O vaega o le mafaufau o le tagata matua ma lona tulaga tulagaese i mea e faʻaalia manino i feusuaiga (2019)

Lisi i faʻamatalaga - Tupulaga Talavou. 2019 Feb 9; 72: 10-13. Nu: 10.1016 / j.adolescence.2019.01.006.

Brown JA1, Wisco JJ2.

lē faʻatino

FAʻATOMUAGA: O le faʻamuamua o lenei iloiloga puupuu o le suʻega o le suʻesuʻeina pe iai se vaʻaia i le va o le tulaga faʻapitoa ma le faʻapitoa o le mafaufau o le tagata matua ma le faʻalauteleina o le lagona i mea e faʻaalia ai feusuaiga.

METHODS: O suʻesuʻega o Suesuega o le EBSCO Research na faʻaaogaina ai faaupuga nei: tauleʻaleʻa, atinaʻe o le mafaufau o le tama talavou, neuroplasticity, faʻamatalaga faʻafeusuaiga, sexualization, ma ponokalafi.

TULAFONO: O lomiga na faʻamaonia ai le tele o vaega o le mafaufau o le tauleʻaleʻa e ese mai nai lo le matua matua. O nei mea e aofia ai: se faʻasologa muamua o le cortex ma le televave o laina eletise ma ala tetele, o le taimi maualuga mo le neuroplasticity, o le tino o le dopamine system, o le HPA aloaʻia, o le maualuga o le testosterone, ma le aafiaga tulaga ese o hormones steroid. O le tali atu i le physiological i faʻamatalaga manino faʻafeusuaiga e faʻamaonia. O le tele o vaega autu e fesoʻotaʻi ma le atinaʻe o le faiai o le tupulaga matua ma faʻamatalaga manino faʻafeusuaiga e taua. O se faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻatinoina o galuega e faʻatusatusa ai le tali a le tagata matua ma le tauleʻaleʻa i le mea e tasi e faʻaosofia ai lagona feusuaʻiga.

FAAIUGA: O tusitusiga e taʻu mai ai o le mafaufau o le taulealea atonu e sili atu ona maaleale i mea tau feusuaʻiga, ae ona o le leai o ni suʻesuʻega loloto o lenei fesili e le mafai ona taliina ma le mautinoa. Fautuaga mo suʻesuʻega i le lumanaʻi e tuʻuina atu i luma le galuega i lenei tulaga talafeagai o aso nei.

FUAFUAGA: Tupulaga Talavou; Atinaʻega o le faiai o tagata talavou; Neuroplasticity; Ponokalafi; Faʻasalalauga; Faʻamatalaga manino faʻafeusuaiga

PMID: 30754014

FAIA: 10.1016 / j.adolescence.2019.01.006

Vaʻai tulaga ese o le faiai o le tauleʻaleʻa

O le autu o lenei tusitusiga puʻupuʻu iloiloina o le suʻesuʻeina pe i ai se sootaga i le va o le tulaga ese anatomical ma physiological faʻataʻitaʻiga o le talavou faiaʻoga ma le faʻateleina lagona malamalama i feusuaiga manino mea. O suʻesuʻega a le EBSCO suʻesuʻega na suʻesuʻeina faʻaaoga upu taua nei: talavou, atinaʻe faiaʻoga talavou, neuroplasticity, mea mataga faʻamatalaga, feusuaiga, ponokalafi. O le talavou o le vaitaimi i le va o le tamaititi ma le matua e aofia ai suiga i le tino, mafaufau, ma agafesootai atinae (Ernst, Pine, & Hardin, 2006).

O faʻataʻitaʻiga tulaga ese o le faiʻai talavou e aofia ai mea nei: 1) O le matua i luma muamua o le faʻataʻitaʻiga ma sili atu le tali atu o limbic ma striatal circuit (Dumontheil, 2016; Somerville & Jones, 2010; Somerville, Hare, & Casey, 2011; Van Leijenhorst et al. , 2010; Vigil et al., 2011); 2) O se vaitaimi faʻateleina mo le neuroplasticity (McCormick & Mathews, 2007; Schulz & Sisk, 2006; Sisk & Zehr, 2005; Vigil et al., 2011); 3) Faʻaaogaina o le dopamine system (Andersen, Rutstein, Benzo, Hostetter, & Teicher, 1997; Ernst et al., 2005; Luciana, Wahlstrom, & White, 2010; Somerville & Jones, 2010; Wahlstrom, White, & Luciana, 2010) ; 4) O le faʻaigoaina o le HPA axis (Dahl & Gunnar, 2009; McCormick & Mathews, 2007; Romeo, Lee, Chhua, McPherson, & McEwan, 2004; Walker, Sabuwalla, & Huot, 2004); 5) Faʻateleina tulaga o le testosterone (Dorn et al., 2003; Vogel, 2008; Mayo Clinic / Mayo Medical Laboratories, 2017); ma le 6) Le aʻafiaga uiga eseʻese o homone steroid (cortisol ma testosterone) i le faiʻai i le taimi o faʻamalama faʻalapotopotoga o le talavou (Brown & Spencer, 2013; Peper, Hulshoff Pol, Crone, Van Honk, 2011; Sisk & Zehr, 2005; Vigil et al., 2011).

O Blakemore ma ana paaga na taʻitaʻia le fanua i le tuputupu ae o faiʻai o le tauleʻaleʻa ma ua latou manatu o tausaga talavou e tatau ona mafaufauina o se taimi maʻaleʻale ona o le toe faʻatulagaga tele o le faiʻai o loʻo faia (Blakemore, 2012). O vaega o le faiʻai e sili ona suia i le taimi o le tauleʻaleʻa e aofia ai le puleaina o le lotoifale, tele-tasking and planning (Blakemore, 2012).

O Blakemore ma Robbins (2012) na fesoʻotaʻi ma le talavou i le faia o ni filifiliga le lelei ma mafua ai lenei uiga i le vavalalata i le va o le faʻagasolo malie o le faʻaleleia o le manaʻoga ma le taliina o tali i le taimi o le talavou e pei o le atinaʻeina o le polokalama taui, lea e masani ona tali atu i le taui i le talavou.

Faʻamatalaga manino faʻafeusuaiga

O mea tau feusuaʻiga mataga e faʻaaogaina ai le amygdala o le limbic system (Ferretti et al., 2005; Karama et al., 2002; Redoute et al., 2000; Walter et al., 2008). Faʻatoagaina o le amygdala na amataina le mea nei: 1) o le hypothalamus e faʻagasolo ai laina i totonu o le faiʻai ma le vaʻalaʻau e amataina ai le vaevaega alofa o le tino autonomic system e mafua ai le tuʻuina atu o epinephrine ma norepinephrine; 2) o le hypothalamus e faʻaolaina ai le pituitary gland, e mafua ai le tuʻuina atu o le cortisol e ala i le tua o le hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), ma le testosterone faʻatoʻilaloina e ala i le tua o le hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) (Viau, 2002); 3) o le nucleus accumbens e faʻaaogaina e ala i dopamine. Mo se iloiloga maeʻaeʻa o le amygdala ma ona faʻailoga ma le faʻatonutonuina o faiga faʻapitoa, o le Mirolli, Mannella, ma le Baldassarre (2010). Ua faʻaitiitia le faʻatinoga o le cortex muamua, ma ua faʻatuputeleina le faʻatinoga o gafalia o le basal ona o le faʻasaʻolotoina o neurotransmitters (Arnsten, 2009, Hanson et al., 2012; Radley, 2005).

O le le masani ma le masani ona faʻaaogaina o ponokalafi 'upega tafaʻilagi na tele lava fesoʻotaʻi ma le le faʻaleagaina o le soifuaga lautele i le va o talavou Eleni (Tsitsika et al., 2009). O ponokalafi faʻaaogaina na fesoasoani i le tolopo le paʻu, pe o le tagata lava ia matauina e toʻesea i lumanaʻi taunuʻuga ae fiafia i vave taui (Negash, Sheppard, Lambert, & Fincham, 2016). Negash ma paʻaga faʻaaoga se faʻataʻitaʻiga na i ai le averesi o tausaga o le 19 ma le 20, lea na faʻamamafaina e le tusitala o loʻo avea pea ma meaola o talavou. Na latou toe taʻua foi, o a latou faataʻitaʻiga e leʻi lipotia mai le avea o ni mea ua fai ma vaisu pe faamalosia, ae o suiga i le faiga o filifiliga na faaalia pea.

O le faʻaaogaina o ponokalafi e fesoʻotaʻi i le faʻaosofia ma le neuroplasticity o le mesolimbic dopaminergic taui (Hilton, 2013). MRI scans mauaina se faʻafitauli le lelei i le va o lipoti ponokalafi itula i le vaiaso ma le efuefu mea voluma i le taumatau caudate ma galulue faʻafesoʻotaʻi ma le dorsolateral muamua frontal cortex (Kuhn & Gallinat, 2014). O ponokalafi e ono avea ma mafuaʻaga o lenei neuroplasticity, ae o se tuʻutuʻuga e mafua ai ona sili atu le tauia o ponokalafi le mafai ona taofia.

Faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻataʻitaʻiga

Matou te tuʻuina atu se faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻapitoa e faʻatatau i galuega, ma mafaufau i tulaga tulaga ese o le faiʻai o le tagata matua ma uiga o faʻamatalaga manino faʻafeusuaiga. O le tele o vaega autu e fesoʻotaʻi ma le mafaufau tulaga ese o le faiʻai ma mea faʻapitoa faʻafeusuaiga e taua.

I le faʻaalia o faʻamatalaga mataga faʻafeusuaiga, o le faʻaosofia o le amygdala ma le HPA au o le a faʻalauteleina i le talavou, faʻatusatusa ma le matua. Lenei o le a taʻitaʻia ai i le sili atu manino curtailment o le muai faʻasologa ma faʻalauteleina faʻagaoioia o le basal ganglia i le talavou. O lenei tulaga, o le mea lea, o le a fetuʻunaʻi pulega faʻagaioiga, lea e aofia ai le taofiofia ma oe lava faʻatonutonu, ma faʻalauteleina impulsivity. Talu ai o le mafaufau o le tauleʻaleʻa o loʻo tupu pea, e sili atu ona fesoasoani i le neuroplasticity. O le muaʻi faʻailoga e alu i le "off-line," o lona uiga, tulia le faʻaaogaaga le toe faʻafouina e fiafia i tamaʻi atinaʻe. Afai o le neuroplasticity le paleni faʻaauau i le aluga o taimi, o lenei ono mafua ai i se matua vaivai vai faʻasolosolo i le manaʻoga o se sili atu taʻamilosaga subcortical matagaluega, lea e ono muaʻi avea le talavou i le faʻaauauina o ia lava faʻamalieina ma impulsivity. O le autalavou 'aulamu accumbens, poʻo le fiafia ogatotonu o le faiʻai, o le a iai se faʻateleina faʻaosofia faʻatusatusa i le matua. O le faʻateleina o le maualuga o le dopamine o le a faʻaliliuina i lagona faʻateleina e fesoʻotaʻi ma le dopamine, e pei o le fiafia ma le manaʻo (Berridge, 2006; Volkow, 2006).

Ona o le lolovaia oso o testosterone, lona tulaga o le a faʻateleina foʻi pe a faʻatusatusa i le tagata matua. O lenei faʻateleina o le testosterone e ono oʻo atu ai i le maualuga o tuʻinanauga o le osofaʻiga (Banks & Dabbs, 1996; Goetz et al., 2014; Nelson, Leibenluft, McClure, & Pine, 2005; Schulz & Sisk, 2006) ma le naunau i feusuaiga (Amstislavskaya & Popova, 2004; Bonilla – Jaime, Vazquez-Palacios, Arteaga-Silva, & Retana-Marquez, 2006; Exton et al., 1999; Redoute et al., 2000; Stoleru et al., 1999;).

Talu ai o faʻalapotopotoga faʻamalama o atinae i taimi o talavou, o le cortisol ma le testosterone o le ai ai se aʻafia tulaga ese i luga o faiʻai faʻalapotopotoga poʻo le maua gafatia ola ai o neural eseese matagaluega. Lenei aafiaga o le a le maua i le tagata matua aua o lenei faʻapitoa faʻamalama o le faʻapotopotoga ua tapunia. Faʻataʻitaʻi taimi i le cortisol ei ai le avanoa, i le vaitaimi o faʻalapotopotoga talavou, e unaʻia ai le neuroplasticity e mafua ai le faʻaleagaina o le gaioiina o le tino ma le faʻamalosia o le mafaufau e oʻo lava i le matua (McEwen, 2004; Tsoory & Richter-Levin, 2006; Tsoory, 2008; McCormick & Mathews, 2007; 2010). O le malosi o le amygdala post puberty, a itiiti mai i se vaega, faʻalagolago i le tele o testosterone faʻaalia i le taimi o faitioga ogaoga talavou tuputupu aʻe (De Lorme, Schulz, Salas-Ramirez, & Sisk, 2012; De Lorme & Sisk, 2013; Neufang et al., 2009; Sarkey, Azcoitia, Garcia- Segura, Garcia-Ovejero, & DonCarlos, 2008). O le amygdala malosi e fesoʻotaʻi ma maualuga maualuga o lagona ma fetuunaʻi le faʻatonutonuina o ia lava (Amaral, 2003; Lorberbaum et al., 2004; De Lorme & Sisk, 2013).

Talanoaga ma le lumanai

O lenei pepa na saili e amataina le talanoaga faaleaoaoga: Mata e sili atu le nofouta o le au talavou i mea e sili ona manino mai feusuaiga ona o le tulaga ese o le natura ma le natura o le mafaufau o le tagata matua? O faʻamatalaga o loʻo i ai nei o loʻo taʻu mai ai atonu e sili atu ona nofouta le mafaufau o le taulealea i faʻamatalaga manino mai feusuaiga, ae talu ai ona o le leai o ni suʻesuʻega loloto e le mafai ona taliina ma le manino lenei fesili. O le luʻitau o le galue e ala i mafaufauga faʻaleleia mo suʻesuʻega faʻatonutonuina, o se mea taua, e mafai ona malamalama i ai, faʻafefe i le alualu i luma faasaienisi i lenei tulaga.

I le amataga, matou te fautuaina le taitaia o suʻesuʻega o tagata faitau e suʻe ai le iloiloga a le tagata lava ia e fesiligia amioga o amioga aʻo leʻi faʻaalia muamua mea faʻapitoa i feusuaiga, ma pe a maeʻa tikeri eseese. E mafai foi ona tuʻuina atu suʻesuʻega i mātua e faʻamautinoa ai pe o le fesoʻotaʻiga a matua ma tamaiti o se vaega tāua i le faʻamalosia o le ola maloloina o tamaiti.

O se isi suʻesuʻega auala e mafaufau ai o le matafaioi o tekinolosi e avea o se faitotoa mo talavou e faʻaalia i mea faʻapitoa mataga. Talu ai e mafai ona siaki faʻamatalaga faʻasalalau faʻaagafesootai ma faʻatusatusa i le faʻaaogaina o le faʻaaogaina, o suʻega e fesiligia ai tagata auai e iloilo a latou lava tekinolosi ma faʻaalia i faʻamatalaga manino mai feusuaiga, o se suʻesuʻega tonu i luma e faia.

I le mea mulimuli, o se sao taua i lenei galuega e mafai ona avea o se suʻesuʻega umi o le a aofia ai le mulimuli i se vaega o tamaiti e ala i le talavou ma avea ma tagata matua e le ogatasi ma talaʻaga faafomaʻi faʻamaumauga ma le mauaina o faʻamatalaga faʻanatura, physiological, ma psychology mai le faatulagaina masani ma le MRI galuega, ma / poʻo le PET faʻataʻitaʻiga.

O le faia o suʻesuʻega faʻaeteete e suʻesuʻe ai le aʻafiaga o faʻamatalaga manino i feusuaiga i luga o le faiʻai o le tagata matua, o se laasaga tatau lea i le malamalama i le fesuisuiai o aafiaga matutua i faʻamatalaga manino mai feusuaiga.

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