Tekolo ea Lintlha tsa Mathata a Khethehileng a Tšebeliso ea Marang-rang (ACSID-11): Kenyelletso ea sesebelisoa se secha sa ho hlahloba se nkang mekhoa ea ICD-11 bakeng sa bothata ba papali le mathata a mang a ka bang teng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang (2022)

Logo bakeng sa Journal of boitšoaro bo hlephileng

YBOP TSEBO: Bafuputsi ba thehile le ho etsa liteko sesebelisoa se secha sa tlhahlobo, se ipapisitse le litekanyetso tsa Mokhatlo oa Lefatše oa Bophelo tsa ICD-11 Gaming Disorder. E etselitsoe ho lekola mathata a 'maloa a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang (makhoba a boitšoaro a inthaneteng) ho kenyelletsa "bothata ba tšebeliso ea bootsoa."

Bafuputsi, ba neng ba kenyelletsa e mong oa litsebi tse ka sehloohong tsa lefats'e mabapi le boitšoaro bo qobelloang ba ho kopanela liphate / bokhoba ba bootsoa Matthias Brand, e khothalelitse ka makhetlo a 'maloa hore "bothata ba tšebeliso ea bootsoa" bo ka hlalosoa e le 6C5Y Mathata a Mang a Tsebahalang Ka lebaka la Boitšoaro bo Lemaletseng ho ICD-11,
 
Ka ho kenyelletsoa ha bothata ba lipapali ho ICD-11, mekhoa ea ho hlahloba e ile ea hlahisoa bakeng sa bothata bona bo bocha. Mekhoa ena e ka boela ea sebelisoa ho mathata a mang a ka bang teng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang, a ka hlalosoang ho ICD-11 joalo ka mathata a mang ka lebaka la boits'oaro ba bokhoba, joalo ka. Bothata ba ho reka-ho reka inthaneteng, inthaneteng bothata ba ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, bothata ba tšebeliso ea marang-rang, le bothata ba ho becha inthaneteng. [khatello e kentsoe]
 
Bafuputsi ba bontšitse hore bopaki bo teng bo tšehetsa ho hlophisoa ha Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder e le bokhoba ba boitšoaro ho e-na le sehlopha sa hona joale sa bothata ba ho laola maikutlo:
 
ICD-11 e thathamisa Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD), eo ba bangata ba nahanang hore litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tse nang le bothata li sebelisoa ke letšoao le ka sehloohong la boitšoaro, e le bothata ba ho laola maikutlo. Compulsive buying-shopping disorder e thathamisitsoe e le mohlala tlas'a sehlopha sa 'mathata a mang a boletsoeng a impulse control' (6C7Y) empa ntle le ho khetholla lipakeng tsa mefuta e fapaneng ea inthaneteng le ea offline. Phapang ena le eona ha e etsoe lethathamong la lipotso tse sebelisoang haholo tse lekanyang ho reka ka boitlamo (Maraz et al., 2015Müller, Mitchell, Vogel, & de Zwaan, 2017). Mathata a tšebeliso ea marang-rang a sechaba ha a e-so nahaneloe ho ICD-11. Leha ho le joalo, ho na le likhang tse thehiloeng bopaking bakeng sa bothata bo bong le bo bong ho tse tharo hore bo khethoe e le boits'oaro bo lemalloang (Brand et al., 2020Gola et al., 2017Müller et al., 2019Stark et al., 2018Wegmann, Müller, Ostendorf, & Brand, 2018). [khatello e kentsoe]
 
Bakeng sa tlhaiso-leseling e batsi mabapi le Tlhahlobo ea Boitšoaro bo Qobellang ba thobalano ea Mokhatlo oa Lefatše oa Bophelo ICD-11 bona leqephe lena.

 

inahaneloang

Ka morao le sepheo

Ka ho kenyelletsoa ha bothata ba lipapali ho ICD-11, mekhoa ea ho hlahloba e ile ea hlahisoa bakeng sa bothata bona bo bocha. Mekhoa ena e ka boela ea sebelisoa ho mathata a mang a ka 'nang a sebelisoa ke Inthanete, a ka' nang a hlalosoa ho ICD-11 e le mathata a mang ka lebaka la boitšoaro bo hlephileng, joalo ka bothata ba ho reka Inthaneteng, bothata ba tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro inthaneteng, tšebeliso ea marang-rang. bothata, le bothata ba ho becha Inthaneteng. Ka lebaka la ho fapana ha lisebelisoa tse teng, re ne re ikemiselitse ho nts'etsapele tekanyo e tsitsitseng le ea moruo ea mefuta e meholo (e ka bang teng) mathata a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang a ipapisitseng le litekanyetso tsa ICD-11 bakeng sa bothata ba papali.

mekhoa

Tekanyetso e ncha ea lintlha tse 11 tsa Mathata a Specific Internet-use Disorders (ACSID-11) e lekanya bokhoba ba boits'oaro bo mehlano ka sete e le 'ngoe ea lintho ka ho latela melaoana ea ASSIST ea WHO. ACSID-11 e ne e tsamaisoa ho basebelisi ba mafolofolo ba Marang-rang (N = 985) hammoho le ho ikamahanya le Teko ea Bothata ba Lipapali tsa Inthanete ea Lintho Tse Leshome (IGDT-10) le li-screeners bakeng sa bophelo bo botle ba kelello. Re sebelisitse Confirmatory Factor Analyzes ho hlahloba sebopeho sa lintlha tsa ACSID-11.

Results

Mohaho o nkoang e le oa likarolo tse 'nè o tiisitsoe' me o ne o phahametse tharollo ea unidimensional. Sena se sebetsa ho bothata ba lipapali le mathata a mang a amanang le ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang. Lintlha tsa ACSID-11 tse amanang le IGDT-10 hammoho le mehato ea khatello ea kelello.

Puisano le Liphetho

ACSID-11 e bonahala e loketse tlhahlobo e tsitsitseng ea (mathata) a khethehileng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang a thehiloeng ho ICD-11 tlhahlobo ea tlhahlobo ea bothata ba papali. ACSID-11 e kanna ea ba sesebelisoa sa bohlokoa le moruo bakeng sa ho ithuta makhoba a fapaneng a boits'oaro ka lintho tse tšoanang le ho ntlafatsa papiso.

Selelekela

Kabo ea Marang-rang le phihlello e bonolo ea Marang-rang e etsa hore lits'ebeletso tsa Marang-rang li khahle haholo 'me li fane ka melemo e mengata. Ntle le melemo ho batho ba bangata, boitšoaro ba inthaneteng bo ka nka mokhoa o sa laoleheng oa ho lemalla batho ba bang (mohlala, Morena le Potenza, 2019E monyenyane, 2004). Haholo-holo papali e fetoha taba ea bophelo bo botle ba sechaba (Faust & Prochaska, 2018Rumpf et al., 2018). Ka mor'a hore ho hlokomeloe 'bothata ba ho bapala Inthaneteng' phetolelong ea bohlano ea Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; Mokhatlo oa Mahlale oa Amerika, 2013) e le boemo ba thuto e tsoelang pele, bothata ba lipapali bo se bo kenyelelitsoe e le tlhahlobo ea molao (6C51) tlhahlobisong ea 11 ea Sehlopha sa Machaba sa Mafu (ICD-11); Mokhatlo oa Lefatše oa Bophelo, 2018). Ena ke mohato oa bohlokoa oa ho rarolla mathata a lefats'e a bakoang ke tšebeliso e kotsi ea theknoloji ea digital (Billieux, Stein, Castro-Calvo, Higushi, & King, 2021). Ho ata ha lefats'e ka bophara hoa mathata a lipapali ho hakanngoa hore ke 3.05%, e bapisoang le mathata a mang a kelello a kang mathata a ho sebelisa lithethefatsi kapa mathata a ho qobella ho feteletseng (Stevens, Dorstyn, Delfabbro, & King, 2021). Leha ho le joalo, likhakanyo tsa ho ata li fapana haholo ho latela sesebelisoa sa tlhahlobo se sebelisitsoeng (Stevens et al., 2021). Hona joale, ponahalo ea liletsa e mengata. Mehato e mengata e ipapisitse le litekanyetso tsa DSM-5 bakeng sa bothata ba papali ea Marang-rang mme ha ho le e 'ngoe e bonahalang e le khetho e hlakileng.King et al., 2020). Hoa tšoana le ho mekhoa e meng e ka lemallang Marang-rang, joalo ka tšebeliso e mpe ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro inthaneteng, marang-rang a sechaba, kapa mabenkele a marang-rang. Boitšoaro bona bo thata ba inthaneteng bo ka hlaha hammoho le bothata ba papali (Burleigh, Griffiths, Sumich, Stavropoulos, & Kuss, 2019Müller et al., 2021), empa hape e ka ba mokhatlo oa hau. Merero ea morao-rao ea khopolo-taba e kang Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) mohlala (Brand, Young, Laier, Wölfling, & Potenza, 2016Brand et al., 2019) nahana hore lits'ebetso tse ts'oanang tsa kelello li theha mefuta e fapaneng ea boits'oaro bo lemalloang (inthaneteng). Mehopolo e tsamaellana le mekhoa ea pejana e ka sebelisoang ho hlalosa lintho tse tšoanang lipakeng tsa mathata a lemalloang, mohlala, mabapi le mekhoa ea neuropsychological (Bechara, 2005Robinson le Berridge, 1993), likarolo tsa liphatsa tsa lefutso (Blum et al., 2000), kapa likarolo tse tloaelehileng (Griffiths, 2005). Leha ho le joalo, sesebelisoa se felletseng sa ho hlahloba mathata (a ka bang teng) a amanang le ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang se ipapisitseng le maemo a tšoanang ha se eo. Litlhahlobo tse tšoanang ho mefuta e fapaneng ea mathata ka lebaka la boits'oaro bo lemalloang li bohlokoa ho tseba lintho tse tšoanang le liphapang ka nepo.

Ho ICD-11, bothata ba lipapali bo thathamisitsoe ka nģ'ane ho bothata ba papali ea chelete sehlopheng sa 'mathata a bakoang ke boitšoaro bo hlephileng'. Mekhoa e reriloeng ea ho hlahloba (bakeng sa bobeli) ke: (1) taolo e senyehileng holim'a boitšoaro (mohlala, ho qala, khafetsa, matla, nako, ho felisoa, moelelo); (2) ho eketsa ho etelletsa pele boitšoaro ho isa bohōleng boo boitšoaro bo tlang pele ho lithahasello tse ling le mesebetsi ea letsatsi le letsatsi; (3) ho tsoela pele kapa ho phahama ha boitšoaro ho sa tsotellehe liphello tse mpe. Le hoja e sa boleloe ka ho toba e le litekanyetso tse eketsehileng, ke tlamo bakeng sa tlhahlobo ea hore mokhoa oa boitšoaro o lebisa (4) ho senyeha ha ts'ebetso likarolong tsa bohlokoa tsa bophelo ba letsatsi le letsatsi (mohlala, litaba tsa botho, tsa lelapa, tsa thuto kapa tsa sechaba) le / kapa mahlomola a tšoailoeng.Mokhatlo oa Lefatše oa Bophelo, 2018). Ka hona, likarolo tsena ka bobeli li lokela ho kenyelletsoa ha ho ithutoa mekhoa e ka bang lemalla. Ka kakaretso, mekhoa ena e ka boela ea sebelisoa ho sehlopha sa 'mathata a mang a boletsoeng ka lebaka la boitšoaro bo hlephileng' (6C5Y), moo bothata ba ho reka, bothata ba tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro, le bothata ba ts'ebeliso ea marang-rang bo ka aroloa (Brand et al., 2020). Bothata ba ho reka inthaneteng bo ka hlalosoa ka ho reka ka mokhoa o feteletseng, ho sa laoleheng ho reka thepa ea bareki inthaneteng e etsahalang khafetsa leha ho na le litlamorao tse mpe mme ka hona e ka baka bothata bo itseng ba ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang.Müller, Laskowski, et al., 2021). Bothata ba tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro bo khetholloa ka ho fokotseha ha taolo holim'a tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro (inthaneteng), tse arohaneng le boitšoaro bo bong bo qobelloang ba thobalano (Kraus, Martino, & Potenza, 2016Kraus et al., 2018). Bothata ba ts'ebeliso ea marang-rang a sechaba bo ka hlalosoa ka tšebeliso e feteletseng ea liwebsaete tseo batho ba etsang metsoalle ho tsona (ho kenyeletsoa liwebsaete tseo batho ba etsang metsoalle ho tsona le lits'ebetso tse ling tsa puisano tsa marang-rang) tse khetholloang ka ho fokotseha ha taolo ea ts'ebeliso, ts'ebeliso e ntseng e eketseha, le nts'etsopele ea ts'ebeliso ea liwebsaete tseo batho ba etsang metsoalle ho tsona. ho ba le litlamorao tse mpe (Andreassen, 2015). Litloaelo tse tharo tse ka bang teng tsa boits'oaro li etsa liketsahalo tse amanang le bophelo bo botle tse bontšang ho tšoana le mekhoa e meng e lemalloang (mohlala, Brand et al., 2020Griffiths, Kuss, le Demetrovics, 2014Müller et al., 2019Stark, Klucken, Potenza, Brand, & Strahler, 2018).

Lisebelisoa tse lekola mefuta e itseng ea mathata a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang li thehiloe haholo-holo mehopolong ea pejana, joalo ka mefuta e fetotsoeng ea Teko ea Teko ea Inthanete ea Young (mohlala, Laier, Pawlikowski, Pekal, Schulte, & Brand, 2013Wegmann, Stodt, & Brand, 2015) kapa sekala sa "Bergen" se ipapisitseng le likarolo tsa bokhoba ba Griffiths (mohlala, Andreassen, Torsheim, Brunborg, & Pallesen, 2012Andreassen et al., 2015), kapa ba lekanya meaho e sa lekanyetsoang e ipapisitseng le litekanyetso tsa DSM-5 bakeng sa bothata ba papali (mohlala, Lemmens, Valkenburg, & Balichaba, 2015Van den Eijnden, Lemmens, & Valkenburg, 2016) kapa bothata ba papali ea chelete (bakeng sa tlhahlobo bona Otto et al., 2020). Mehato e meng ea pejana e nkiloe ho tsoa mehatong ea bothata ba papali ea chelete, mathata a tšebeliso ea lithethefatsi kapa e ntlafalitsoe ka mokhoa o hlakileng (Laconi, Rodgers, & Chabrol, 2014). Tse ngata tsa lisebelisoa tsena li bonts'a bofokoli ba psychometric le ho se lumellane joalo ka ha ho totobalitsoe litlhahlobong tse fapaneng (Morena, Haagsma, Delfabbro, Gradisar, & Griffiths, 2013Lortie & Guitton, 2013Petry, Rehbein, Ko, & O'Brien, 2015). King et al. (2020) e hloaile lisebelisoa tse fapaneng tse 32 tse hlahlobang bothata ba papali, e bonts'ang ho se lumellane ho teng lefapheng la lipatlisiso. Le lisebelisoa tse boletsoeng ka ho fetesisa le tse sebelisoang haholo, joalo ka Young's Internet Addiction Test (E monyenyane, 1998), ha li emele ka mokhoa o lekaneng mekhoa ea ho hlahloba bothata ba lipapali, leha e le ea DSM-5 kapa ea ICD-11. King et al. (2020) ntlha e 'ngoe ea bofokoli ba psychometric, mohlala, khaello ea netefatso ea matla le hore lisebelisoa tse ngata li entsoe ho ipapisitse le mohopolo oa moaho o sa tsitsang. E bontša hore kakaretso ea matšoao a motho ka mong e baloa ho e-na le ho sheba makhetlo a mangata le matla a nang le phihlelo ka bomong. Teko ea Bothata ba Lipapali tsa Inthanete ea Lintho Tse Leshome (IGDT-10; Király et al., 2017) hajoale e bonahala e nka mekhoa ea DSM-5 ka mokhoa o lekaneng empa ka kakaretso ha ho le e 'ngoe ea lisebelisoa e neng e bonahala e le khetho e hlakileng.King et al., 2020). Haufinyane tjena, litekanyo tse 'maloa li ile tsa hlahisoa e le lisebelisoa tsa pele tsa ho hlahloba tse nkang mekhoa ea ICD-11 bakeng sa bothata ba lipapali (Balhara et al., 2020Higuchi et al., 2021Joalo le ba bang, 2020Paschke, Austermann, & Thomasius, 2020Pontes et al., 2021) hammoho le bothata ba tšebeliso ea marang-rang ea sechaba (Paschke, Austermann, & Thomasius, 2021). Ka kakaretso, ho ka nahanoa hore ha se letšoao le leng le le leng le nang le phihlelo ka ho lekana, mohlala, hangata ka ho lekana kapa ka matla ka ho lekana. Kahoo ho bonahala ho lakatseha hore lisebelisoa tsa ho hlahloba li khone ho tšoara ka bobeli, liphihlelo tsa matšoao a kakaretso, le kakaretso ea matšoao ka bonngoe. Ho e-na le hoo, mokhoa oa mefuta e mengata o ka 'na oa batlisisa hore na ke letšoao lefe le tlatsetsang ka mokhoa o tiileng, kapa ka mekhahlelo e fapaneng, ho nts'etsopele le tlhokomelo ea boitšoaro bo nang le bothata, bo amahanngoa le boemo bo phahameng ba mahlomola, kapa hore na ke taba feela ea bohlokoa.

Mathata a tšoanang le ho se lumellane hoa totobala ha ho shejoa lisebelisoa tse hlahlobang mefuta e meng ea mathata a ka bang teng a ho sebelisa Marang-rang, e leng bothata ba ho reka inthaneteng, bothata ba tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro inthaneteng le bothata ba tšebeliso ea marang-rang. Mathata ana a ka bang teng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang ha a aroloe ka molao ho ICD-11 ho fapana le mathata a papali le papali ea chelete. Haholo-holo tabeng ea bothata ba papali ea chelete, lisebelisoa tse ngata tsa ho hlahloba li se li le teng, empa boholo ba tsona ha li na bopaki bo lekaneng (Otto et al., 2020), 'me ha ba bue ka mekhoa ea ICD-11 bakeng sa bothata ba papali ea chelete kapa hona ho tsepamisa maikutlo bothateng ba papali ea chelete ea inthaneteng (Albrecht, Kirschner, & Grüsser, 2007Dowling et al., 2019). ICD-11 e thathamisa Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD), eo ba bangata ba nahanang hore litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tse nang le bothata li sebelisoa ke letšoao le ka sehloohong la boitšoaro, e le bothata ba ho laola maikutlo. Compulsive buying-shopping disorder e thathamisitsoe e le mohlala tlas'a sehlopha sa 'mathata a mang a boletsoeng a impulse control' (6C7Y) empa ntle le ho khetholla lipakeng tsa mefuta e fapaneng ea inthaneteng le ea offline. Phapang ena le eona ha e etsoe lethathamong la lipotso tse sebelisoang haholo tse lekanyang ho reka ka boitlamo (Maraz et al., 2015Müller, Mitchell, Vogel, & de Zwaan, 2017). Mathata a tšebeliso ea marang-rang a sechaba ha a e-so nahaneloe ho ICD-11. Leha ho le joalo, ho na le likhang tse thehiloeng bopaking bakeng sa mathata a mang le a mang a mararo hore a khethoe e le boits'oaro bo lemalloang.Brand et al., 2020Gola et al., 2017Müller et al., 2019Stark et al., 2018Wegmann, Müller, Ostendorf, & Brand, 2018). Ntle le khaello ea tumellano mabapi le likarolo le litlhaloso tsa mathata ana a ka bang teng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang, ho boetse ho na le ho se lumellane ha ts'ebeliso ea lisebelisoa tsa tlhahlobo (bakeng sa litlhahlobo, bona. Andreassen, 2015Selemo le selemo Fernandez le GriffithsHussain & Griffiths, 2018Müller et al., 2017). Ka mohlala, ho na le lisebelisoa tse fetang 20 tse lokelang ho lekanya tšebeliso e mpe ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (Selemo le selemo Fernandez le Griffiths) empa ha ho le e 'ngoe e koahelang ka mokhoa o lekaneng litekanyetso tsa ICD-11 bakeng sa mathata ka lebaka la boits'oaro bo lemalloang, tse haufi haholo le mekhoa ea ICD-11 bakeng sa CSBD.

Ho feta moo, mathata a mang a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang a bonahala a kanna a etsahala, haholo lipapali tse sa sebetseng hantle le ts'ebeliso ea marang-rang a sechaba (Burleigh et al., 2019Müller et al., 2021). Ho sebelisa tlhahlobo e patehileng ea profil, Charzyńska, Sussman, and Atroszko (2021) e hlokometse hore marang-rang a marang-rang a marang-rang le ho reka hammoho le lipapali tse sa tsitsang le tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa hangata li etsahala hammoho ka ho latellana. Boemo bo kenyelletsang maemo a phahameng ho mathata ohle a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang bo bonts'itse boiketlo bo tlase (Charzyńska et al., 2021). Sena se boetse se totobatsa bohlokoa ba tlhahlobo e felletseng le e ts'oanang ho pholletsa le mekhoa e fapaneng ea ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang. Ho bile le liteko tsa ho sebelisa lisebelisoa tse tšoanang ho pholletsa le mathata a fapaneng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang, joalo ka Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale (Bőthe et al., 2018), Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (Andreassen, Pallesen, & Griffiths, 2017) kapa Online Shopping Addiction Scale (Zhao, Tian, ​​& Xin, 2017). Leha ho le joalo, likala tsena li ne li etselitsoe motheong oa likarolo tsa mohlala ka Griffiths (2005) 'me u se ke oa fana ka litekanyetso tsa hajoale tse reriloeng bakeng sa mathata a bakoang ke boits'oaro bo lemalloang (bap. Mokhatlo oa Lefatše oa Bophelo, 2018).

Ka bokhuts'oane, ICD-11 e reriloeng tlhahlobo ea tlhahlobo ea mathata a bakoang ke (haholo-holo inthaneteng) boits'oaro bo lemalloang, e leng bothata ba papali ea chelete le bothata ba papali. Tšebeliso e mpe ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro inthaneteng, ho reka mabenkeleng, le ts'ebeliso ea marang-rang ea sechaba e ka abeloa sehlopha sa ICD-11 'mathata a mang a boletsoeng ka lebaka la boits'oaro bo lemalloang' moo ho ka sebelisoang mekhoa e tšoanang.Brand et al., 2020). Ho fihla hajoale, sebopeho sa lisebelisoa tsa tlhahlobo bakeng sa mathata ana (a ka bang teng) a amanang le ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang ha se lumellane haholo. Leha ho le joalo, tekanyo e sa fetoheng ea meaho e fapaneng e bohlokoa ho ntšetsa pele lipatlisiso mabapi le lintho tse tšoanang le liphapang ho mefuta e fapaneng ea mathata ka lebaka la boits'oaro bo lemalloang. Sepheo sa rona e ne e le ho theha sesebelisoa sa tlhahlobo se khuts'oane empa se felletseng bakeng sa mefuta e fapaneng (e ka bang teng) mathata a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang a koahelang litekanyetso tsa ICD-11 bakeng sa bothata ba papali le bothata ba papali ea chelete, ho thusa ka ho tsebahatsa pele (bo ka bang) boits'oaro bo itseng bo nang le bothata ba inthaneteng.

mekhoa

barupeluoa ba

Barupeluoa ba hiriloe inthaneteng ka mofani oa litšebeletso tsa phihlello eo ka eona ba neng ba lefuoa ka bomong. Re kenyelelitse basebelisi ba Marang-rang ba mafolofolo ba tsoang sebakeng sa batho ba buang Sejeremane. Ha re kenyeletse li-dataset tse sa phethahalang le tse bonts'itseng karabo e sa tsotelleng. Ea ho qetela e ile ea khetholloa ka tekanyo e ka hare-hare (ntho e laetsoeng ea karabo le tekanyo ea ho itlhalosa) le ka mor'a hoc (nako ea ho arabela, mokhoa oa ho arabela, Mahalanobis D) maano (Godinho, Kushnir, & Cunningham, 2016Meade & Craig, 2012). Mohlala oa ho qetela o ne o e-na le N = barupeluoa ba 958 (banna ba 499, basali ba 458, ba fapaneng ba 1) pakeng tsa lilemo tse 16 le 69 (M = 47.60, SD = 14.50). Boholo ba barupeluoa ba ne ba sebetsa ka nako e tletseng (46.3%), nakong ea ho tlohela mosebetsi (20.1%), kapa nako ea nakoana (14.3%). Ba bang e ne e le baithuti, baithuti, bommamalapa/-banna, kapa ba sa hirweng ka mabaka a mang. Boemo ba thuto e phahameng ka ho fetisisa ea mosebetsi oa matsoho bo ile ba ajoa ho feta lithupelo tse phethiloeng tsa mosebetsi oa matsoho-ka-khamphani (33.6%), lengolo la univesithi (19.0%), lithupelo tse phethetsoeng tsa sekolo sa mosebetsi oa matsoho (14.1%), mangolo a tsoang sekolong sa master/ akademi ea tekheniki (11.8%). , le lengolo la polytechnic (10.1%). Ba bang ba ne ba le thutong/baithuti kapa ba sena degree. Mohlala oa boiketlo o sa reroang o bonts'itse kabo e ts'oanang ea mefuta e fapaneng ea maemo a sechaba le palo ea batho ba sebelisang Marang-rang a Jeremane (cf. Statista, 2021).

Mehato

Tekolo ea Lintlha tsa Mathata a Tšebeliso e khethehileng ea Inthanete: ACSID-11

Ka ACSID-11 re ne re ikemiselitse ho qapa sesebelisoa sa ho lekola mathata a itseng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang ka mokhoa o khuts'oane empa o felletseng, le o tsitsitseng. E ile ea ntlafatsoa ho latela khopolo ke sehlopha sa litsebi sa bafuputsi le lingaka tsa bokhoba ba tahi. Lintho li nkiloe lipuisanong tse ngata le likopano tsa tumellano tse thehiloeng ho litekanyetso tsa ICD-11 bakeng sa mathata a bakoang ke boits'oaro bo lemalloang, joalo ka ha li hlalosoa bakeng sa papali le papali ea chelete, ho nka sebopeho sa lintho tse ngata. Liphuputso tsa Tlhahlobo ea Talk-Aloud li ile tsa sebelisoa ho ntlafatsa boleng ba litaba le kutloisiso ea lintho (Schmidt et al., e rometsoe).

ACSID-11 e na le lintho tse 11 tse nkang litekanyetso tsa ICD-11 bakeng sa mathata a bakoang ke boits'oaro bo lemalloang. Mekhoa e meraro ea mantlha, taolo e senyehileng (IC), ho eketsoa pele ho fanoang ho ts'ebetso ea inthanete (IP), le ho tsoelapele / ho nyoloha (CE) ea ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang leha ho na le litlamorao tse mpe, li emeloa ke lintho tse tharo e 'ngoe le e 'ngoe. Lintho tse peli tse eketsehileng li ile tsa bōptjoa ho hlahloba ho senyeha ha ts'ebetso bophelong ba letsatsi le leng le le leng (FI) le ho tšoauoa mahlomola (MD) ka lebaka la mosebetsi oa inthaneteng. Potsong ea pele, barupeluoa ba ile ba laeloa ho bontša hore na ke mesebetsi efe Inthaneteng eo ba e sebelisitseng bonyane nako le nako likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng. Mesebetsi (ke hore, 'papali', 'ho reka inthaneteng', 'ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng', 'ts'ebeliso ea marang-rang a sechaba', 'papali ea inthaneteng', le 'tse ling') li thathamisitsoe ka litlhaloso tse tsamaellanang le likhetho tsa likarabo 'e. 'kapa' che '. Barupeluoa ba arabileng 'e' feela nthong e 'ngoe' ba ile ba hlahlojoa. Ba bang kaofela ba amohetse lintho tsa ACSID-11 bakeng sa mesebetsi eohle e ileng ea arajoa ka 'e'. Mokhoa ona oa mekhoa e mengata o ipapisitse le Teko ea Tlhahlobo ea ho Kenyeletsoa ha Tahi, Ho Tsuba le Ho Kenyeletsoa ha Lithethefatsi (ASSIST) ea WHO; WHO THUSA Sehlopha sa Tšebetso, 2002), e hlahlobang likarolo tse kholo tsa tšebeliso ea lithethefatsi le litlamorao tsa eona tse mpe hammoho le matšoao a boits'oaro bo lemalloang ka tsela e ts'oanang ho pholletsa le lintho tse itseng.

Ka papiso le ASSIST, ntho e 'ngoe le e 'ngoe e hlophisitsoe ka tsela e le hore e ka arajoa ka kotloloho bakeng sa ketsahalo e amehang. Re sebelisitse mokhoa oa likarabo oa likarolo tse peli (bona Feie. 1), moo barupeluoa ba lokelang ho bontša ntho ka 'ngoe bakeng sa ketsahalo ka 'ngoe khafetsa ha kae ba bile le boiphihlelo likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng (0: ‚ha ho mohla', 1: ‚hangata”, 2: ‚ka linako tse ling', 3: ‚hangata'), le haeba bonyane “ka seoelo”, e matla hakakang Phihlelo e 'ngoe le e 'ngoe e bile likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng (0: ‚e seng matla ho hang', 1: ‚ho e-na le hoo”, 2: ‚ho e-na le hoo’, 3: „e matla'). Ka ho hlahloba makhetlo a mangata hammoho le matla a letšoao le leng le le leng, hoa khoneha ho batlisisa ho hlaha ha letšoao, empa hape le ho laola hore na matšoao a matla a lemohuoa hakae ho feta khafetsa. Lintho tsa ACSID-11 (phetolelo e sisintsoeng ea Senyesemane) li bonts'itsoe ho Lethathamo 1. Lintho tsa mantlha (Sejeremane) tse kenyelletsang potso le litaelo li ka fumanoa ho Sehlomathiso (bona Sehlomathiso A).

Setšoantšo sa 1.
 
Setšoantšo sa 1.

Ntho ea mohlala ea ACSID-11 (phetolelo ea Senyesemane e reriloeng ea ntho ea pele ea Sejeremane) e bontšang tekanyo ea makhetlo a mangata (litšiea tse ka ho le letšehali) le matla (likholomo tse ka ho le letona) tsa maemo a amanang le mesebetsi e itseng ea inthanete. Notes. Palo e bonts'a mohlala oa ntlha ea factor Impaired Control (IC) joalo ka ha e bonts'itsoe A) ho motho ea sebelisang mesebetsi eohle e mehlano ea inthaneteng joalo ka ha ho bonts'itsoe potsong ea pele (bona Sehlomathiso A) le B) ho motho ea bontšitseng ho sebelisa mabenkeleng le marang-rang a marang-rang feela.

Tlhaloso: Journal of Behavioral Addictions 2022; 10.1556 / 2006.2022.00013

Tafole 1.

Lintlha tsa skrineng sa ACSID-11 bakeng sa mathata a itseng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang (phetolelo e reriloeng ea Senyesemane).

Itempotso
IC1Likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng, na u bile le bothata ba ho boloka tlaleho ea hore na u qalile ketsahalo neng, nako e kae, ka matla hakae, kapa u le boemong bofe, kapa u emisitse neng?
IC2Likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng, na u kile ua ba le takatso ea ho emisa kapa ho thibela ketsahalo eo hobane u hlokometse hore u e sebelisa haholo?
IC3Likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng, na u lekile ho emisa kapa ho thibela ketso eo, 'me ua hloleha ho eona?
IP1Likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng, na u behile ketsahalo ee e le ea bohlokoa ho feta mesebetsi e meng kapa lithahasello bophelong ba hau ba letsatsi le letsatsi?
IP2Likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng, na ha u sa khahlisoa ke lintho tse ling tseo u neng u li thabela ka lebaka la ketsahalo eo?
IP3Likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng, na u hlokomolohile kapa u tlohetse lintho tse ling kapa lithahasello tse ling tseo u neng u li thabela ka lebaka la mosebetsi oo?
CE1Likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng, na u tsoetse pele kapa u ekelitse tšebetso le hoja e sokelitse kapa e entse hore u lahleheloe ke kamano le motho oa bohlokoa ho uena?
CE2Likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng, na u tsoetse pele kapa u ekelitse tšebetso leha e u baketse mathata sekolong/ koetlisong/mosebetsing?
CE3Likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng, na u tsoetse pele kapa u ekelitse tšebetso leha e u baketse litletlebo/mafu a 'mele kapa a kelello?
EA-1-FIXNUMXHa u nahana ka likarolo tsohle tsa bophelo ba hau, na bophelo ba hau bo anngoe ka mokhoa o hlokomelehang ke ketsahalo ee likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng?
MD1Ha u nahana ka likarolo tsohle tsa bophelo ba hau, na mosebetsi oo o ile oa u bakela mahlomola likhoeling tse 12 tse fetileng?

Notes. IC = taolo e senyehileng; IP = ho eketseha ha bohlokoa; CE = ho tsoela pele / ho nyoloha; FI = ho senyeha ha mosebetsi; MD = mahlomola a tšoailoeng; Lintho tsa pele tsa Sejeremane li ka fumanoa ho Sehlomathiso A.

Teko ea Bothata ba Lipapali tsa Marang-rang ea Lintho Tse Leshome: IGDT-10 - mofuta oa ASSIST

E le tekanyo ea ho nepahala ha convergent, re sebelisitse lintlha tse leshome tsa IGDT-10 (Király et al., 2017) ka mofuta o atolositsoeng. IGDT-10 e sebelisa mekhoa e robong ea DSM-5 bakeng sa bothata ba papali ea inthanete.Mokhatlo oa Mahlale oa Amerika, 2013). Thutong ena, re atolositse mofuta o ikhethileng oa papali e le hore ho hlahlojoe mefuta eohle ea mathata a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang. Ho kenya ts'ebetsong sena, le ho boloka mokhoa o bapisoang, re sebelisitse mokhoa oa ho arabela ka mekhoa e mengata ho mohlala oa ASSIST mona. Bakeng sa sena, lintho li ile tsa fetoloa e le hore 'papali' e nkeloe sebaka ke 'ketso'. Ntho e 'ngoe le e 'ngoe e ile ea arajoa bakeng sa mesebetsi eohle ea Marang-rang eo barupeluoa ba neng ba bontšitse hore ba tla e sebelisa nakong e fetileng (ho tloha khethong ea 'papali', 'ho reka inthaneteng', 'ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro inthaneteng', 'ts'ebeliso ea marang-rang a sechaba' le 'papali ea inthaneteng'. ). Ntho e 'ngoe le e 'ngoe, ketsahalo e 'ngoe le e' ngoe e ne e lekantsoe sekaleng sa Likert sa lintlha tse tharo (0 = 'ha ho mohla', 1 = 'ka linako tse ling', 2 ​​= 'hangata'). Lintlha li ne li tšoana le mofuta oa pele oa IGDT-10: Mokhoa o mong le o mong o fumane lintlha tsa 0 haeba karabelo e ne e le 'ha ho mohla' kapa 'ka linako tse ling' le lintlha tsa 1 haeba karabelo e ne e le 'hangata'. Lintlha tsa 9 le 10 li emela mokhoa o ts'oanang (ke hore, 'ho ba kotsing kapa ho lahleheloa ke likamano tse kholo, mosebetsi, kapa monyetla oa thuto kapa mosebetsi ka lebaka la ho nka karolo lipapaling tsa Marang-rang') 'me ba bala hammoho ntlha e le' ngoe haeba ntho e le 'ngoe kapa ka bobeli li fihletsoe. Ho ile ha baloa palo ea ho qetela bakeng sa ketsahalo ka 'ngoe. E ka tloha ho 0 ho isa ho 9 ka lintlha tse phahameng tse bontšang ho teba ha matšoao. Mabapi le bothata ba lipapali, lintlha tse hlano kapa ho feta li bontša bohlokoa ba bongaka (Király et al., 2017).

Potso ea Bophelo ba Mokuli-4: PHQ-4

Potso ea Bophelo bo Botle ba Mokuli-4 (PHQ-4; Kroenke, Spitzer, Williams, & Löwe, 2009) ke tekanyo e khuts'oane ea matšoao a khatello ea maikutlo le matšoenyeho. E na le lintho tse 'nè tse nkiloeng ho Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale le PHQ-8 module bakeng sa ho tepella maikutlong. Barupeluoa ba lokela ho bontša khafetsa ho hlaha ha matšoao a itseng ka tekanyo ea Likert ea lintlha tse 'nè ho tloha ho 0 ('ha ho hang') ho isa ho 3 ('hoo e ka bang letsatsi le leng le le leng'). Palo eohle e ka fapana pakeng tsa 0 le 12 e bontšang hore ha ho le e 'ngoe / e nyenyane, e bonolo, e itekanetseng le e matla ea khatello ea kelello e nang le lintlha tse tsoang 0-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12, ka ho latellana (Kroenke et al., 2009).

Ho phela hantle ka kakaretso

Khotsofalo ea bophelo ka kakaretso e ile ea hlahlojoa ho sebelisoa Life Satisfaction Short Scale (L-1) phetolelong ea mantlha ea Sejeremane (Beierlein, Kovaleva, László, Kemper, & Rammstedt, 2015) e arajoa ka tekanyo ea Likert ea lintlha tse 11 ho tloha ho 0 ('ha kea khotsofala ho hang') ho isa ho 10 ('ho khotsofetse ka ho feletseng'). Sekala sa ntho e le 'ngoe se netefalitsoe hantle' me se hokahana ka matla le maemo a mangata a lekola khotsofalo le bophelo (Beierlein et al., 2015). Hape re ile ra kopa khotsofalo e khethehileng ea bophelo sebakeng sa bophelo bo botle (H-1): 'Lintho tsohle tse nahanoang, u khotsofetse hakae ka bophelo ba hao matsatsing aa?' e arajoa ka tekanyo e tšoanang ea lintlha tse 11 (cf. Beierlein et al., 2015).

Tsamaiso

Boithuto bona bo entsoe inthaneteng ho sebelisoa sesebelisoa sa tlhahlobo ea marang-rang sa Limesurvey®. ACSID-11 le IGDT-10 li ile tsa kenngoa ts'ebetsong ka tsela eo feela mesebetsi e neng e khethiloe ho potso ea pele e bonts'itsoeng bakeng sa lintho tse amehang. Barupeluoa ba fumane lihokelo tsa motho ka mong ho tsoa ho mofani oa litšebeletso tse lebisitseng tlhahlobong ea inthanete e entsoeng ke rona. Kamora ho phethoa, bankakarolo ba ile ba khutlisetsoa sebakeng sa marang-rang sa mofani oa litšebeletso ho fumana mabitso a bona hape. Lintlha li ile tsa bokelloa ho tloha ka la 8 Mmesa ho isa la 14 Mmesa ka 2021.

Lipatlisiso tsa sethathamo

Re sebelisitse proveatory factor analysis (CFA) ho lekola boholo le ho aha bonnete ba ACSID-11. Litlhahlobo li entsoe ka mofuta oa Mplus 8.4 (Muthén le Muthén, 2019) ho sebelisa mekhoa e mebe ea lisekoere tse lekantsoeng le likhakanyo tse fetotsoeng (WLSMV). Ho lekola ho lekana ha mohlala, re sebelisitse li-indices tse ngata, e leng chi-square (χ 2) teko bakeng sa ho lekana hantle, Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis fit index (TLI), Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR), le Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). Ho latela Hu le Bentler (1999), litekanyetso tsa ho khaola CFI le TLI> 0.95, bakeng sa SRMR <0.08, le bakeng sa RMSEA <0.06 li bontša mokhoa o motle oa ho lekana. Ho feta moo, boleng ba chi-square bo arotsoe ka likhato tsa tokoloho (χ2/df) <3 ke sesupo se seng sa mohlala o amohelehang (Carmines & McIver, 1981). Alpha ea Cronbachα) le Lambda-2 ea Guttman (λ 2) li ne li sebelisoa e le litekanyo tsa ho tšepahala ka li-coefficients> 0.8 (> 0.7) tse bontšang hantle (ho amohelehang) ho lumellana ha ka hare (Bortz & Döring, 2006). Litlhahlobo tsa Correlation (Pearson) li ne li sebelisetsoa ho lekola bonnete ba convergent lipakeng tsa mehato e fapaneng ea meaho e tšoanang kapa e amanang. Litlhahlobo tsena li ne li tsamaisoa le IBM SPSS lipalo (phetolelo ea 26). Ho latela Cohen (1988), boleng ba |r| = 0.10, 0.30, 0.50 e bontša phello e nyenyane, e bohareng, e kholo, ka ho latellana.

Ethics

Mekhoa ea boithuto e entsoe ho latela Phatlalatso ea Helsinki. Boithuto bona bo amohetsoe ke komiti ea melao ea boitšoaro ea karohano ea Saense ea Khomphutha le Lisaense tse Sebelisang Litlhaloso Lefapheng la Boenjiniere la Univesithi ea Duisburg-Essen. Lithuto tsohle li ile tsa tsebisoa ka thuto 'me kaofela li fane ka tumello e nang le tsebo.

Results

Ka har'a sampole ea hajoale, mekhoa e ikhethileng ea ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang e ile ea ajoa ka tsela e latelang: Papali e bontšitsoe ke batho ba 440 (45.9%) (lilemo: M = 43.59, SD = 14.66; Banna ba 259, basali ba 180, ba fapaneng ba 1), 944 (98.5%) ea batho ba rekang inthaneteng (lilemo: M = 47.58, SD = 14.49; 491 banna, 452 basali, 1 divers), 340 (35.5%) ea batho ba sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng (lilemo: M = 44.80, SD = 14.96; Banna ba 263, basali ba 76, ba fapaneng ba 1), 854 (89.1%) ea batho ba sebelisitseng marang-rang a sechaba (lilemo: M = 46.52, SD = 14.66; Banna ba 425, basali ba 428, ba fapaneng ba 1), le batho ba 200 (20.9%) ba kenang papaling ea chelete ea inthaneteng (lilemo: M = 46.91, SD = 13.67; 125 banna, 75 basali, 0 divers). Bonyane ba barupeluoa (n = 61; 6.3%) e bontšitse ho sebelisa ketsahalo e le 'ngoe feela. Boholo ba barupeluoa (n = 841; 87.8%) ba sebelisitse bonyane mabenkeleng a marang-rang hammoho le marang-rang a sechaba mme 409 (42.7%) ea bona le bona ba bonts'itse ho bapala lipapali tsa Marang-rang. Ba mashome a tšeletseng a metso e robeli (7.1%) ba barupeluoa ba bontšitse ho sebelisa mesebetsi eohle e boletsoeng inthaneteng.

Ka lebaka la hore mathata a papali le papali ea chelete ke mefuta e 'meli ea mathata a bakoang ke boits'oaro bo hlephileng bo amoheloang ka molao mme ho fanoe ka hore palo ea batho ba hlahang sampoleng ea rona ba tlalehiloeng ho becha inthaneteng e ne e fokola, re tla qala ho tsepamisa maikutlo ho sephetho mabapi le tlhahlobo. ea litekanyetso tsa bothata ba papali le ACSID-11.

Lipalo-palo tse hlalosang

Mabapi le bothata ba lipapali, lintho tsohle tsa ACSID-11 li na le litekanyetso pakeng tsa 0 le 3 tse bontšang mefuta e mengata ea litekanyetso tse ka khonehang (bona Lethathamo 2). Lintho tsohle li bonts'a boleng bo batlang bo le tlase le kabo e khopameng joalo ka ha ho lebelletsoe sampole e seng ea kliniki. Bothata bo boholo ka ho fetisisa bakeng sa Tsoelo-pele / Ho Escalation le Lintho Tse Tšoailoeng Tsa Matšoenyeho athe Taolo e Senyehileng (haholo-holo IC1) le Lintho tse Keketsehileng tsa Pele li na le mathata a tlase haholo. Kurtosis e phahame ka ho khetheha bakeng sa ntho ea pele ea Tsoelo-pele / Escalation (CE1) le Ntho e Tšoaeang Matšoenyeho (MD1).

Tafole 2.

Lipalopalo tse hlalosang tsa lintho tsa ACSID-11 tse lekanyang bothata ba papali.

No.ItemmetsMaxM(SD)SkewnessKurtosisthatafalloa ke
a)Sekhahla sa maqhubu
01aIC1030.827(0.956)0.808-0.52127.58
02aIC2030.602(0.907)1.2370.24920.08
03aIC3030.332(0.723)2.1633.72411.06
04aIP1030.623(0.895)1.1800.18920.76
05aIP2030.405(0.784)1.9132.69813.48
06aIP3030.400(0.784)1.9032.59713.33
07aCE1030.170(0.549)3.56112.7185.68
08aCE2030.223(0.626)3.0388.7977.42
09aCE3030.227(0.632)2.9337.9987.58
10aEA-1-FIXNUMX030.352(0.712)1.9973.10811.74
11aMD1030.155(0.526)3.64713.1075.15
b)Sekala sa matla
01bIC1030.593(0.773)1.1730.73219.77
02bIC2030.455(0.780)1.7002.09015.15
03bIC3030.248(0.592)2.6426.9818.26
04bIP1030.505(0.827)1.5291.32916.82
05bIP2030.330(0.703)2.1994.12310.98
06bIP3030.302(0.673)2.3024.63310.08
07bCE1030.150(0.505)3.86715.6725.00
08bCE2030.216(0.623)3.1599.6237.20
09bCE3030.207(0.608)3.22510.1226.89
10bEA-1-FIXNUMX030.284(0.654)2.5346.1729.47
11bMD1030.139(0.483)3.99716.8584.62

NotesN = 440. IC = taolo e senyehileng; IP = ho eketseha ha bohlokoa; CE = ho tsoela pele / ho nyoloha; FI = ho senyeha ha mosebetsi; MD = mahlomola a tšoailoeng.

Mabapi le bophelo bo botle ba kelello, mohlala o akaretsang (N = 958) e na le lintlha tse tloaelehileng tsa PHQ-4 tsa 3.03 (SD = 2.82) mme e bonts'a maemo a itekanetseng a khotsofalo ea bophelo (L-1: M = 6.31, SD = 2.39) le bophelo bo botle (H-1: M = 6.05, SD = 2.68). Sehlopheng sa lipapali (n = 440), batho ba 13 (3.0%) ba fihla ho IGDT-10 bakeng sa linyeoe tse amanang le bophelo bo botle ba papali. Palo e bolelang hore lintlha tsa IGDT-10 li fapana pakeng tsa 0.51 bakeng sa bothata ba ho reka le 0.77 bakeng sa bothata ba tšebeliso ea marang-rang (bona Lethathamo 5).

Tlhahlobo ea netefatso

Ho nahanoa hore mohlala oa lintlha tse 'ne

Re lekile sebopeho sa lintlha tse 'ne tsa ACSID-11 ka li-CFA tse ngata, e le' ngoe ka bothata bo itseng ba ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang le ka thoko bakeng sa likhakanyo tsa khafetsa le tsa matla. Lintlha (1) Taolo e Senyehileng, (2) Keketseho ea Bohlokoa, le (3) Tsoelo-pele / Tsoelo-pele e thehiloe ke lintho tse tharo tse amehang. Lintho tse peli tse eketsehileng tse lekanyang ho senyeha ha ts'ebetso bophelong ba letsatsi le leng le le leng le mahlomola a tšoailoeng ka lebaka la ts'ebetso ea marang-rang li thehile ntlha e eketsehileng (4) Ts'ebetso ea Ts'ebetso. Sebopeho sa likarolo tse 'nè tsa ACSID-11 se tšehetsoa ke lintlha. Li-indices tse loketseng li bonts'a ho lekana hantle lipakeng tsa mehlala le data bakeng sa mefuta eohle ea mathata a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang a hlahlobiloeng ke ACSID-11, e leng bothata ba ho bapala, bothata ba ho reka inthaneteng, le bothata ba ts'ebeliso ea marang-rang, tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng. bothata, le bothata ba papali ea chelete inthaneteng (bona Lethathamo 3). Mabapi le bothata ba tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro inthaneteng le bothata ba papali ea chelete ea inthaneteng, TLI le RMSEA li ka ba leeme ka lebaka la boholo bo nyane ba sampole (Hu & Bentler, 1999). Lintlha tse kentsoeng le li-covariances tse setseng bakeng sa li-CFA tse sebelisang mohlala oa lintlha tse 'ne li bonts'itsoe ho Feie. 2. Ho elelloa, tse ling tsa mefuta li bonts'a boleng bo fapaneng bo fapaneng (ke hore, mesaletsa e fosahetseng bakeng sa phetoho e patehileng kapa likamano tse lekanang le kapa tse kholo ho feta 1).

Tafole 3.

Li-indices tse loketseng tsa mefuta e mene, e sa tloaelehang, le ea bobeli ea CFA bakeng sa mathata a itseng (a ka khonehang) a tšebeliso ea Inthanete a lekantsoeng ke ACSID-11.

  Bothata ba ho bapala
  maqhubuMatla
ea mohlaladfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ dfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ df
Mohlala oa lintlha tse 'nè380.9910.9870.0310.0512.130.9930.9900.0290.0431.81
Unidimensional mohlala270.9690.9610.0480.0874.320.9700.9630.0470.0823.99
Moetso oa ntlha oa bobeli400.9920.9880.0310.0471.990.9920.9890.0320.0451.89
  Bothata ba ho reka-ho reka inthaneteng
  maqhubuMatla
ea mohlaladfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ dfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ df
Mohlala oa lintlha tse 'nè380.9960.9940.0190.0342.070.9950.9920.0200.0372.30
Unidimensional mohlala270.9810.9760.0370.0705.580.9860.9820.0310.0563.98
Moetso oa ntlha oa bobeli400.9960.9940.0210.0362.190.9940.9920.0230.0382.40
  Bothata ba tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng
  maqhubuMatla
ea mohlaladfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ dfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ df
Mohlala oa lintlha tse 'nè380.9930.9890.0340.0541.990.9870.9810.0380.0652.43
Unidimensional mohlala270.9840.9790.0440.0752.910.9760.9700.0460.0823.27
Moetso oa ntlha oa bobeli400.9930.9910.0330.0491.830.9840.9790.0390.0682.59
  Bothata ba tšebeliso ea marang-rang a sechaba
  maqhubuMatla
ea mohlaladfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ dfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ df
Mohlala oa lintlha tse 'nè380.9930.9900.0230.0493.030.9930.9890.0230.0523.31
Unidimensional mohlala270.9700.9630.0480.0968.890.9770.9720.0390.0857.13
Moetso oa ntlha oa bobeli400.9920.9890.0270.0533.390.9910.9880.0250.0563.64
  Bothata ba papali ea chelete Inthaneteng
  maqhubuMatla
ea mohlaladfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ dfCFITLISRMRRMSEAχ2/ df
Mohlala oa lintlha tse 'nè380.9970.9960.0270.0591.700.9970.9960.0260.0491.47
Unidimensional mohlala270.9940.9920.0400.0782.200.9910.9890.0390.0802.28
Moetso oa ntlha oa bobeli400.9970.9960.0290.0541.580.9970.9950.0290.0531.55

Notes. Mehlala ea boholo bo fapaneng bakeng sa papali (n = 440), ho reka inthaneteng (n = 944), tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng (n = 340), tšebeliso ea marang-rang a sechaba (n = 854), le papali ea chelete inthaneteng (n = 200); ACSID-11 = Tekanyetso ea Lintlha tsa Mathata a Khethehileng a Tšebeliso ea Inthanete, 11-lintho.

Setšoantšo sa 2.
 
Setšoantšo sa 2.

Ho jara lintho le li-covariances tse setseng tsa mefuta e mene ea lintlha tse 'ne tsa ACSID-11 (frequency) bakeng sa (A) bothata ba papali, (B) bothata ba papali ea chelete inthaneteng, (C) bothata ba ho reka inthaneteng, (D) bothata ba tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng. , le (E) bothata ba tšebeliso ea marang-rang. Notes. Mehlala ea boholo bo fapaneng bakeng sa papali (n = 440), ho reka inthaneteng (n = 944), tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng (n = 340), tšebeliso ea marang-rang a sechaba (n = 854), le papali ea chelete inthaneteng (n = 200); Tekanyo e matla ea ACSID-11 e bontšitse liphello tse tšoanang. ACSID-11 = Tekanyetso ea Litekanyetso tsa Mathata a Khethehileng a Tšebeliso ea Inthanete, 11-lintho; Lipalo li emela ho jarolloa ha lintlha tse tloaelehileng, li-factor covariances, le li-covariances tse setseng. Likhakanyo tsohle li ne li le bohlokoa ho p <0.001.

Tlhaloso: Journal of Behavioral Addictions 2022; 10.1556 / 2006.2022.00013

Unidimensional mohlala

Ka lebaka la likhokahano tse phahameng lipakeng tsa lintlha tse fapaneng, re boetse re lekile tharollo e sa lekanyetsoang ka lintho tsohle tse kentsoeng nthong e le 'ngoe, joalo ka ha e kentsoe tšebetsong, mohlala, ho IGDT-10. Mefuta e sa tloaelehang ea ACSID-11 e bonts'itse ho lekana, empa ka RMSEA le/kapa χ2/df ho ba kaholimo ho likheo tse khothalelitsoeng. Bakeng sa boits'oaro bohle, mohlala o lumellana le mefuta ea lintlha tse 'ne o betere ha o bapisoa le mefuta e fapaneng e fapaneng (bona Lethathamo 3). Ka lebaka leo, tharollo ea lintlha tse 'nè e bonahala e phahametse tharollo e sa lekanyetsoang.

Mohlala oa bobeli oa taelo ea bobeli le mohlala oa bifactor

Mokhoa o mong oa ho ikarabella bakeng sa likamano tse phahameng ke ho kenyelletsa ntho e akaretsang e emelang kaho e akaretsang, e nang le li-subdomain tse amanang. Sena se ka sebelisoa ka mokhoa oa bobeli oa taelo ea bobeli le mohlala oa bifactor. Ka tatellano ea bobeli, ntho e akaretsang (ea bobeli) e etsoa ka boiteko ba ho hlalosa likamano pakeng tsa lintlha tsa pele. Moetsong oa bifactor, ho nahanoa hore ntho e akaretsang e ikarabella bakeng sa ho ts'oana lipakeng tsa libaka tse amanang le hore, ho ekelletsa moo, ho na le lintlha tse ngata tse ikhethileng, e 'ngoe le e' ngoe e na le litlamorao tse ikhethang ho feta ntho e akaretsang. Sena se etsoa mohlala e le hore ntho e 'ngoe le e' ngoe e lumelloe ho jara nthong e akaretsang hammoho le ntlha ea eona e tobileng moo lintlha tsohle (ho kenyeletsoa likamano pakeng tsa lintlha tse akaretsang le lintlha tse itseng) li hlalosoa e le orthogonal. Mofuta oa bobeli oa tatellano ea bobeli o na le khatello ho feta mohlala oa bifactor mme o kenngoa ka har'a mohlala oa bifactor (Yung, Thissen, & McLeod, 1999). Mehlala ea rona, mehlala ea tatellano ea bobeli e bonts'a ho lekana hantle joalo ka mefuta ea lintlha tse nne (bona Lethathamo 3). Bakeng sa boits'oaro bohle, lintlha tse 'ne (taelo ea pele) li jara haholo ho (taelo ea bobeli) e akaretsang (bona Sehlomathiso B), e lokafatsang tshebediso ya dintlha tse akaretsang. Joalo ka mefuta ea lintlha tse 'ne, tse ling tsa mefuta ea tatellano ea bobeli li bonts'a maemo a sa tsitsang ka linako tse ling (ke hore, phapang e mpe ea mesaletsa ea phetoho e patehileng kapa likamano tse lekanang le kapa tse kholo ho feta 1). Re boetse re lekile mefuta e tlatselletsang ea li-bifactor e bonts'ang e lekana hantle, leha ho le joalo, eseng bakeng sa mekhoa eohle e ka bonoang (bona Sehlomathiso C).

tšepahala

Ho ipapisitsoe le sebopeho sa lintlha tse 'ne, re balile lintlha tsa lintlha bakeng sa ACSID-11 ho tsoa mekhoeng ea lintho tse fapaneng hammoho le lintlha tse akaretsang bakeng sa bothata bo bong le bo bong (bo ka bang teng) ba ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang. Re ile ra sheba ho ts'epahala ha IGDT-10 ha re ntse re sebelisa mefuta e mengata ea boitšoaro ho latela mohlala oa ASSIST (ho lekola mathata a mangata a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang) lekhetlo la pele. Liphetho li bonts'a ts'ebetso e phahameng ea kahare ea ACSID-11 le tlase empa hape le ts'epo e amohelehang ea IGDT-10 (bona Lethathamo 4).

Tafole 4.

Mehato ea ts'epo ea ACSID-11 le IGDT-10 e lekanyang mathata a itseng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang.

 ACSID-11IGDT-10
maqhubuMatla(ASSIST mofuta)
Mofuta oa pherekanoαλ2αλ2αλ2
dipapadi0.9000.9030.8940.8970.8410.845
Ho reka-ho reka inthaneteng0.9100.9130.9150.9170.8580.864
Tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa Inthaneteng0.9070.9110.8960.9010.7930.802
Tšebeliso ea marang-rang a sechaba0.9060.9120.9150.9210.8550.861
Ho becha Inthaneteng0.9470.9500.9440.9460.9100.912

Notesα = alpha ea Cronbach; λ 2 = Lambda-2 ea Guttman; ACSID-11 = Tekanyetso ea Litekanyetso tsa Mathata a Khethehileng a Tšebeliso ea Inthanete, lintho tsa 11; IGDT-10 = Teko ea Bothata ba Lipapali tsa Inthanete ea Lintho Tse Leshome; Mehlala ea boholo bo fapaneng bakeng sa papali (n = 440), ho reka inthaneteng (n = 944), tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng (n = 340), tšebeliso ea marang-rang a sechaba (n = 854), le papali ea chelete inthaneteng (n = 200).

Lethathamo 5 e bonts'a lipalo-palo tse hlalosang lintlha tsa ACSID-11 le IGDT-10. Bakeng sa mekhoa eohle ea boitšoaro, mekhoa ea ACSID-11 lintlha Tsoelo-pele / Escalation le Functional Impairment ke tse tlaase ka ho fetisisa ha li bapisoa le tsa lintlha tse ling. The factor Impaired Control e bonts'a boleng bo phahameng ka ho fetisisa bakeng sa maqhubu le matla. Lipalo kaofela tsa ACSID-11 li holimo haholo bakeng sa bothata ba tšebeliso ea marang-rang, e lateloa ke bothata ba papali ea chelete ea inthaneteng le bothata ba papali, bothata ba tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro inthaneteng, le bothata ba ho reka inthaneteng. Lipalo tsa kakaretso tsa IGDT-10 li bonts'a setšoantšo se ts'oanang (bona Lethathamo 5).

Tafole 5.

Lipalopalo tse hlalosang lintlha le lintlha tse akaretsang tsa ACSID-11 le IGDT-10 (ASSIST mofuta) bakeng sa mathata a itseng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang.

 Papali (n = 440)Ho reka-ho reka inthaneteng

(n = 944)
Tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa Inthaneteng

(n = 340)
Tšebeliso ea marang-rang a sechaba (n = 854)Papali ea chelete inthaneteng (n = 200)
E ka fetohametsMaxM(SD)metsMaxM(SD)metsMaxM(SD)metsMaxM(SD)metsMaxM(SD)
maqhubu
ACSID-11_IC030.59(0.71)030.46(0.67)030.58(0.71)030.78(0.88)030.59(0.82)
ACSID-11_IP030.48(0.69)030.28(0.56)030.31(0.59)030.48(0.71)030.38(0.74)
ACSID-11_CE030.21(0.51)030.13(0.43)030.16(0.45)030.22(0.50)030.24(0.60)
ACSID-11_FI030.25(0.53)030.18(0.48)02.50.19(0.47)030.33(0.61)030.33(0.68)
ACSID-11_kakaretso030.39(0.53)030.27(0.47)02.60.32(0.49)030.46(0.59)02.70.39(0.64)
Matla
ACSID-11_IC030.43(0.58)030.34(0.56)030.45(0.63)030.60(0.76)030.47(0.73)
ACSID-11_IP030.38(0.62)030.22(0.51)030.25(0.51)030.40(0.67)030.35(0.69)
ACSID-11_CE030.19(0.48)030.11(0.39)02.70.15(0.41)030.19(0.45)030.23(0.58)
ACSID-11_FI030.21(0.50)030.15(0.45)02.50.18(0.43)030.28(0.57)030.29(0.61)
ACSID-11_kakaretso030.31(0.46)030.21(0.42)02.60.26(0.43)030.37(0.54)030.34(0.59)
IGDT-10_sum090.69(1.37)090.51(1.23)070.61(1.06)090.77(1.47)090.61(1.41)

Notes. ACSID-11 = Tekanyetso ea Litekanyetso tsa Mathata a Khethehileng a Tšebeliso ea Inthanete, 11-lintho; IC = taolo e senyehileng; IP = ho eketseha ha bohlokoa; CE = ho tsoela pele / ho nyoloha; FI = ho senyeha ha mosebetsi; IGDT-10 = Teko ea Bothata ba Lipapali tsa Marang-rang ea Lintho Tse Leshome.

Tlhahlobo ea likamano

E le tekanyo ea bonnete ba ho aha, re ile ra sekaseka likamano lipakeng tsa ACSID-11, IGDT-10, le mehato ea bophelo bo botle ka kakaretso. Likamano li bontšoa ho Lethathamo 6. Lipalo kaofela tsa ACSID-11 li hokahana hantle le lintlha tsa IGDT-10 tse nang le boholo bo mahareng ho isa bo boholo, moo likamano lipakeng tsa lintlha tsa boits'oaro bo ts'oanang li leng holimo haholo. Ho feta moo, lintlha tsa ACSID-11 li amana hantle le PHQ-4, tse nang le phello e tšoanang le ea IGDT-10 le PHQ-4. Mekhoa ea khokahano le litekanyo tsa khotsofalo ea bophelo (L-1) le khotsofalo ea bophelo bo botle (H-1) li ts'oana haholo lipakeng tsa boima ba matšoao bo hlahlobiloeng le ACSID-11 le bo nang le IGDT-10. Likamano lipakeng tsa lintlha tse felletseng tsa ACSID-11 bakeng sa boits'oaro bo fapaneng li na le litlamorao tse kholo. Likamano lipakeng tsa lintlha tsa lintlha le IGDT-10 li ka fumaneha ho lisebelisoa tse tlatselletsang.

Tafole 6.

Likamano pakeng tsa ACSID-11 (khafetsa), IGDT-10, le mehato ea boiketlo ba kelello

   1)2)3)4)5)6)7)8)9)10)11)12)
 ACSID-11_kakaretso
1)dipapadi 1           
2)Ho reka-ho reka inthanetengr0.703**1          
 (n)(434)(944)          
3)Tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa Inthanetengr0.659**0.655**1         
 (n)(202)(337)(340)         
4)Tšebeliso ea marang-rang a sechabar0.579**0.720**0.665**1        
 (n)(415)(841)(306)854        
5)Ho becha Inthanetengr0.718**0.716**0.661**0.708**1       
 (n)(123)(197)(97)(192)(200)       
 IGDT-10_sum
6)dipapadir0.596**0.398**0.434**0.373**0.359**1      
 (n)(440)(434)(202)(415)(123)(440)      
7)Ho reka-ho reka inthanetengr0.407**0.632**0.408**0.449**0.404**0.498**1     
 (n)(434)(944)(337)(841)(197)(434)(944)     
8)Tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa Inthanetengr0.285**0.238**0.484**0.271**0.392**0.423**0.418**1    
 (n)(202)(337)(340)(306)(97)(202)(337)(340)    
9)Tšebeliso ea marang-rang a sechabar0.255**0.459**0.404**0.591**0.417**0.364**0.661**0.459**1   
 (n)(415)(841)(306)(854)(192)(415)(841)(306)(854)   
10)Ho becha Inthanetengr0.322**0.323**0.346**0.423**0.625**0.299**0.480**0.481**0.525**1  
 (n)(123)(197)(97)(192)(200)(123)(197)(97)(192)(200)  
11)PHQ-4r0.292**0.273**0.255**0.350**0.326**0.208**0.204**0.146**0.245**0.236**1 
 (n)(440)(944)(340)(854)(200)(440)(944)(340)(854)(200)(958) 
12)L-1r-0.069-0.080*-0.006-0.147**-0.179*-0.130**-0.077*-0.018-0.140**-0.170*-0.542**1
 (n)(440)(944)(340)(854)(200)(440)(944)(340)(854)(200)(958)(958)
13)H-1r-0.083-0.0510.062-0.0140.002-0.078-0.0210.0690.027-0.034-0.409**0.530**
 (n)(440)(944)(340)(854)(200)(440)(944)(340)(854)(200)(958)(958)

Notes. ** p <0.01; * p <0.05. ACSID-11 = Tekanyetso ea Litekanyetso tsa Mathata a Khethehileng a Tšebeliso ea Inthanete, 11-lintho; IGDT-10 = Teko ea Bothata ba Lipapali tsa Inthanete ea Lintho Tse Leshome; PHQ-4 = Potso ea Bophelo ba Mokuli-4; Likamano le sekhahla sa matla sa ACSID-11 se ne se le boemong bo tšoanang.

Puisano le Liphetho

Tlaleho ena e hlahisitse ACSID-11 e le sesebelisoa se secha sa tlhahlobo e bonolo le e felletseng ea mefuta e meholo ea mathata a itseng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang. Liphello tsa phuputso li bontša hore ACSID-11 e loketse ho hapa mekhoa ea ICD-11 bakeng sa bothata ba lipapali ka sebopeho se nang le mefuta e mengata. Likamano tse ntle le sesebelisoa sa tlhahlobo se thehiloeng ho DSM-5 (IGDT-10) se boetse se bonts'a bonnete ba ho aha.

Sebopeho se nahanoang sa multifactorial sa ACSID-11 se tiisitsoe ke liphello tsa CFA. Lintho li lumellana hantle le mohlala oa lintlha tse 'nè tse emelang mekhoa ea ICD-11 (1) taolo e senyehileng, (2) ho eketseha pele, (3) ho tsoelapele / ho nyoloha ho sa tsotellehe liphello tse mpe, hammoho le likarolo tse eketsehileng (4) ho senyeha ha mosebetsi le ho feta. mahlomola a tšoailoeng a lokelang ho nkoa e le a bohlokoa bakeng sa boits'oaro bo lemalloang. Tharollo ea lintlha tse 'nè e bontšitse ho lekana ho holimo ha ho bapisoa le tharollo ea unidimensional. Multidimensionality ea sekala ke tšobotsi e ikhethang ha e bapisoa le litekanyo tse ling tse koahelang mekhoa ea ICD-11 bakeng sa bothata ba lipapali (cf. King et al., 2020Pontes et al., 2021). Ho feta moo, boemo bo phahameng ka ho lekana ba mohlala oa bobeli (le mohlala oa bifactor) bo bontša hore lintho tse hlahlobang mekhoa e mene e amanang le tsona li kenyelletsa "bothata" bo akaretsang 'me bo lokafatsa tšebeliso ea lintlha tse akaretsang. Liphetho li ne li tšoana bakeng sa bothata ba papali ea chelete ea inthaneteng le mathata a mang a ka bang teng a tšebeliso ea Marang-rang a lekantsoeng ke ACSID-11 ka sebopeho sa multibehavioral ka mohlala oa ASSIST, e leng bothata ba ho reka inthaneteng, bothata ba tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro inthaneteng, marang-rang a sechaba- tšebeliso e mpe. Bakeng sa morao-rao, ha ho na lisebelisoa tse ipapisitseng le litekanyetso tsa WHO bakeng sa mathata ka lebaka la boits'oaro bo lemalloang, leha bafuputsi ba khothaletsa mofuta ona bakeng sa e 'ngoe le e 'ngoe ea bona (Brand et al., 2020Müller et al., 2019Stark et al., 2018). Mehato e mecha e felletseng, joalo ka ACSID-11, e ka thusa ho hlola mathata a mekhoa le ho etsa tlhahlobo e hlophisehileng ea lintho tse tšoanang le liphapang lipakeng tsa mefuta ena e fapaneng ea boits'oaro (bo ka bang teng).

Ho tšepahala ha ACSID-11 ho phahame. Bakeng sa bothata ba lipapali, ho lumellana ho ka hare ho ka bapisoa kapa ho phahame ho feta lisebelisoa tse ling tse ngata (cf. King et al., 2020). Ho ts'epahala ho ea ka botsitso ba kahare ho boetse ho molemo bakeng sa mathata a mang a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang a lekantsoeng ke ACSID-11 le IGDT-10 ka bobeli. Ho tsoa mona re ka fihlela qeto ea hore mokhoa o kopaneng oa karabo, joalo ka oa ASSIST (WHO THUSA Sehlopha sa Tšebetso, 2002) e loketse tlhahlobo e kopanetsoeng ea mefuta e fapaneng ea bokhoba ba boitšoaro. Mohlala oa hajoale, kakaretso ea lintlha tsa ACSID-11 e ne e phahame ka ho fetesisa bakeng sa bothata ba ts'ebeliso ea marang-rang. Sena se lumellana le keketseho e batlang e phahame ea ketsahalo ena eo hajoale e hakanyetsoang ho 14% bakeng sa linaha tse ikemetseng le 31% bakeng sa linaha tse kopaneng (Cheng, Lau, Chan, & Luk, 2021).

Botšepehi ba phetoho bo bonts'oa ke likhokahano tse ntle tse mahareng ho isa ho tse kholo lipakeng tsa lintlha tsa ACSID-11 le IGDT-10 leha ho na le lifomate tse fapaneng tsa lintlha. Ho feta moo, likamano tse ntle tse leka-lekaneng pakeng tsa lintlha tsa ACSID-11 le matšoao a lekanyang a PHQ-4 a khatello ea maikutlo le matšoenyeho li tšehetsa bonnete ba sesebelisoa se secha sa tlhahlobo. Liphetho li lumellana le liphuputso tse fetileng mabapi le likamano lipakeng tsa (comorbid) mathata a kelello le mathata a itseng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang ho kenyelletsa le bothata ba papali (Mihara & Higuchi, 2017; empa bona; Cold Carras, Shi, Hard, & Saldanha, 2020), bothata ba ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (Duffy, Dawson, & Das Nair, 2016), bothata ba ho reka-ho reka (Kyrios et al., 2018), bothata ba tšebeliso ea marang-rang (Andreassen, 2015), le bokuli ba ho becha (Dowling et al., 2015). Hape, ACSID-11 (haholo-holo bothata ba papali ea chelete ea inthaneteng le bothata ba tšebeliso ea marang-rang) e ne e amana ka tsela e fapaneng le tekanyo ea khotsofalo ea bophelo. Sephetho sena se lumellana le liphuputso tsa nakong e fetileng mabapi le likamano lipakeng tsa bophelo bo botle bo sa sebetseng hantle le matšoao a mathata a itseng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang (Cheng, Cheung, & Wang, 2018Duffy et al., 2016Duradoni, Innocenti, & Guazzini, 2020). Liphuputso li fana ka maikutlo a hore bophelo bo botle bo ka senyeha haholo-holo ha mathata a mangata a sebelisoang Inthaneteng a etsahala (Charzyńska et al., 2021). Ketsahalo e kopaneng ea mathata a itseng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang ha se ntho e etsahalang khafetsa (mohlala, Burleigh et al., 2019Müller et al., 2021) e ka hlalosang ka mokhoa o itseng likhokahano tse batlang li le holimo lipakeng tsa mathata a lekantsoeng ke ACSID-11 le IGDT-10 ka ho latellana. Sena se totobatsa bohlokoa ba sesebelisoa sa tlhahlobo se ts'oanang ho fumana lintho tse tšoanang le liphapang ka nepo ho feta mefuta e fapaneng ea mathata ka lebaka la boits'oaro bo lemalloang.

Moeli o ka sehloohong oa phuputso ea hajoale ke sampole e seng ea bongaka, e batlang e le nyane ebile e sa emele. Ka hona, ka thuto ena, re ke ke ra bontša hore na ACSID-11 e loketse e le sesebelisoa sa ho hlahloba, kaha re ke ke ra fana ka lintlha tse hlakileng tsa cutoff, leha ho le joalo. Ho feta moo, moralo oa likarolo tse fapaneng ha oa ka oa lumella ho etsa liqeto mabapi le ho tšepahala ha teko-teko kapa likamano tse bakang pakeng tsa ACSID-11 le mefuta-futa e netefatsang. Sesebelisoa se hloka ho netefatsoa ho eketsehileng ho netefatsa ho ts'epahala le ho nepahala ha sona. Leha ho le joalo, liphetho tsa phuputso ena ea pele li fana ka maikutlo a hore ke sesebelisoa se tšepisang se ka bang molemo ho hlahlojoa ho ea pele. Ho hlokomela, ho hlokeha setsi se seholo sa data eseng feela bakeng sa sesebelisoa sena, empa bakeng sa lefapha lohle la lipatlisiso ho fumana hore na ke mekhoa efe ea boitšoaro e ka nkoang e le mekhatlo ea tlhahlobo (cf. Grant & Chamberlain, 2016). Sebopeho sa ACSID-11 se bonahala se sebetsa hantle joalokaha se tiisitsoe ke liphello tsa thuto ea morao-rao. Lintlha tse 'nè tse khethehileng le sebaka se akaretsang li ne li emeloa ka mokhoa o lekaneng ho pholletsa le boitšoaro bo fapaneng, le hoja ntho e' ngoe le e 'ngoe e ile ea arajoa bakeng sa mesebetsi eohle e bontšitsoeng ea inthaneteng e entsoeng bonyane nako le nako likhoeling tse leshome le metso e' meli tse fetileng. Re se re buisane ka hore mathata a itseng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang a kanna a etsahala hammoho, leha ho le joalo, sena se tlameha ho netefatsoa lithutong tse latelang e le lebaka la likamano tse itekanetseng ho isa ho tse phahameng tsa lintlha tsa ACSID-11 ho pholletsa le boitšoaro. Ho feta moo, ka linako tse ling litekanyetso tse sa tloaelehang li ka bontša hore mekhoa e meng ea boitšoaro e hloka ho ntlafatsoa. Mekhoa e sebelisoang ha e hlile ha e amane le mefuta eohle e kenyellelitsoeng ea mathata a ka bang teng. Ho ka 'na ha etsahala hore ACSID-11 e ke ke ea koahela ka ho lekaneng likarolo tse khethehileng tsa boloetse lipontšong tsa matšoao. Tekanyo ea litekanyo liphetolelong tse fapaneng e lokela ho lekoa ka lisampole tse ncha tse ikemetseng ho kenyeletsoa bakuli ba nang le mathata a itseng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang. Ho feta moo, liphetho ha li emele batho ka kakaretso. Lintlha li batla li emela basebelisi ba Marang-rang ba Jeremane mme ho ne ho se na koalo e koetsoeng ka nako ea pokello ea lintlha; Leha ho le joalo, seoa sa COVID-19 se na le tšusumetso e ka bang teng maemong a khatello ea maikutlo le (mathata) ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang (Király et al., 2020). Leha sekala se le seng sa L-1 se netefalitsoe hantle (Beierlein et al., 2015), (domain-specific) khotsofalo ea bophelo e ka haptjoa ka botlalo lithutong tse tlang ho sebelisoa ACSID-11.

Qetellong, ACSID-11 e ipakile e loketse tlhahlobo e felletseng, e tsitsitseng, le ea moruo ea matšoao a (a ka bang teng) mathata a ikhethileng a ts'ebeliso ea Marang-rang, ho kenyelletsa bothata ba ho bapala, bothata ba ho reka inthaneteng, bothata ba tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng, marang-rang a sechaba. -e leng bothata ba tšebeliso, le bothata ba papali ea chelete ea marang-rang bo thehiloeng ho ICD-11 mekhoa ea ho hlahloba bothata ba lipapali. Tlhahlobo e eketsehileng ea sesebelisoa sa tlhahlobo e lokela ho etsoa. Re tšepa hore ACSID-11 e ka kenya letsoho tlhatlhobong e tsitsitseng ea boits'oaro bo lemalloang lipatlisisong le hore e ka thusa le ts'ebetsong ea bongaka nakong e tlang.

Mehloli ea lichelete

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, Jeremane Research Foundation) - 411232260.

Menehelo ea bangoli

SMM: Mokhoa, Tlhahlobo ea Semmuso, Ho Ngola - Moralo oa Pele; EW: Khopolo-taba, Methodology, Ho Ngola - Tlhahlobo & Editing; AO: Mokhoa, Tlhahlobo e hlophisitsoeng; RS: Khopolo-taba, Methodology; AM: Khopolo-taba, Methodology; CM: Khopolo-taba, Methodology; KW: Khopolo-taba, Methodology; HJR: Khopolo-taba, Methodology; MB: Khopolo, Mokgwa, Ho Ngola – Tlhahlobo & Hlophiso, Tlhokomelo.

Khohlano ea thahasello

Bangoli ha ba tlalehe likhohlano tsa lichelete kapa tse ling tse amanang le taba ea sengoloa sena.

Liteboho

Mosebetsi oa sehlooho sena o ile oa etsoa ho latela Setsi sa Lipatlisiso sa ACSID, FOR2974, se tšehetsoeng ke Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, Jeremane Research Foundation) - 411232260.

Lintho tse ling tse eketsehileng

Lintlha tse tlatsetsang ntlheng ena li ka fumaneha inthaneteng ho https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2022.00013.