Faʻaitiitia LPP mo feusuaʻiga ata i faʻafitauli tagata faʻaaoga ponokalafi ono mafai ona ogatasi ma vaisu faʻataʻitaʻiga. Mea uma faʻalagolago i le faʻataʻitaʻiga (Faʻamatalaga i luga o Prause, Steele, Staley, Sabatinelli, & Hajcak, 2015)

Faʻaaliga - E tele isi pepa iloiloina a uo e ioe e faʻapea o le Prause et al., 2015 o loʻo lagolagoina le faʻataʻitaʻi o vaisu o le porn Iloiloga a le tupulaga Prause et al., 2015


TUSI PAIA PDF I LENEI

Biol Psychol. 2016 Me 24. oso: S0301-0511 (16) 30182-X. Pule: 10.1016 / j.biopsycho.2016.05.003.

  • 1Swartz Centre mo Neuroscience Faʻatautaia, Institute for Neural Computations, University of California San Diego, San Diego, ISA; Institute of Psychology, Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw, Polani. Tuatusi eletise: [imeli puipuia]

O tekonolosi i luga ole initaneti e maua ai le taugofie ma le faʻaigoaina o le ulufale atu i le tele o ituaiga o ponokalafi mataupu (Cooper, 1998). Faʻamatalaga avanoa avanoa faʻaalia ai 67.6% o aliʻi ma 18.3% o fafine Tenimaka talavou matutua (18-30 tausaga) faʻaaoga ponokalafi i masani masani vaiaso (Hald, 2006). I totonu o USA kolisi tamaiti aʻoaʻo 93.2% o tama ma 62.1% o teineiti na matamata i luga o le initaneti ponokalafi ae le i oʻo i le 18 tausaga (Sabina, Wolak, & Finkelhor, 2008). Mo le toʻatele o tagata faʻaaoga, o ata mataga i ponokalafi e taua tele i faʻafiafiaga, fiafia, ma musumusuga (Rothman, Kaczmarsky, Burke, Jansen, & Baughman, 2014) (Häggström-Nordin, Tydén, Hanson, & Larsson, 2009), ae mo nisi , masani ona avea ponokalafi taumafaina o se mafuaʻaga o mafatiaga (e uiga i 8% mai tagata faʻaoga e tusa ai ma Cooper et al., 1999) ma avea ma mafuaʻaga mo le sailia togafitiga (Delmonico ma Carnes, 1999; Kraus, Potenza, Martino, & Grant, 2015; Gola, Lewczuk, & Skorko, 2016; Gola ma Potenza, 2016). Ona o le salalau lautele o lona taʻutaʻua ma feteʻenaʻi matauga falemai, ponokalafi taumafaina o se taua tele agafesoʻotaʻi, garnering tele mafaufau i le aufaasālalau, (eg, maualuga-tala ata tifaga: "Maasiasi" e McQueen ma "Don Jon" saunia e Gordon-Levitt) ma mai faipule (eg, Peretania Peretania David Cameron's 2013 lauga e uiga i ponokalafi faaaoga e tamaiti), faapea foi suesuega neurosains (Steele, Staley, Fong, & Prause, 2013; Kühn and Gallinat, 2014; Voon et al., 2014). o fesili e masani ona fesiligia o le: pe o ponokalafi taumafaina mafai ona avea ma vaisu?

O le mauaina o Prause, Steele, Staley, Sabatinelli, & Hajcak, (2015) lomia i le luni o Iuni o le Biological Psychology o loʻo aumaia ai ni faʻamatalaga fiafia i lenei mataupu. Na faʻaalia e le au suʻesuʻe, o aliʻi ma fafine na lipotia faʻafitauli mataga ponokalafi (N = 55),1 Faʻaalia le itiiti ifo o le lelei gafatia (LPP - o se mea e tupu i le faʻamaoniga o le EEG e fesoʻotaʻi ma le taua ma le le mautonu o mea e tutupu) i ata feusuaʻi pe a faʻatusatusa i ata e le faʻafeusuaiga, pe a faʻatusatusa i tali a le pule. Latou te faʻaalia foi faʻafitauli o faʻalavelave ponokalafi faʻatasi ai ma manaoga maualuga o feusuaiga e itiiti le eseesega o le LPP mo ata feusuaʻiga ma faʻafeusuaiga. Fai mai tusitala e faapea: "O lenei mamanu o taunuuga e le ogatusa ma nisi o taumatematega na faia e vaisu o vaisu" (itulau 196) ma faalauiloaina ai lenei faaiuga i le ulutala o le tusiga: "O le suia o le malosi gafatia i ata feusuai i tagata faaaoga faafitauli ma le pulega e le ogatusa ma "Vaisu porn" ".

Ae paga lea, i le latou tusitusiga, Prause et al. (2015) e leʻi faʻamatalaina faʻapitoa pe o le fea faʻataʻitaʻiga o vaisu na latou tofotofoina. Faʻaalia iuga pe a iloiloina e faʻatatau i le sili faʻavaeina faʻataʻitaʻiga a le maua ai le faʻamaoniaina faʻamaonia o le talitonuga o faʻafitauli ponokalafi faʻaaogaina o se vaisu (pei o le tulaga o le Incenting Salience Theory; Robinson ma Berridge, 1993; Robinson, Fischer, Ahuja, Lesser, & Maniates, 2015) pe lagolagoina lenei manatu (pei o le Reward Deficit Syndrome; Blum et al., 1996; 1996; Blum, Badgaiyan, & Gold, 2015). Lalo ou te faʻamatalaina auiliiliga.

Faʻamatalaga Fesoʻotaiga: Centre a le Swartz mo Neuroscience Faʻatupe, Institute for Neural Computations, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, CA 92093-0559, ISA. Imeli tuatusi: [imeli puipuia]

1 E taua le matauina o tusitala e maua ai taunuuga mo tane ma tamaitai e auai faatasi, aʻo suʻesuʻega lata mai e faaalia ai o ata feusuaʻiga o le fiafia ma le valea e ese le eseesega i le va o tagatanuʻu (silasila: Wierzba et al., 2015)

2 O lenei matematega e lagolagoina e le mea moni o faʻamatalaga faʻaaogaina i le Prause et al. (2015) e faatatau foi i le IST (ie Wölfling et al., 2011

Aisea e taua ai le auivi ma le manino o manatu

E tusa ai ma le tele o faʻaaogaga o le faaupuga "cue-reactivity" e tagata tusitala atonu tatou te mateina e mafaufau tusitala i le Polokalame Fesoasoani Faʻatino (IST) na fautuaina e Robinson ma Berridge (Berridge, 2012, Robinson et al., 2015).2 Lenei faʻavae faʻatulagaina-galuega vaeluaina lua vaega autu o faʻaosofia amioga - "manaʻomia" ma "fiafia". O le mulimuli e fesoʻotaʻi tuʻusaʻo i le poto masani taua o le faʻailoga, ae o le muamua e fesoʻotaʻi ma le faʻamoemoe taua o le taui, e masani ona fuaina e faʻatatau i se faʻailoga taumate. I tulaga o Pavlovian aʻoaʻoina, taui o se unconditioned stimulus (UCS) ma faʻailo fesoʻotaʻi ma lenei taui e ala i le aʻoaʻo o tulaga faʻaosofiaina (CS). Aʻoaʻo CSs mauaina le faʻaosofia gafatia ma faʻaosofia "manaʻomia", atagia i amioga faʻaosofia (Mahler ma Berridge, 2009; Robinson & Berridge, 2013). Ma latou mauaina tutusa meatotino o le taui lava ia. Mo se faʻataʻitaʻiga o le salu salu naunau e faʻataʻitaʻi ma se terrycloth mea (CS) na muamua tuʻufaʻatasia ma le avanoa e faʻataʻitaʻi ai ma le fafine salu (UCS), tusa lava pe o maua se fafine moni (Cetinkaya ma Domjan, 2006)

E tusa ai ma le IST, o vaisu o loʻo faʻaalia i le faʻateleina o le "manaʻomia" (siitia maualuga e fesoʻotaʻi faʻatonutonu; ie maualuga LPP) ma faʻaititia "fiafia" (faʻaititia taui-fesoʻotaʻi faʻataʻitaʻi; ie LPP maualalo). Ina ia mafai ona faʻauiga faʻamatalaga i totonu o le faʻataʻatiaga o le IST, e tatau i tagata suʻesuʻe ona manino le faʻavasegaina o le “manaʻomia” ma le “fiafia” e fesoʻotaʻi ma taui. Faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻataʻitaʻiga uma gaioiga faʻalauiloa faʻaaliga eseese ma taui (ie Flagel et al., 2011; Sescousse, Barbalat, Domenech, & Dreher, 2013; Gola, Miyakoshi, & Sescousse, 2015). Prause et al. (2015) nai lo le faʻaaogaina o se sili faigofie faigofie faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻataʻitaʻi, lea mataupu pasi pasi matamata eseʻese ata ma feusuaʻiga ma le-feusuaiga mataupu. I na ituaiga faigofie faʻataʻitaʻiga mamanu o le taua fesili mai le IST vaʻaiga o: E faia e ata feusuaʻiga le vaega o faʻamatalaga (CS) poʻo taui (UCS)? Ma o le mea lea: pe o fuaina e le LPP fua le "manaʻo" poʻo le "fiafia"?

Fai mai tusitala, o ata feusuaʻi o ni faailo, ma o le mea lea e faaliliuina ai le faaititia o le LPP o se fua o le faaitiitia o le "manao." O le faaitiitia "manao" e tusa ai ma faailo o le a le ogatasi ma le IST vaisu faataitaiga. Ae o le tele o suʻesuʻega faʻaalia ai o ata feusuaʻi e le na o ni faʻaaliga. Latou te tauia ia latou-tagata (Oei, Rombouts, Soeter, van Gerven, & Lua, 2012; Stoléru, Fonteille, Cornélis, Joyal, & Moulier, 2012; iloiloina i: Sescousse, Caldú, Segura, & Dreher, 2013; Stoléru et al., 2012). O le matamata i ata feusuaʻi e faʻaosofia ai le ventral striatum (taui system) gaioiga (Arnowet al., 2002; Demos, Heatherton, & Kelley, 2012; Sabatinelli, Bradley, Lang, Costa, & Versace, 2007; Stark et al., 2005; Wehrum-Osinskyet al., 2014), faasaʻolotoina o le dopamine (Meston ma McCall, 2005) ma laʻua lava lipotia e le tagata lava ia ma fua faatatauina le faʻaosofia o feusuaiga (iloiloga: Chivers, Seto, Lalumière, Laan, & Grimbos, 2010).

O le tauia meatotino o feusuaʻiga ata atonu e masani ona mafua mai i le mea moni o feusuaiga (pei o meaai) o le muamua taui. Ae tusa lava pe teʻena e se toʻatasi se natura faʻanatura tauia natura, faʻamanuiaina meatotino o fualaʻau faʻamalosi e ono maua ona o le Pavlovian aʻoaʻoga. I lalo o tulaga masani, vaʻaia o ata mataga (e pei o le le lavalava toʻalua poʻo ponokalafi ata) ono avea o se faʻaaliga (CS) mo feusuaʻiga gaioiga e oʻo atu i le tumutumuga poto (UCS) o se faʻaiuga o le dyadic feusuaiga poʻo tuʻusaʻo masturbation faʻatasi ma ponokalafi taumafaina. E le gata i lea i le tulaga o le tele o ponokalafi taumafaina, vaʻaia feusuaʻiga faʻamalosi (CS) e matua fesoʻotaʻi ma le orgasm (UCS) ma ono maua meatotino o taui (UCS; Mahler ma Berridge, 2009; Robinson & Berridge, 2013) ona taitai atu ai lea i le auala ( ieseeking ponokalafi) ma amioga faʻaalia (ie, itula o matamata ae leʻi oʻo i le tumutumuga).

Tusa lava pe o le a le tupuaga pe aʻoaʻo taui taua, o suʻesuʻega faʻaalia ai o ata feusuaʻi e faʻaosofia ia latou lava, tusa lava pe leai se avanoa o le tumutumuga. E iai la latou aoga taua mo tagata (Prévost, Pessiglione, Météreau, Cléry-Melin, & Dreher, 2010) faʻapea foi ma rhesus macaques (Deaner, Khera, & Platt, 2005). O a latou tau aoga e ono faʻateleina i se faʻataʻitaʻiga. faʻatulagaina, e le maua ai se taualuga faʻapitoa (natura UCS), pei o le suʻesuʻega a le Prause et al. (2015) ("O tagata na aʻoaʻoina i lenei suʻesuʻega na faatonuina e aua neʻi totogia i le taimi o le galuega", itulau 197). E tusa ai ma Berridge, o mea na tutupu e aafia ai taui o valoʻaga (Berridge, 2012). O le mea lea, talu ai e leai se isi fiafiaga nai lo feusuaʻiga ata na maua iinei, o le matamataina o ata o le sili taui (nai lo naʻo se faʻaaliga).

Faʻaitiitia le LPP mo taui tau feusuaʻiga i tulaga faʻafitauli o faʻataʻitaʻiga o ponokalafi e ogatusa ma vailaau o mea ua fai ma vaisu

O le faia o mea uma o loʻo taua i luga, e mafai ona tatou manatu ai o ata feusuaʻi i le Prause et al. (2015) suʻesuʻega, nai lo o ni faailo, atonu na avea le matafaioi o taui. Afai o lea, e tusa ai ma le faʻavae IST, maualalo LPP mo feusuaʻiga vs. le feusuaʻi ata i faʻafitauli tagata faʻaaoga ponokalafi ma mataupu ei ai manaʻoga feusuaʻi moni atagia faʻaititia "fiafia". O se iʻuga e o gatasi ma le faʻataʻitaʻiga o vaisu na fautuaina e Berridge ma Robinson (Berridge, 2012; Robinson et al., 2015). Peitaʻi, ina ia faʻamaonia atoatoa se faʻamatalaga o mea ua fai ma vaisu i totonu o le faʻavae o le IST, e tele atu suʻesuʻega o suʻesuʻega, e le lava le faʻailoga ma le taui e manaʻomia. O se faʻataʻitaʻiga lelei o se ata faataitai faataʻitaʻi lelei na faaaoga i suʻesuʻega i tagata taalo faitupe e Sescousse, Redouté, & Dreher (2010). Na faʻaaogaina tupe ma feusuaiga faʻaali (faʻatusa faaosofia) ma manino taui (tupe manumalo poʻo feusuaʻiga ata). Ona o le le lava o faʻamatalaina lelei faʻailo ma taui i le Prause et al. (2015) suʻesuʻega, matafaioi o feusuaʻiga ata tumau pea le manino ma o lea maua LPP aʻafiaga e le mautonu i totonu o le faʻavae IST. Mo se faʻaiuga mautinoa o loʻo faʻaalia i le ulutala o le suʻesuʻega "Faʻaaogaina o tuai gafatia lelei e ala i ata feusuaʻi i tagata faʻaoga faʻafitauli ma pulega le ogatasi ma le" fai ma vaisu porn "e le faʻatonutonuina e tusa ma le IST

Afai tatou te tago i se isi faʻataʻitaʻiga o mea ua fai ma vaisu - Faʻafitauli Faʻaleagaina o Taui (RDS; Blum et al., 1996, 2015) o faʻamatalaga na maua mai e tusitala e tautala moni lava mo le mafaufau i mea ua fai ma vaisu. O le faʻatulagaina o le RDS e manatu o le genetic predisposition e faʻaitiitia ai le dopaminergic tali mo mea faʻatupulaʻia (faʻaalia i le faʻaitiitia o le BOLD ma le faʻafoeina o le electrophysiological) e fesoʻotaʻi ma le sailia o lagona, le mautonu ma le maualuga o le aʻafia o vaisu. O sailiiliga a tusitala o le maualalo o le LPPs i faafitauli o tagata ponokalafi e masani ona ogatusa ma le faataitaiga o mea ua fai ma vaisu RDS. Afai Faʻamalo et al. (2015) na faʻataʻitaʻiina se isi faʻataʻitaʻiga, itiiti ifo le lauiloa nai lo le IST poʻo le RDS, o le a matua manaomia lava le tuʻufaʻatasiga faʻapitoa ia latou galuega.

Faʻamatalaga mulimuli

Le suʻesuʻega a Prause et al. (2015) tuʻuina atu faʻamatalaga mataʻina e uiga ile faʻalavelave faʻaaogaina o ponokalafi.3 Peitaʻi, ona o le le lava o le faʻamaoniga o le mafaufau e faʻataʻitaʻiina ai le faʻataʻitaʻiga o le vaisu ma faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻataʻitaʻiga (faigata le faʻamatalaina o le matafaioi o ata eleelea), e le mafai ona fai pe afai o le a tuʻuina atu i luga o le tetee, poʻo le fiafia i ai, o se manatu e uiga i "Vaisu o ponokalafi." O nisi suʻesuʻega maualuluga ma faʻamatalaga manino ua valaʻauina mo. Ae paga lea o le igoa toa o Prause et al. (2015) ua uma ona i ai se aafiaga i luga o faasalalauga lautele,4 ma faʻapena ona faʻataunuʻuina le faʻasalaga faasaienisi. Ona o le taua o le vafealoai ma faaupufai o le autu o aafiaga o ponokalafi, e tatau i tagata suesue ona tusia faaiuga i le lumanai ma se lapataiga sili atu.

3 E tatau ona maitauina i Prause et al. (2015) faʻalavelave faʻamaonia tagata faʻaaoga faʻaaoga ponokalafi i le aofaʻi mo 3.8 h / vaiaso (SD = 1.3) e toetoe tutusa lava ma tagata e le faʻafitauli i ponokalafi i Kühn ma Gallinat (2014) o loʻo faʻaaoga i le 4.09 h / vaiaso (SD = 3.9) . I le Voon et al. (2014) faʻafitauli faʻapitoa na lipotia le 1.75 h / vaiaso (SD = 3.36) ma le faʻafitauli 13.21 h / vaiaso (SD = 9.85) - faʻamatalaga na maua e Voon i le American Psychological Science conference i le Me 2015.

4 Faataitaiga o ulutala o tusiga faasaienisi taua e uiga i le Prause et al. (2015): "O le Porn e le leaga e pei o isi mea ua fai ma vaisu, suʻesuʻega o tagi" (http://metro.co.uk/2015/07/04/porn-is-not-as-harmful-as-other-addictions- suesuega-tagi-5279530 /), "O Lau Tupulaga Vaʻaia e Leʻo Moni" (http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/06/26/your-porn-addiction-isn-t-real.html) , "Porn 'Addiction' E le o se faʻatoesega, Neuroscientists Say" (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/30/porn-addiction- n7696448.html)

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