / 2006.2022.00013

Fa'ata'ita'iga tutasi

Ona o le maualuga o fesoʻotaʻiga i le va o mea eseese, na matou faʻataʻitaʻiina foʻi fofo faʻatasi ma mea uma o loʻo faʻapipiʻiina i luga o le tasi itu, e pei ona faʻatinoina, faʻataʻitaʻiga, i le IGDT-10. O fa'ata'ita'iga tu'ufa'atasi o le ACSID-11 na fa'aalia le fetaui lelei, ae fa'atasi ai ma le RMSEA ma/po'o le χ2/df o loʻo i luga aʻe o faʻaputuga fautuaina. Mo amioga uma, o le faʻataʻitaʻiga e fetaui mo faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻataʻitaʻiga e sili atu ona lelei pe a faʻatusatusa i faʻataʻitaʻiga tutusa tutusa (silasila i Laulau 3). O le mea la lea, o le fofo fa-fa-factor e foliga mai e sili atu nai lo le fofo e tasi.

Fa'ata'ita'iga fa'asologa lona lua ma fa'ata'ita'iga bifactor

O se isi mea i le faʻamatalaga mo fesoʻotaʻiga maualuga o le aofia ai lea o se mea lautele e fai ma sui o le fausaga lautele, lea e aofia ai subdomains fesoʻotaʻi. E mafai ona fa'atinoina e ala ile fa'ata'ita'iga fa'ata'ita'i fa'asologa lona lua ma fa'ata'ita'iga bifactor. I le fa'ata'ita'iga fa'asologa lona lua, o se fa'asologa lautele (fa'asologa lona lua) e fa'ata'ita'iina i se taumafaiga e fa'amatala fa'atasiga i totonu o fa'asologa muamua. I le fa'ata'ita'iga bifactor, o lo'o fa'apea e fa'apea o le tulaga lautele e fa'atatau i le tutusa i le va o vaega e feso'ota'i ma, e le gata i lea, e tele naua mea fa'apitoa, o ia mea ta'itasi e iai a'afiaga tulaga ese i luga ma tua atu o le mea lautele. Ua fa'ata'ita'iina lea mea ina ia fa'ataga ai mea ta'itasi e uta i luga o le fa'ailoga lautele fa'apea fo'i ma lona itu fa'apitoa lea o mea uma (e aofia ai feso'ota'iga i le va o mea fa'apitoa ma mea fa'apitoa) o lo'o fa'amaoti mai e fa'apitoa. O le fa'ata'ita'iga fa'asologa lona lua e sili atu ona fa'alavelave nai lo le fa'ata'ita'iga bifactor ma o lo'o tu'u i totonu ole fa'ata'ita'iga bifactor (Yung, Thissen, & McLeod, 1999). I a matou faʻataʻitaʻiga, o faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻasologa lona lua o loʻo faʻaalia tutusa lelei e pei o faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻatusa (vaai Laulau 3). Mo amioga uma, o mea e fa (fa'atonuga muamua) e maualuga le mamafa i luga o le tulaga lautele (va'ai faaopoopoga B), lea e fa'amaonia ai le fa'aogaina o se togi atoa. E pei o fa'ata'ita'iga fa'ata'ita'iga, o nisi o fa'ata'ita'iga fa'asologa lona lua o lo'o fa'aalia ai ni tau fa'aletonu i lea taimi ma lea taimi (fa'ata'ita'iga, fa'aletonu o lo'o totoe mo se fesuiaiga latent po'o fa'amaopoopo tutusa pe sili atu i le 1). Sa matou fa'ata'ita'iina fo'i fa'ata'ita'iga bifactor felagolagoma'i lea na fa'atusalia le fetaui lelei, peita'i, e le mo amioga uma e mafai ona iloa ai se fa'ata'ita'iga (va'ai Faʻaopoopoga C).

faatuatuaina

Faʻavae i luga o le faʻailoga faʻapitoa faʻapitoa, matou te fuafuaina sikola faʻailoga mo le ACSID-11 mai le auala o mea taʻitasi faʻapea foʻi ma le aofaʻi o sikola mo taʻitasi faʻapitoa (mafai) faʻaoga Initaneti. Sa matou vaʻavaʻai i le faʻamaoni o le IGDT-10 aʻo matou faʻaogaina le tele o amio e mulimuli i le faʻataʻitaʻiga o le ASSIST (faʻavasegaina le tele o faʻafitauli faʻaoga Initaneti) mo le taimi muamua. O faʻaiʻuga o loʻo faʻaalia ai le maualuga o le totonugalemu o le ACSID-11 ma le maualalo ae faʻapea foi le faʻatuatuaina o le IGDT-10 (silasila i Laulau 4).

Laulau 4.

Fuafuaga faʻatuatuaina o le ACSID-11 ma le IGDT-10 e fuaina ai faʻafitauli faʻaoga Initaneti.

 ACSID-11IGDT-10
faisoʻogaMalosiaga(ASSIST version)
Ituaiga faaletonuαλ2αλ2αλ2
taaloga0.9000.9030.8940.8970.8410.845
Fa'atauga i luga ole laiga-fa'atauga0.9100.9130.9150.9170.8580.864
Fa'aoga ponokalafi i luga ole laiga0.9070.9110.8960.9010.7930.802
Fa'aoga feso'ota'iga lautele0.9060.9120.9150.9210.8550.861
Taʻaloga i luga ole laiga0.9470.9500.9440.9460.9100.912

Faamatalagaα = Cronbach's alpha; λ 2 = Guttman's lambda-2; ACSID-11 = Iloiloga o Tulaga Fa'atonu mo Fa'afitauli Fa'apitoa Fa'aoga Initaneti, 11 mea; IGDT-10 = Su'ega Fa'aletonu Taaloga Initaneti Mea Sefulu; Fa'ata'ita'iga lapo'a e 'ese'ese mo ta'aloga (n = 440), fa'atau-fa'atauga i luga ole laiga (n = 944), fa'aoga ponokalafi i luga ole laiga (n = 340), fa'aoga feso'ota'iga feso'ota'iga (n = 854), ma taaloga faitupe i luga ole laiga (n = 200).

Laulau 5 o lo'o fa'aalia ai fa'amaumauga fa'amatalaga o sikoa ACSID-11 ma le IGDT-10. Mo amioga uma, o le auala o le ACSID-11 faʻaauau Faʻaauau/Faʻateleina ma Faʻafitauli Faʻaletonu e sili ona maualalo pe a faʻatusatusa i isi mea. Ole fa'aletonu ole Pulea o lo'o fa'aalia ai fa'atauga aupito maualuga mo taimi uma ma le malosi. Ole aofa'iga ole ACSID-11 e sili ona maualuga mo le fa'aogaina o feso'ota'iga feso'ota'iga, soso'o ai ma le fa'aletonu o taaloga faitupe i luga o le initaneti ma le fa'aletonu o ta'aloga, fa'aletonu le fa'aogaina o ponokalafi i luga ole laiga, ma le fa'atauga fa'atau-fa'atauga i luga ole laiga. O sikoa IGDT-10 o loʻo faʻaalia ai se ata tutusa (vaai Laulau 5).

Laulau 5.

Fa'amatalaga fa'amaumauga o le mea taua ma le aofa'i o togi o le ACSID-11 ma le IGDT-10 (ASSIST version) mo fa'aletonu fa'aoga-Itaneti.

 Ta'aloga (n = 440)Fa'atauga i luga ole laiga-fa'atauga

(n = 944)
Fa'aoga ponokalafi i luga ole laiga

(n = 340)
Fa'aoga feso'ota'iga feso'ota'iga (n = 854)taaloga faitupe i luga ole laiga (n = 200)
EseminMaxM(SD)minMaxM(SD)minMaxM(SD)minMaxM(SD)minMaxM(SD)
faisoʻoga
ACSID-11_IC030.59(0.71)030.46(0.67)030.58(0.71)030.78(0.88)030.59(0.82)
ACSID-11_IP030.48(0.69)030.28(0.56)030.31(0.59)030.48(0.71)030.38(0.74)
ACSID-11_CE030.21(0.51)030.13(0.43)030.16(0.45)030.22(0.50)030.24(0.60)
ACSID-11_FI030.25(0.53)030.18(0.48)02.50.19(0.47)030.33(0.61)030.33(0.68)
ACSID-11_total030.39(0.53)030.27(0.47)02.60.32(0.49)030.46(0.59)02.70.39(0.64)
Malosiaga
ACSID-11_IC030.43(0.58)030.34(0.56)030.45(0.63)030.60(0.76)030.47(0.73)
ACSID-11_IP030.38(0.62)030.22(0.51)030.25(0.51)030.40(0.67)030.35(0.69)
ACSID-11_CE030.19(0.48)030.11(0.39)02.70.15(0.41)030.19(0.45)030.23(0.58)
ACSID-11_FI030.21(0.50)030.15(0.45)02.50.18(0.43)030.28(0.57)030.29(0.61)
ACSID-11_total030.31(0.46)030.21(0.42)02.60.26(0.43)030.37(0.54)030.34(0.59)
IGDT-10_sum090.69(1.37)090.51(1.23)070.61(1.06)090.77(1.47)090.61(1.41)

Faamatalaga. ACSID-11 = Iloiloga o Tulaga Fa'atonu mo Fa'afitauli Fa'apitoa Fa'aoga Initaneti, 11-aitema; IC = fa'aletonu le pulea; IP = faʻateleina le faʻamuamua; CE = fa'aauau/fa'ateleina; FI = faaletonu o galuega; IGDT-10 = Su'ega Fa'aletonu Taaloga Initaneti Sefulu Mea.

Faʻamatalaga faʻamaonia

I le avea ai o se fuataga o le faʻamaonia o le fausiaina, matou te suʻesuʻeina faʻatasiga i le va o le ACSID-11, IGDT-10, ma fua o le soifua manuia lautele. O fa'atasiga o lo'o fa'aalia i totonu Laulau 6. Ole aofa'iga ole ACSID-11 e fetaui lelei ma le IGDT-10 fa'atasi ma le lapo'a i le lapopo'a, lea e maualuga ai le feso'ota'iga i le va o togi mo amioga tutusa. E le gata i lea, o sikoa ACSID-11 e fetaui lelei ma le PHQ-4, faʻatasi ai ma se aafiaga tutusa e pei o le IGDT-10 ma le PHQ-4. O faʻasologa faʻatasi ma fua o le faʻamalieina o le olaga (L-1) ma le faʻamalieina o le soifua maloloina (H-1) e tutusa lelei i le va o faʻamaʻi tigaina suʻesuʻeina i le ACSID-11 ma le IGDT-10. Feso'ota'iga i le va o le ACSID-11 aofa'i o togi mo amioga 'ese'ese e tele a'afiaga. O fesoʻotaʻiga i le va o sikoa faʻailoga ma le IGDT-10 e mafai ona maua i mea faʻaopoopo.

Laulau 6.

Fa'atasiga i le va o le ACSID-11 (teletele), IGDT-10, ma fua o le soifua manuia o le mafaufau.

   1)2)3)4)5)6)7)8)9)10)11)12)
 ACSID-11_total
1)taaloga 1           
2)Fa'atauga i luga ole laiga-fa'ataugar0.703**1          
 (n)(434)(944)          
3)Fa'aoga ponokalafi i luga ole laigar0.659**0.655**1         
 (n)(202)(337)(340)         
4)Fa'aoga feso'ota'iga lauteler0.579**0.720**0.665**1        
 (n)(415)(841)(306)854        
5)Taʻaloga i luga ole laigar0.718**0.716**0.661**0.708**1       
 (n)(123)(197)(97)(192)(200)       
 IGDT-10_sum
6)taalogar0.596**0.398**0.434**0.373**0.359**1      
 (n)(440)(434)(202)(415)(123)(440)      
7)Fa'atauga i luga ole laiga-fa'ataugar0.407**0.632**0.408**0.449**0.404**0.498**1     
 (n)(434)(944)(337)(841)(197)(434)(944)     
8)Fa'aoga ponokalafi i luga ole laigar0.285**0.238**0.484**0.271**0.392**0.423**0.418**1    
 (n)(202)(337)(340)(306)(97)(202)(337)(340)    
9)Fa'aoga feso'ota'iga lauteler0.255**0.459**0.404**0.591**0.417**0.364**0.661**0.459**1   
 (n)(415)(841)(306)(854)(192)(415)(841)(306)(854)   
10)Taʻaloga i luga ole laigar0.322**0.323**0.346**0.423**0.625**0.299**0.480**0.481**0.525**1  
 (n)(123)(197)(97)(192)(200)(123)(197)(97)(192)(200)  
11)PHQ-4r0.292**0.273**0.255**0.350**0.326**0.208**0.204**0.146**0.245**0.236**1 
 (n)(440)(944)(340)(854)(200)(440)(944)(340)(854)(200)(958) 
12)L-1r-0.069-0.080*-0.006-0.147**-0.179*-0.130**-0.077*-0.018-0.140**-0.170*-0.542**1
 (n)(440)(944)(340)(854)(200)(440)(944)(340)(854)(200)(958)(958)
13)H-1r-0.083-0.0510.062-0.0140.002-0.078-0.0210.0690.027-0.034-0.409**0.530**
 (n)(440)(944)(340)(854)(200)(440)(944)(340)(854)(200)(958)(958)

Faamatalaga. ** p <0.01; * p <0.05. ACSID-11 = Iloiloga o Tulaga Fa'atonu mo Fa'afitauli Fa'apitoa Fa'aoga Initaneti, 11-aitema; IGDT-10 = Su'ega Fa'aletonu Taaloga Initaneti Sefulu Mea; PHQ-4 = Su'esu'ega Soifua Maloloina-4; O fesoʻotaʻiga faʻatasi ma le ACSID-11 malosi fua sa i ai i se tulaga tutusa.

Talanoaga ma Faaiuga

O lenei lipoti na faʻaalia ai le ACSID-11 e avea o se meafaigaluega fou mo le suʻesuʻeina faigofie ma faʻamalamalamaga o ituaiga tetele o faʻafitauli faʻaoga Initaneti. O faʻaiʻuga o suʻesuʻega o loʻo faʻaalia ai o le ACSID-11 e talafeagai e puʻeina ai le ICD-11 taʻiala mo le faʻalavelave taʻaloga i se fausaga faʻapitoa. O feso'ota'iga lelei ma se meafaigaluega su'esu'e fa'avae DSM-5 (IGDT-10) na fa'aalia atili ai le fa'amaoniaina o le fausiaina.

O le faʻatulagaina o le multifactorial structure o le ACSID-11 na faʻamaonia e le iʻuga o le CFA. O mea ia e fetaui lelei ma se faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻataʻitaʻiga e fai ma sui o le ICD-11 taʻiala (1) faʻaletonu le pulea, (2) faʻateleina le faʻamuamua, (3) faʻaauau / faʻateleina e ui lava i aʻafiaga leaga, faʻapea foʻi ma vaega faaopoopo (4) faʻaletonu galuega ma fa'ailoga fa'anoanoa e tatau ona fa'atatau mo amioga fa'a fai ma vaisu. O le fa-fa-factor solution na faʻaalia ai le sili atu le fetaui pe a faʻatusatusa i le fofo e tasi. O le multidimensionality o le fua o se uiga tulaga ese pe a faatusatusa i isi fua e aofia ai taiala ICD-11 mo le faaletonu o taaloga (cf. Tupu et al., 2020Pontes et al., 2021). E le gata i lea, o le fetaui lelei tutusa o le faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻasologa lona lua (ma se vaega faʻataʻitaʻiga bifactor) o loʻo faʻaalia ai o mea e suʻesuʻeina ai faʻataʻitaʻiga fesoʻotaʻi e aofia ai se "faʻalavelave" faʻavae lautele ma faʻamaonia le faʻaogaina o se togi atoa. O faʻaiʻuga e tutusa mo le faʻaletonu o taaloga i luga o le initaneti ma isi faʻafitauli faʻapitoa faʻaoga Initaneti e fuaina e le ACSID-11 i le tele o amio i luga o le faʻataʻitaʻiga o le ASSIST, e taʻua i luga ole laiga faʻatau-faʻatau faʻatau, faʻaoga ponokalafi i luga ole laiga, fesoʻotaʻiga lautele- fa'aoga faaletonu. Mo le vaega mulimuli, e tau leai ni meafaifaʻaili e faʻavae i luga ole WHO taʻiala mo faʻafitauli ona o amioga faʻasuesue, e ui lava e fautuaina e le au suʻesuʻe lenei faʻavasegaga mo i latou taʻitasi (Brand et al., 2020Müller et al., 2019Stark et al., 2018). Fuafuaga fou fou, e pei o le ACSID-11, e mafai ona fesoasoani e foia ai faʻafitauli faʻapitoa ma mafai ai ona suʻesuʻeina faʻasologa o mea e masani ai ma eseesega i le va o nei ituaiga eseese o amioga faʻamalosi.

O le faʻatuatuaina o le ACSID-11 e maualuga. Mo le le atoatoa o taaloga, o le faʻaogaina o totonu e faʻatusatusa pe maualuga atu nai lo le tele o isi meafaifaʻaili (cf. Tupu et al., 2020). O le faʻamaoni i tulaga o le faʻaogaina o totonu e lelei foi mo isi faʻafitauli faʻaoga Initaneti e fuaina e le ACSID-11 ma le IGDT-10. Mai lea mea e mafai ona tatou fa'ai'u ai o se fa'atulagaga tu'ufa'atasia tali, e pei o le ASSIST (WHO ASSIST Working Group, 2002) e talafeagai mo se iloiloga faʻatasi o ituaiga eseese o vaisu amio. I le faʻataʻitaʻiga o loʻo i ai nei, o le ACSID-11 aofaʻi o sikoa na maualuga mo le faʻaogaina o fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga. E fetaui lelei ma le maualuga tele o lenei faʻalavelave lea o loʻo faʻatatau i le taimi nei i le 14% mo atunuu taʻitoʻatasi ma le 31% mo atunuu tuʻufaʻatasia (Cheng, Lau, Chan, & Luk, 2021).

O le fa'amaonia o le Convergent o lo'o fa'aalia e ala i feso'ota'iga lelei tele i le va o sikoa ACSID-11 ma le IGDT-10 e ui lava i fa'asologa o sikoa eseese. E le gata i lea, o fesoʻotaʻiga lelei i le va o ACSID-11 ma le PHQ-4 fuaina o faʻamaoniga o le atuatuvale ma le popole e lagolagoina le faʻamaoniaga o le meafaigaluega suʻesuʻe fou. O faʻaiʻuga e ogatasi ma suʻesuʻega muamua i fesoʻotaʻiga i le va o faʻafitauli o le mafaufau (comorbid) ma faʻafitauli faʻapitoa faʻaoga Initaneti e aofia ai le faʻaletonu o taaloga (Mihara & Higuchi, 2017; ae vaai; Colder Carras, Shi, Hard, & Saldanha, 2020), fa'aletonu le fa'aogaina o ponokalafi (Duffy, Dawson, & Das Nair, 2016), fa'aletonu fa'atau-fa'atau (Kyrios et al., 2018), fa'aletonu feso'ota'iga feso'ota'iga-fa'aoga (Andreassen, 2015), ma le le atoatoa o le taalo tupe (Dowling et al., 2015). E le gata i lea, o le ACSID-11 (aemaise lava le faaletonu o taaloga faitupe i luga o le initaneti ma le faʻaogaina o fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga) na faʻafeagai ma le fua o le olaga faamalieina. O lenei taunuʻuga e ogatusa ma suʻesuʻega muamua i fesoʻotaʻiga i le va o le faʻaleagaina o le soifua manuia ma faʻaʻailoga ogaoga o faʻafitauli faʻaoga faʻaoga Initaneti (Cheng, Cheung, & Wang, 2018Duffy et al., 2016Duradoni, Innocenti, & Guazzini, 2020). O suʻesuʻega e faʻaalia ai le faʻaleagaina o le soifua manuia pe a tupu faʻatasi le tele o faʻafitauli faʻaoga Initaneti (Charzyńska et al., 2021). Ole fa'atasiga fa'atasi o fa'afitauli fa'apitoa ole fa'aogaina ole Initaneti e le'o seasea (fa'ata'ita'iga, Burleigh et al., 2019Müller et al., 2021) lea e mafai ona faʻamatalaina se vaega o fesoʻotaʻiga maualuga i le va o faʻafitauli e fuaina e le ACSID-11 ma le IGDT-10. O lo'o fa'amamafaina ai le taua o se meafaigaluega su'esu'e toniga e iloa ai mea masani ma eseesega e sili atu ona fa'amaonia i ituaiga fa'aletonu eseese ona o amioga fa'atupu vaisu.

O se tapula'a autu o le su'esu'ega o lo'o i ai nei o le fa'ata'ita'iga e le fa'apitoa, la'ititi la'ititi ma e le fa'atusalia. O lea la, faatasi ai ma lenei suʻesuʻega, e le mafai ona matou faʻaalia pe talafeagai le ACSID-11 e avea o se meafaigaluega faʻapitoa, aua e le mafai ona matou tuʻuina atu faʻailoga manino, ae. E le gata i lea, e le'i fa'atagaina e le fa'ailoga fa'asaga ona faia ni fa'amatalaga e uiga i le fa'atuatuaina o le su'ega-toe su'esu'e po'o le mafua'aga o feso'ota'iga i le va o le ACSID-11 ma suiga fa'amaonia. E mana'omia e le meafaigaluega se fa'amaoniga atili e fa'amaonia ai lona fa'amaoni ma le talafeagai. Ae ui i lea, o taunuʻuga mai lenei suʻesuʻega muamua o loʻo fautua mai ai o se meafaigaluega faʻamaonia e ono aoga le suʻeina atili. Mo le maitauina, e manaʻomia se faʻamaumauga tele e le gata mo lenei mea faigaluega, ae mo le vaega atoa o suʻesuʻega e iloa ai po o fea o nei amioga e mafai ona taʻua o faʻamaʻi (cf. Grant & Chamberlain, 2016). O le fausaga o le ACSID-11 e foliga mai o loʻo galue lelei e pei ona faʻamaonia mai iʻuga o suʻesuʻega o loʻo iai nei. O mea fa'apitoa e fa ma le vaega lautele na fa'aalia lelei i amioga eseese, e ui lava na taliina mea ta'itasi mo gaioiga uma i luga ole laiga na fa'aalia i nisi taimi i le sefululua masina talu ai. Ua uma ona matou talanoaina o faʻafitauli faʻapitoa i luga ole Initaneti e ono tupu faʻatasi, e ui i lea, e tatau ona faʻamaonia i suʻesuʻega tulitatao o le mafuaʻaga lea mo le faʻaogaina o le maualuga o le ACSID-11 i luga o amioga. E le gata i lea, e ono fa'ailoa mai e uiga fa'aletonu i nisi o amio e mana'omia le fa'asilisiliina o fa'ata'ita'iga fa'ata'ita'iga. O ta'iala o lo'o fa'aogaina e le'o tutusa le talafeagai i ituaiga uma o lo'o aofia ai fa'afitauli fa'aletonu. Atonu e ono le mafai e le ACSID-11 ona fa'apipi'i lelei fa'afitauli fa'apitoa i fa'aaliga fa'ailoga. E tatau ona fa'ata'ita'i le fua fa'atatau i fa'asologa eseese i fa'ata'ita'iga tuto'atasi fou e aofia ai ma'i ma'i fa'ama'i fa'aletonu fa'aoga Initaneti. E le gata i lea, o taunuuga e le o se sui o le faitau aofaʻi lautele. O faʻamaumauga e faʻatusalia e faʻatusalia ai tagata faʻaoga Initaneti i Siamani ma e leai se loka i le taimi o le aoina o faʻamaumauga; ae ui i lea, o le faʻamaʻi COVID-19 e iai sona aʻafiaga i tulaga faʻalavelave ma (faʻafitauli) faʻaoga Initaneti (Király et al., 2020). E ui ina fa'amaonia lelei le fua L-1 mea e tasi (Beierlein et al., 2015), (domain-specific) le faamalieina o le olaga e mafai ona puʻeina atili i suʻesuʻega i le lumanaʻi e faʻaaoga ai le ACSID-11.

I le faaiuga, o le ACSID-11 na faʻamaonia e talafeagai mo suʻesuʻega atoatoa, faifaipea, ma le tamaoaiga o faʻamaoniga o faʻafitauli faʻapitoa i luga ole Initaneti e aofia ai maʻi taʻaloga, faʻatauga faʻatau-faʻatau i luga ole laiga, faʻaoga ponokalafi i luga ole laiga, fesoʻotaʻiga lautele. -fa'aoga fa'aletonu, ma fa'aletonu tau tupe i luga ole laiga e fa'avae ile ICD-11 fa'ata'ita'iga fa'ata'ita'iga mo le fa'aletonu o ta'aloga. E tatau ona faia se isi iloiloga o le meafaigaluega su'esu'e. Matou te faʻamoemoe o le ACSID-11 e mafai ona saofagā i se suʻesuʻega faifaipea o amioga fai ma vaisu i suʻesuʻega ma e mafai foi ona fesoasoani i le falemaʻi i le lumanaʻi.

Faatupeina o punaoa

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) - 411232260.

Fesoasoani a le au tusitala

SMM: Metotia, Su'esu'ega aloa'ia, Tusia - Uluai Tusi; EW: Conceptualization, Methodology, Writing - Iloiloga & Fa'atonu; AO: Methodology, Iloiloga aloa'ia; RS: Conceptualization, Methodology; AM: Fa'atonuga, Metotia; CM: Faʻamatalaga, Metotia; KW: Conceptualization, Methodology; HJR: Conceptualization, Methodology; MB: Faʻamatalaga, Metotia, Tusitusi - Iloiloga & Faʻatonu, Vaʻaiga.

Feeseeseaiga o tului

E leai se lipoti a le au tusitala i mea tau tupe poʻo isi feteʻenaʻiga o aia e fetaui ma le autu o lenei tusiga.

Faʻafetai

O le galuega i luga o lenei tusiga na faʻatinoina i le tulaga o le Research Unit ACSID, FOR2974, faʻatupeina e le Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) - 411232260.

Faʻaopoopoga mea

O faʻamatalaga faaopoopo i lenei tusiga e mafai ona maua ile initaneti i https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2022.00013.