Ponokalafi Faʻafesoʻotaʻiga o le "Filifili ‑ Faʻaaliga": Tuʻu e Tuʻu, Tuʻu I II (2021) e Paul J. Wright

Wright, PJ  Arch Sex Behav 50, 393–399 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-021-01922-z

“Tuʻu i lalo, tuʻu e alu

Ua le mafai ona toe taofia

Tuʻu pea, tuʻu e alu

Liliu ese ma tapuni le faitotoʻa ”(Elsa - Disney's faʻaʻaisa)

I seisi Tusi i lenei lomiga, na ou tusia ai se tala puʻupuʻu i le tele o tulaga lamatia o le auala o loʻo i ai nei i le lona tolu-fesuiaʻiga i ponokalafi aafiaga aafiaga (Wright, 2021). Ou te faamoemoe o le aufaitau o lenei Tusi o le a faitau i lona muamua, ae o lona manatu e faapea o ponokalafi tagata suʻesuʻe e tatau ona togafitia le lona tolu-fesuiaʻiga o ni tagata vavalo (ie, itu e ese ai le tele ma le ituaiga o ponokalafi faʻaumatia), tagata faufautua (ie, metotia o loʻo avea aafiaga o ponokalafi. ), poʻo faʻatonutonu (elemene o tagata ma faʻafitauli e ono taofia pe faʻafaigofieina ai aʻafiaga o ponokalafi),

Pe tusa o le sefulu tausaga ua tuai i le faʻaʻaisa pati, i le i ai o loʻu afafine talu ai nei i le matua tauva ma Abraham, na ou taʻua Elsa i le fesili atu i aʻu paʻaga e "Faʻamatuʻu" o le "ono faʻafememeaʻi" faʻatusa ma see atu i se "valoʻaga, gaioiga, ma finauga" faʻataʻitaʻiga. E pei ona ou matauina, o lenei apoapoaiga sa i ai i ni nai tausaga i le faiga ma sa ou lagona le mafanafana i le iuga, aloaia, faaleoina ai.

Peitai, i aso na sosoʻo, o le lagona o le "pisinisi e leʻi maeʻa" na faʻateleina le iloaina. Na ou iloa e i ai leisi feau tumau e manaʻomia ona faʻaalia. Liliu atu i Frozen II i le taimi nei mo musumusuga (aʻo alu loʻu afafine i le isi vaʻavaʻaiga a Elsa ma Anna), ou te taʻua Ana ma faʻamalosiʻau i aʻu paʻaga e vaʻai i le valea o ana upu a o loʻo latou faʻaaogaina nei i le "filifiliga-faʻailoaina o isi faʻamatalaga" fonotaga i koluse -sectional ponokalafi aafiaga aʻafiaga.

Faʻafitauli i le Taimi Nei

“O nisi mea e moni i taimi uma; Nisi o mea e le suia ”

(Anna - Disney's Frozen II)

E pei o soʻo se tagata faitau e oʻo lava i le masani ai ma talanoaga vaega o ponokalafi aʻafiaga pepa o loʻo faʻaaogaina le kolosi-faʻamatalaga faʻamatalaga iloa, o se mautinoa tafafaʻilagi o tusitala o le a lapatai mai soʻo se faʻalapotopotoga latou maua i le va o ponokalafi faʻaaogaina (X) ma le talitonuga, uiga, poʻo le amio o loʻo suʻesuʻeina (Y) ono mafua mai i le "filifili-faʻaaliga" (ie, tagata ua uma ona maua le talitonuga, uiga, poʻo amioga faʻataʻitaʻiga i feusuaʻiga faʻasalalauga mataupu o loʻo faʻaalia ai) le feusuaʻiga fefaʻatauaʻiga (ie, tagata ua aʻafia e le feusuaʻiga faʻasalalauga mataupu i o le faʻasinoga o le talitonuga, uiga, poʻo le amio). I nisi upu, o le a faʻaaogaina e tusitala le tulaga e ui lava i itulau o manatu faʻavae ma finauga faʻavae na latou tuʻuina atu i le faʻamaoniaina o se X Y malosi i le latou tusitusiga iloiloina vaega, e pei lava o le tulaga lena Y X. O le tusitala o le a ia valaʻau mo le "longitudinal research" e "tatalaina" le faʻasinoga o le va feagai. O se toe iloiloga o talanoaga vaega mai tausaga ma tausaga ua tuanaʻi e oʻo mai i le aso ua faʻaalia ai e "moni i taimi uma" o le koluse-sectional o ponokalafi faʻaiuga - o faʻalapotopotoga e mafua mai ona o le filifilia-faʻalauiloaina pei o feusuaʻiga; lenei "le suia lava," e taʻua e Ana.

Lenei, o le mea moni, antithetical i le saienisi. E leai se mea e "moni i taimi uma" i le saienisi, aua o le malamalama faasaienitisi "suia" pe a maua mai le poto fou. E tusa ai ma Arendt ma Matthes (2017), "Saienisi e faʻateleina i le uiga o suesuega taʻitasi fausia i luga o galuega muamua" (itulau 2). E tusa ai ma Hocking ma Miller (1974), "Saienitisi le manaʻomia le amata suʻesuʻe mai amataga. E mafai ona latou fausia i luga atu o le malamalama muamua ”(i. 1). Fai mai Sparks (2013), saienisi e "matala i suiga - a o alu le taimi, fou faʻamaoniga e ono faʻamoemoe e toe iloiloina o loʻo i ai auala o mafaufauga e uiga i se mea ofoofogia" (i. 14).

E pei o soʻo se tagata faitau e oʻo lava i le masani ai ma talanoaga vaega o ponokalafi aʻafiaga pepa o loʻo faʻaaogaina le kolosi-faʻamatalaga faʻamatalaga iloa, o se mautinoa tafafaʻilagi o tusitala o le a lapatai mai soʻo se faʻalapotopotoga latou maua i le va o ponokalafi faʻaaogaina (X) ma le talitonuga, uiga, poʻo le amio o loʻo suʻesuʻeina (Y) ono mafua mai i le "filifili-faʻaaliga" (ie, tagata ua uma ona maua le talitonuga, uiga, poʻo amioga faʻataʻitaʻiga i feusuaʻiga faʻasalalauga mataupu o loʻo faʻaalia ai) le feusuaʻiga fefaʻatauaʻiga (ie, tagata ua aʻafia e le feusuaʻiga faʻasalalauga mataupu i o le faʻasinoga o le talitonuga, uiga, poʻo le amio). I nisi upu, o le a faʻaaogaina e tusitala le tulaga e ui lava i itulau o manatu faʻavae ma finauga faʻavae na latou tuʻuina atu i le faʻamaoniaina o se X Y malosi i le latou tusitusiga iloiloina vaega, e pei lava o le tulaga lena Y X. O le tusitala o le a ia valaʻau mo le "longitudinal research" e "tatalaina" le faʻasinoga o le va feagai. O se toe iloiloga o talanoaga vaega mai tausaga ma tausaga ua tuanaʻi e oʻo mai i le aso ua faʻaalia ai e "moni i taimi uma" o le koluse-sectional o ponokalafi faʻaiuga - o faʻalapotopotoga e mafua mai ona o le filifilia-faʻalauiloaina pei o feusuaʻiga; lenei "le suia lava," e taʻua e Ana.

Lenei, o le mea moni, antithetical i le saienisi. E leai se mea e "moni i taimi uma" i le saienisi, aua o le malamalama faasaienitisi "suia" pe a maua mai le poto fou. E tusa ai ma Arendt ma Matthes (2017), "Saienisi e faʻateleina i le uiga o suesuega taʻitasi fausia i luga o galuega muamua" (itulau 2). E tusa ai ma Hocking ma Miller (1974), "Saienitisi le manaʻomia le amata suʻesuʻe mai amataga. E mafai ona latou fausia i luga atu o le malamalama muamua ”(i. 1). Fai mai Sparks (2013), saienisi e "matala i suiga - a o alu le taimi, fou faʻamaoniga e ono faʻamoemoe e toe iloiloina o loʻo i ai auala o mafaufauga e uiga i se mea ofoofogia" (i. 14).

Afai e leai ni faʻataʻitaʻiga suʻesuʻega faʻatusatusaina o feusuaiga faʻafesoʻotaʻiga ma filifiliga-faʻaaliga faʻamatalaina, e matua talafeagai mo cross-sectional ponokalafi aʻafiaga aʻoga e talosagaina le mulimuli o se tutusa tutusa lelei faʻamatalaga mo le taua faʻalapotopotoga latou maua i le va o ponokalafi-faʻaaogaina ma le iʻuga. (s) na latou aʻoaʻoina. I le lolomiina o numera o koluse-faʻatapulaʻa pepa faʻatapulaʻa sailia faʻamaoniga mo feusuaiga feusuaiga ae le filifilia-faʻaalia, ou te iloa o loʻo i ai ni suʻesuʻega, peitaʻi. O se suʻesuʻega umi-umi ile umi e faʻaaogaina ai faʻamatalaga e faʻatusatusa saʻo ai X Y ma Y X faamatalaga mo le itu o le XY sootaga. Talu ai o muamua tulaga o le tulafono o loʻo aofia o se covariate, o se taua faamoemoeina faʻalapotopotoga faʻailoa mai o le tagata vavalo e fesoʻotaʻi ma tagata taʻitoʻatasi suiga i le criterion i le taimi.

Ina ia iloa pe i ai ni isi suʻesuʻega e sili atu nai lo aʻu lava, sa ou faatautaia suʻesuʻega i le Google Scholar e faʻaaoga ai vaega nei: (1) "ponokalafi" "filifili-faʻaaliga" "felavasaʻi" ma (2) "ponokalafi" "fesuiaʻi mafuaʻaga" “Felavasaʻi.” Aua o mea uma e lua e mafai ona i ai i le taʻaloga (Slater, 2015), Sa ou faʻatautaia foi se sailiga mo "ponokalafi" "tali atu" "felavasaʻi."

O iʻuga o nei sailiga ua faʻasolo i le Laulau 1. I le 25 suʻesuʻega, o le toʻatele (14) na mauaina faʻamaoniga o feusuaʻiga. muamua ponokalafi faʻaaoga tatau vaʻaia tasi po o le sili atu o taunuʻuga suʻesuʻeina, ae o le felafolafoaʻiga e le o le tulaga (ie, muamua tulaga o le iʻuga poʻo taunuʻuga e leʻi vaʻaia mulimuli ane faʻaaogaina o ponokalafi). Sefulu suʻesuʻega maua faʻamaoniga o le toe fefaʻasoaaʻi (ie, muamua propensities mafua ai nisi tagata ono ono faʻaumatia ponokalafi nai lo isi ma nei tagata na afaina mulimuli ane e ala i latou faʻaalia). Naʻo le tasi suʻesuʻega maua faʻamaoniga o filifili-faʻaaliga naʻo. Peitai, e pei ona auiliiliina i le laulau vaefaʻamatalaga, o le faʻataʻitaʻiga o faʻafesoʻotaʻiga aotelega fautuaina se fuataga a le o le toe suia aafiaga pe leai se aʻafiaga i itu uma.

Faʻapea foi ma le maitauina o longitudinal panel suʻesuʻega na maua ai taua ponokalafi → taunuʻuga faʻalapotopotoga, pe a maeʻa faʻamaumauga mo muamua tulaga o le iʻuga. O faʻataʻitaʻiga o ia suʻesuʻega o loʻo lisi atu ile Laulau 2. As Collins ma isi. (2004) Faʻailoa mai i se tasi o muamua faʻavaitaimi vaega suʻesuʻega o ala o faʻasalalauga aafiaga tau feusuaʻiga, "a matou auiliiliga faʻatonutonuina mo talavou 'tulaga o feusuaʻiga i le amataga, ma aumaia ai se faʻamatalaga o le toe fuataga o mafuaʻaga mo a matou sailiiliga le mautonu" (i. 287).

I le aotelega, o le manatu e faʻatauaina fesoʻotaʻiga i le va o ponokalafi faʻaaogaina ma talitonuga, uiga, ma amioga i cross-sectional suʻesuʻega e mafai ona mafua uma i le filifilia-faʻaalia e feteʻenaʻi ma le tele faʻamaoniga molimau ma naʻo mafai ona lagolagoina e se filosofia (e teteʻe i upusii Arendt & Matthes, 2017; Hocking & Miller, 1974; Sparks, 2013) lagolagoina o le saienisi e le faʻaputuputuina ma o suʻesuʻega taʻitasi o se vaega tuʻufua e tu na o ia lava; o saienitisi e tatau ona amata mai le maosiomaga ma suʻesuʻega taʻitasi – latou te le mafai fausia luga o le muamua tino o le poto; ma o lena saienisi e le matala i fesuiaiga – tusa lava poʻo le a le taimi o le taimi ma fou faʻamaoniga, auala o mafaufauga e uiga i se mea ofoofogia e le tatau ona toe teuteuina.

Fautuaga i Tusitala, Faʻatonu, ma Iloilo

Ona o mea ua taua i luga, ou te fautuaina ai mea nei i tusitala, faatonu, ma tagata iloiloina o le koluse-vaega o ponokalafi aafiaga o suesuega sailiili atamamai valoia taua taua i le va o ponokalafi faaaoga ma talitonuga, uiga, ma amioga.

tusitala: Aua le taʻuina atu o le filifilia-faʻaaliga o se tutusa mautinoa isi faʻamatalaga auiliiliga mo au sailiga. A faʻapea e manaʻomia oe e tagata e iloiloina ma faʻatonutonu, tuʻu i ai le tusi lenei. Afai latou te manaʻomia lava, tusi le obligatory-to-be-lomia "faʻatapulaʻaina" faʻamatalaga i se auala e faʻasaʻolotoina oe lava mai lenei le malamalama faʻamatalaga ma faʻasino lenei Tusi.

Tagata e iloiloina: Aua le fesili i tusitala e faʻailoa mai o le faʻaavanoaina o faʻamatalaga o se tutusa talafeagai faʻamatalaga mo a latou iʻuga seʻi vagana e mafai ona e faʻamatalaina faʻapitoa pe aisea o a latou faʻamaumauga ma mea na maua o se sili faʻapitoa ma tala fou mataupu o le faʻaputuga molimau i le faʻafeagai e le talafeagai. Talu ai o le tulaga o tusitusiga, o loʻo ia te oe le faʻamatalaga e uiga i le mafuaʻaga o tusitusiga a tagata tusitala o loʻo faʻamatalaina naʻo le filifili-faʻaaliga. Afai o tusitala na latou faia le faʻamatalaga latou, fautua latou te aveʻese ma faʻasino i latou i lenei Tusi.

Faʻatonu: Faʻaleaogaina le le malamalama tagata iloiloina oe manaʻomia tusitala e faia le filifiliga-faʻaaliga avanoa. Faʻailoa i tusitala o lenei Tusi ma fautua mai, e ui lava o se mataupu mo le toe fetuʻuina o le malosi e mafai ona faia, o se mataupu mo le filifilia faʻaaliga na o le le mafaia ona o le tulaga o tusitusiga i le taimi nei.

Laulau 1 - Cross-lagged longitudinal ponokalafi aʻafiaga aʻoga faʻatusatusaina feusuaiga feusuaiga ma filifilia-faʻaalia faʻamatalaga

Laulau 2 - Criterion variable lagged longitudinal ponokalafi feusuaʻiga suʻesuʻega

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