Tlhatlhobo ea: "Thepa e Senyehileng: Temoho ea Bokhoba ba Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa e le Mokena-lipakeng Pakeng Tsa Bolumeli le Kamano Ho Tšoenyeha Ho Tsotelletseng Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa Sebelisa" (Leonhardt, Willoughby, & Young-Petersen 2017)

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Phetoho (July, 2017): Mongoli-'moho le 'na Brian Willoughby o pepesa kamoo David Ley a ileng a hlapanya le ho emela thuto ea hae hampe ho Ley's Psychology Today poso ea blog "Khohlano ea Bolumeli e Etsa Hore Batho ba be le Litlokotsi Bobe ba Likamano": Ho Nahana ka Batho ba Batšo le ba Bofubelu: Karabo ea Boipiletso ba hore Bolumeli ba Bolumeli ke Tlhaselo ea Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa.

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Sehlooho se

"e lemohiloe ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro "meme e ntse e tšoaetsa lingoliloeng tse hlahlojoang ke lithaka, lekhetlong lena thuto e ncha:"Lintho Tse Senyehileng: Pono ea Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa Ho lemalla Bokhopo e le Mokena-lipakeng pakeng tsa Bolumeli le Boiketlo Ho Tšoenyeha ha Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa Ho Sebelisa", 2017 (Leonhardt, et al.). Poleloana "ho lemoha bokhoba ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro" e ile ea khothalletsoa ke Joshua Grubbs, mme ea sebelisoa la pele ho la hae thuto 2013. Ho hlakile haholo hore ts'ehetso ea thuto ea hajoale ea ho hohela "ho lemalla ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" kapa "tumelo ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" e ipapisitse le ts'ebeliso e tsoelang pele ea mohopolo oa Joshua Grubbs. Leonhardt, et al. e qotsa 3 Grubbs e etsa lipatlisiso tsa ho fokotseha ka makhetlo a 36 'meleng oa pampiri.

Pele re e hlahloba Leonhardt, et al. 5-ntho "lipotso tsa ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro", a re ke re hlahlobe lithuto tsa Grubbs hakhutšoanyane. (YBOP e phatlalalitsoe tlhaloso ena e pharaletseng ea liqoso tse entsoeng ho Grubbs "lithuto tsa ho lemalla ho lemalla" le ho boralitaba tse amanang le tsona tse khelosang.)


Karolo ea 1: 'Nete ka mora polelo ea Joshua Grubbs "o lemohile ho lemalla litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro"

Taba ea sebele Check #1: Ha lithuto tsa Grubbs li sebelisa poleloana "o lemohile ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa,"Ha e le hantle e supa lintlha tse felletseng ho Grubbs" Cyber ​​Pornography Use Inventory "(CPUI-9) - lenane la lipotso le sa khoneng, 'me le sa ka la netefatsoa bakeng sa, ho hlophisa "ho lemohuoa" ho tsoa taoleng ea' nete. Ee ho joalo, "o lemohile ho lemalla litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro"Ha e bontše letho ho feta palo: palo e feletseng ho 9-ntho ea bootsoa lemalla ntho lenane la lipotso. Taba ena e lahlehile ha e fetoleloa lithutong tsa Grubbs ka lebaka la ho pheta-pheta khafetsa moelelo o khelosang "ho lemalla ho lemalla" ho fapana le lebitso le nepahetseng le sa sebetseng: "Litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tsa cyber li sebelisa lintlha tsa pokello."

Taba ea sebele Check #2: Grubbs CPUI-9 e hlahloba sebele ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate, eseng tumelo ka ho lemalla lithethefatsi. E thehiloe ho sebelisoa liteko tsa bokhoba ba lithethefatsi. Se ke oa nka polelo ea rona bakeng sa eona. CPUI-9 ke ena. (Potso ka 'ngoe e fumanoe ho sebelisoa sekala sa Likert sa 1 ho isa ho 7, ha 1 e le "ho hang, "Le 7 e le"haholo. ")

Karolo ea ho Ikemela

  1. Ke lumela hore ke lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tsa Inthanete.
  2. Ke ikutloa ke sitoa ho emisa tšebeliso ea ka ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng.
  3. Esita le ha ke sa batle ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng, ke ikutloa ke hoheloa ke eona

Karolo ea Boiteko ba ho Finyella

  1. Ka linako tse ling, ke leka ho hlophisa kemiso ea ka e le hore nka khona ho ba mong e le hore ke shebe litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.
  2. Ke hanne ho tsamaea le metsoalle kapa ho ea likarolong tse ling tsa sechaba ho ba le monyetla oa ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.
  3. Ke tlohetse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa haholo.

Mahlomola a Maikutlo Karolo

  1. Ke hlajoa ke lihlong ka mor'a ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng.
  2. Ke ikutloa ke tepeletse maikutlo ka mor'a ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng.
  3. Ke ikutloa ke kula ka mor'a ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng.

Ha e hlahlojoa ka hloko, lipotso 1-6 tsa CPUI-9 li lekola matšoao le matšoao a tloaelehileng ho tsohle tse lemalloang, ha lipotso 7-9 (Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo) li lekola molato, lihlong le ho ikoahlaea. Ka hoo, "sebele temallo ”e tsamaellana hantle le lipotso 1-6 (Compulsivity & Access Boiteko). Ho tlosa lipotso tse 3 tsa "Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo" (tse lekolang lihlong le molato) ho lebisa liphellong tse fapaneng haholo bakeng sa lithuto tsa Grubbs: 1) Kamano e fokolang haholo lipakeng tsa tumelo le sebele lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa. 2) Kamano e matla haholo lipakeng tsa "[Litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso] Sebelisa ka Lihora"Le sebele lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa. Ka mantsoe a mang lihora tsa ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li bolela esale pele ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa, ​​athe kamano ea tumelo le ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa e fokola haholo. Haeba re khella fatše re fumana hore tumelo ha e na kamano le mekhoa e metle ea ho lemalla ho lemalla joalokaha ho hlahlojoa ke lipotso 4-6.

Ka mantsoe a bonolo - ho lemalla ho lemalla lithethefatsi ho na le kamano e nyane ho bolumeli. Motho a ka botsa hore na ke mokhoa o utloahalang oa ho kopanya liapole le lilamunu ka sesebelisoa sa tlhahlobo, ka hona a ferekanya likamano le ho lemalla ka lehlakoreng le leng le likamano le lihlong tse molato ka lehlakoreng le leng. Motho a ka boela a botsa hore na ho nepahetse hore joale u khethe sebatli ("se lemohuoa") se bolelang, ka phoso, hore sesebelisoa sa tlhahlobo se ka hlophisa 'nete ho tsoa ho bokhoba ba temallo.

Taba ea sebele Check #3: U ka nka lentsoe la Joshua Grubbs hore CPUI ke an sebele lipotso tsa bootsoa, a Pampiri ea pele ea 2010 ea Grubbs o netefalitse Cyber-Pornography Sebelisa Inventory (CPUI) e le tlhahlobo ea lipotso sebele ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate (bona karolo ena bakeng sa ho feta). Mantsoe a reng "ho lemalla ho lemalla lithethefatsi" le "ho lemalla ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate" ha a hlahe pampiring ea hae ea 2010. Ho fapana le hoo, Grubbs et al., 2010 e hlakisa libakeng tse 'maloa tseo CPUI e li hlahlobang bootsoa ba 'nete bo bobebe:

"Moralo oa CPUI o ne o ipapisitse le molao-motheo oa hore boits'oaro bo lemalloang bo khetholloa ke ho se khone ho emisa boits'oaro, litlamorao tse mpe tse kholo ka lebaka la boits'oaro, le takatso e akaretsang ea boits'oaro (Delmonico & Miller, 2003)…. Ka sebele CPUI e bontša ts'episo e le sesebelisoa sa ho lekola bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba inthanete. ”

Taba ea sebele Check #4: Hamorao, ka thuto 2013, Grubbs e fokotsa palo ea lipotso tsa CPUI ho tloha 32 (kapa 39 kapa 41) ho ea 9 ea hona joale, 'me (ka ho makatsang) o ngotse hape e le hantle, e tiisitsoe Teko ea lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa e le lipotso tse hlahlobang "bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa." Le ha Grubbs ka boeena a ne a sa re teko ea hae e ka hlophisoa ho tloha bothateng ba 'nete, ho hiroa ha hae ka lentsoe le khelosang ("ho lemalla ho lemalla") bakeng sa lintlha tse ngata ho sesebelisoa sa hae sa CPUI-9 ho entse hore ba bang ba nke sesebelisoa sa hae se na le thepa ea boloi ea ho khonahala ho khetholla pakeng tsa bokhoba bo "lemohuoang" le "sebele". Sena se sentse tšimo e kholo ts'ebetsong ea tlhekefetso ea lithethefatsi hobane ba bang ba ts'epa lipampiri tsa hae e le bopaki ba ntho eo ba sa e faneng ka eona, ebile ba sa khone ho e fana ka eona. Ha ho na teko e teng e ka khethollang bokhoba ba "'nete" le "ho lemohuoa". Ho e bitsa joalo feela ho ke ke ha etsa joalo.

Joshua Grubbs o boletse ka lengolo tsoibila hore mohlahlobi oa thuto ea hae ea bobeli ea CPUI-9 o entse hore eena le bangoli-'moho le eena ba thuto ea 2013 ba fetole poleloana ea "lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa" ea CPUI-9 (hobane mohlahlobi o ile a soma ka "haha" ea lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa). Ke ka hona Grubbs a fetotseng tlhaloso ea hae ea teko hore e be "e lemohiloe ho lemalla litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ”lipotso. Ha e le hantle mohlahlobi / mohlophisi ea sa tsejoeng koranteng ena e le 'ngoe o qalile lebitso le sa tšehetsoeng, le khelosang la "e lemohiloe bokhoba ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro. ” CPUI ha e e-s'o tiisetsoe e le teko ea tlhahlobo e khethollang ho lemalla lithethefatsi ho tloha “a lemoha ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa”Mona ke Grubbs tweeting ka mokhoa ona, ho kenyelletsa maikutlo a mohlahlobi:

Josh Grubbs @JoshuaGrubbsPhD

Leqepheng la ka la pele la ts'ebeliso e mpe ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa: "Ho aha [bokhoba ba litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso] ho bohlokoa ho lekanya joalo ka boiphihlelo ba ho koeteloa ha bajaki: ha ho na thuso."

Nicole R Prause, PhD @NicoleRPrause

Uena kapa mohlahlobi?

Josh Grubbs @JoshuaGrubbsPhD

Mofuputsi o ile a mpolella sona

Josh Grubbs @JoshuaGrubbsPhD  Jul 14

Ha e le hantle se ileng sa lebisa mosebetsing oa ka oa ho lemalla ho lemalla, ke ile ka nahana ka litlhaloso ha ke ntse ke ntlafatsa maikutlo.

Le ha Grubbs a sebelisitse poleloana "ho lemoha ho lemalla" makhetlo a 80 pampiring ea hae ea 2013, o ile a supa mofuta oa nnete oa CPUI-9 ntlheng ena:

"Qetellong, re fumane hore CPUI-9 e ne e amahanngoa hantle le litloaelo tse akaretsang tsa bosodoma, joalo ka ha e lekantsoe ke Kalichman Sculsivity Scale Scale. Sena se supa kamano e phahameng lipakeng tsa ts'ebeliso e tlamang ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro le thobalano e amanang le thobalano ka kakaretso. ”

Hlokomela kamoo karolo e boletsoeng kaholimo e bolelang hore CPUI-9 e lekola "tšebeliso e mpe ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa."

Tlhahlobo ea Check #5: Ha ho na lipotso tsa lipotso tse lekolang "ho lemalla ho lemalla" eng kapa eng - ntho kapa boitšoaro - ho kenyeletsoa ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Ke ka hona patlisiso ea 'Google Scholar' e khutlisetsang sephetho sa zero bakeng sa "litlhahiso" tse latelang:

Taba ea sebele Check #6: Ha ho na lipotso tse ka khethollang pakeng tsa "tumelo ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" le matšoao a ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa. Joalo ka liteko tse ling tsa bokhoba, CPUI e lekola boits'oaro le matšoao a tloaelehileng litlamong tsohle (le liteko tsohle tsa tahi), joalo ka ho se khone ho laola ts'ebeliso, ho qobelloa ho e sebelisa, litakatso tsa ho li sebelisa, litlamorao tse mpe tsa kelello, sechaba le maikutlo, le ho ameha haholo ka ho sebelisa . Ebile, ke potso ea # 1 feela ea CPUI-9 ebile e fana ka maikutlo a ho lemalla "ho lemohuoa": Ke lumela hore ke lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tsa Inthanete.

Ka kakaretso, poleloana e reng "ho lemalla ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro" ha e bolele letho ho feta lintlha tsohle ho CPUI-9, e leng phetoho ea lipotso tse netefalitsoeng ho 2010 joalo ka sebele teko ea lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa. Lilemo tse tharo hamorao, Grubbs o ile a "khothatsoa" ka matla ke koranta ea khatiso ho ngola CPUI-9 hape "teko ea" ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa "ntle le motheo oa mahlale, kapa netefatso ea semmuso. Pampiri eo ea 2013, le lithuto tsohle tse latelang tsa Grubbs, li nkile sebaka sa "palo e feletseng ea CPUI-9”Ka poleloana“o lemohile ho lemalla litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro. ” Haeba o ka bona lingoloa li bua lintho tse kang:

  • "Tumelo ea hau litlamong tsa bootsoa tse bakang khatello ea maikutlo"

kapa thuto e reng:

  • "Matšoenyeho a lihlooho a ne a amana le pono ea bona ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa"

Tseba hore tsela e nepahetseng haholoanyane ea ho e bala ke e latelang:

  • “Bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa bo baka khatello ea maikutlo”
  • "Matšoenyeho a lihlooho a ne a amana le lintlha tse ngata tekong ea lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa"

Hase feela hore Grubbs e ile ea ithuta ka matla, le ka ho khelosa, e bolelang hore ba ile ba hlahloba "maikutlo a ho lemalla lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa," lipolelo tse ling tse peli thutong eo le tsona lia oa:

  • Bolela # 1) “Ho lemalla lithethefatsi tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho amana haholo le bolumeli.”

E seng joalo hantle. Karolo ena e senola hore bolumeli bo fapana le bo fokolang feela sebele ho lemalla litlolo; ha karolo ena e senola bolumeli le litlaleho tsa ho lemalla lithethefatsi.

  • Tlhaloso # 2) "Ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa ha ho amane le tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa."

Ha se 'nete. Karolo ena etsa joalo.

Tlhahlobo ea Check #7: Liphuputso li hlokomela hore boholo ba tšebeliso ea litšoantšo ke tsa bootsoa eseng ho amana ka tsela e lumellanang le litlokotsi tsa bootsoa (ho feta mona karolong ea 5)

Bopaki bo hokae bo hokae Leonhardt, et al. 'me lipampiri tsa Grubbs li hahoa, e leng hore palo ea tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ke moemeli ea ka tšeptjoang oa ho lemalla bokhoba ba nnete - le ba sebelisang ho feta "ba lemalloang" ho feta ba nang le tlaase? Leonhardt, et al. o ile a botsa ka makhetlo, ha Grubbs a sebelisa lihora tse ngata tsa tšebeliso, empa ntlha ke hore ha ho teko e tšoanang le "tekanyo ea tahi ea 'nete." Taba ke hore, lisebelisoa tse hlophisitsoeng tsa tlhahlobo ea bokhoba ha li sebelise "bongata ba ts'ebeliso" e le eona feela moemeli oa bokhoba.

Hobane boholo ba tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ke tekanyo e sa tšepahaleng ea ho lemala, tlhahiso leha e le efe ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa ke "bothata ba bolumeli" bo itšetlehileng ka ho se lumellane ho fokolang (pakeng tsa lihora tsa tšebeliso le litekanyetso tlhahlobo ea ntho ea 5) ha ho bapisoa le basebelisi ba bolumeli le ba se nang bolumeli, hona joale ha ho na thuso, 'me ka nako e khutšoanyane.

Ho feta moo, nako ea ho qetela ha ke hlahloba ho hlajoa ke lihlong kapa bolumeli bo molato ho etsa liphetoho tsa boko bo fetisang ba fumanoang ke lithethefatsi. Empa ho na le tse ling tsa 30 lithuto tsa kelello ho tlaleha liphetoho tsa bokooa bo amanang le lithethefatsi ho batho ba hlokang boitšoaro bo bobe ba ho kopanela liphate / ba lemaletseng ho kopanela liphate Tsena li fane ka bopaki bo matla ba ho lemalla ho lemalla batho ba bang ba sebelisang litšoantšo.


Karolo ea 2: The Leonhardt, et al. Potso ea litaba ea 5 e hlahloba feela sebele ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate

Hona joale, khutlela lenaneong la hona joale la BYU: Leonhardt, Willoughby, le Young-Petersen, 2017 (Leonhardt, et al.). Ho lekola "ho lemalla ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro" bangoli ba fetotse lipotso tse 5 tse nkiloeng ho potso ea 10 ea "Ho Tšoenyeha ka Thobalano." "Sekhahla sa ho Qobelloa ho Kopanela Liphate" se thehiloe ka 1995 mme se entsoe ka thobalano e sa laoleheng likamano ka kelello (mabapi le ho batlisisa seoa sa AIDS).

Ka ho tlosa "thobalano" kapa "thobalano" le "litšoantšo tsa bootsoa," Leonhardt, et al. bangoli ba thehile lenane la lipotso leo ba le tšoaileng e le le lekolang "pono ea ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa."Ba sebelisitse poleloana eo le" tumelo ea ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa "nakong eohle ea thuto ea bona, ho fapana le e nepahetseng haholoanyane"palo e feletseng ea lipotso tsa rona tsa 5-ntlha. "

Ipotse, etsa lipotso tse 5 tse latelang ho lekanya "tumelo ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa kapa na ba hlahloba matšoao, matšoao le boitšoaro bo tloaelehileng ha bo lemalla haholo?

  1. "Maikutlo a ka ka litšoantšo tsa bootsoa a baka mathata bophelong ba ka,"
  2. "Litakatso tsa ka tsa ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li senya bophelo ba ka ba letsatsi le letsatsi,"
  3. "Ka linako tse ling ke hlōleha ho finyella boitlamo le boikarabelo ba ka ka lebaka la litšoantšo tsa ka tsa bootsoa li sebelisa"
  4. "Ka linako tse ling takatso ea ka ea ho shebella litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro e monate haholo ke felloa ke matla,
  5. "Ke tlameha ho loanela ho se shebe litšoantšo tsa bootsoa."

Ha ho joalo? Ho thoe'ng ha re fetola lipotso tsena tse hlano ho hlahisa lipotso tsa ho lemalla lithethefatsi:

  1. "Maikutlo a ka ka ho noa joala li baka mathata bophelong ba ka, "
  2. "Takatso ea ka ea sebelisa joala e sitisa bophelo ba ka ba letsatsi le leng le le leng, "
  3. "Ka linako tse ling ke sitoa ho finyella boitlamo le boikarabelo ba ka ka lebaka la ka tšebeliso ea joala, "
  4. "Ka linako tse ling takatso ea ka ea noa joala e kholo haholo ke lahleheloa ke taolo, "
  5. "Ke tlameha ho loanela ho se etse sebelisa joala. "

Kahoo, na lipotso tse 5 tse kaholimo li lekola "tumelo ea bokhoba ba tahi" kapa li lekola "ho lemalla joala?" Joalokaha mang kapa mang a ka bona, lipotso tsena tse 5 lia hlahloba sebele ba lemalla joala, joalo ka ha ba ne ba hlahloba ho lemalla lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa ho Leonhardt, et al.

Leha ho le joalo re bolelloa hore motho kakaretso Lintlha tsa lipotso tsohle tse 5 li tšoana le "ho lumela ho lemalla" ho fapana le ho ba lekhoba la tahi! E khelosa haholo, ebile e se na motheo oa mahlale, kaha lipotso tsena tsa 5 li ne li sa netefatsoa e le ho khetholla "tumelo ea motho ea lemalloang ke litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" le tahi ea 'nete.

Hlokomela hore litekanyetso tse mashome tsa ts'ebetso ea lithethefatsi tsa lik'homphieutha le tsa boitšoaro bo hlephileng li itšetlehile ka lipotso tse tšoanang le tse ka holimo ho hlahloba sebele, eseng “feela e lemohiloe, ”Bokhoba ba lithethefatsi. Mohlala, Leonhardt, et al. lipotso li hlahloba mekhoa ea mantlha ea ho lemalla boitšoaro joalo ka ha ho hlalositsoe ke sesebelisoa sa tlhahlobo se sebelisoang haholo se tsejoang e le "4 Cs.”Ha re ba bapiseng. Mona ke kamoo Leonhardt, et al lipotso li tsamaisana le li-C tse 'nè:

  • Cho imeloa ho sebelisoa (2, 3)
  • Ho se khone ho Ctšebeliso ea baoliere (2, 3, 4)
  • Clitloaelo tse lokelang ho sebelisoa (1, 2, 3, 4 )
  • Cba ile ba sebelisa tšebeliso ho sa tsotellehe liphello tse mpe (2, 3)

Ka bokhutšoane, Leonhardt, et al. hlahloba lipontšo, matšoao le boitšoaro ba sebele ho lemalla liphate, eseng tumelo ea bokhoba. Ha ho na letho lipotsong tsena tse 5 le fanang ka maikutlo a "ho lumela feela ho lemalla". Ha ea etsa feela hore Leonhardt, et al. bangoli ba sa sebelise poleloana e reng "bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" ho pholletsa le pampiri ea bona, ba e nkile bohato bo bong hape ka ho tsitlella hore Grubbs CPUI-9 le lipotso tsa bona tsa lipotso tse 5 li kanna tsa lekola "tumelo ea motho ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa". Re lokela ho hlokomela hore Grubbs ka boeena ha ho mohla a kileng a sebelisa poleloana "tumelo ea ho lemalla."

Haeba bangoli bana ba ne ba nepile hore lintho tsa bona tsa 5 li lekola "ho lemalla ho lemalla," ka nako eo Che tlhahlobo ea lithethefatsi e teng e ka 'na ea hlahloba lithethefatsi tsa' nete. Sena se ne se tla senya litaba tse ngata ho litsebi tse makholo tsa lithethefatsi lefatšeng lohle tse sebelisang liteko tse joalo ho hlahloba lithethefatsi tse fapa-fapaneng letsatsi le leng le le leng.

Ntlha ea bohlokoa: Nako le nako ha u bala sengoloa kapa thuto u sebelisa karolo ea "ho lemalla ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" kapa "ho lumela bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa," tseba feela hore mantsoe ana kaofela a khelosang a bolela ntho e le 'ngoe feela: ” Ho senola bohlokoa ba 'nete ba se fumanoeng lihloohong le liphuputsong tse joalo, tlohela mantsoe a kang "ho lemohuoa" kapa "tumelo",' me o nkele “bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.” Ha re etseng sena ka makhetlo a 'maloa ho feta 100 moo Leonhardt, et al. e kentsoe "ho lemohuoa" kapa "tumelo" pampiring ea bona:

Leonhardt, et al. o itse:

Leha ho le joalo, ho bonahala eka basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ba ikutloa hore kamano ea matšoenyeho e lika-liketsa tšebeliso ea bona feela ha ba ntse ba lumela hore ba na le mokhoa o thata oa ho sebelisa.

Ntle le mantsoe a sa nepahalang:

Litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ea ileng a re lekola 5-ntho ea rona ea thobalano ea likokoana-hloko tsa bothata ba boiphihlelo kamanong ea matšoenyeho e pota-potileng ts'ebetso ea bona ea boikhathollo ea bootsoa.

Leonhardt, et al. o itse:

Ho ea ka liphello tsena, ba sebelisang litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso ha ba khone ho ikutloa ba tšoenyehile likamanong tsa bona ka lebaka la tšebeliso ea bona, ntle le haeba ba lumela hore ba na le mokhoa o thata oa ho sebelisa.

Ntle le mantsoe a sa nepahalang:

Ho ea ka liphetho tsena ba lemaletseng litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba ikutloa ba tšoenyehile likamanong tsa bona.

Leonhardt, et al. o itse:

Ha re nahana hore bothata ba ho intša e ne e le mokhoa o ts'oanang oa ho ba le kamano le matšoenyeho a amanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, batho ba ikutloang ba e-na le litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso, tse sithabetsang ba sebelisa e ka 'na ea e-ba leqe ho batla batho ba ratanang.

Ntle le mantsoe a sa nepahalang:

Ha re nahana hore bothata ba ho intša e ne e le mokhoa o ts'oanang oa ho ba le kamano le matšoenyeho a amanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, batho ba lemaletseng litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba ka 'na ba e-ba leqe ho batla batho ba ratanang.

Ha e le hantle, phuputso eo e fumane hore batho ba tsosang takatso ea bootsoa ba nang le khatello ea maikutlo khahlanong le litšoantšo tsa bona tse tsosang takatso, ba sebelisa mathata a bakoang ke ho se sebetse ha bona, ho senya bophelo ba bona ba letsatsi le leng le le leng, le ho se khone ho kopana le boitlamo le boikarabello ba mosebetsi. Ka mokhoa o sa thabiseng, litlolo tsa bona tsa bootsoa li ile tsa ama likarolo tse sa tšoaneng tsa likamano tsa lerato.

Le ha ho le molemo ho bahlokomeli ho tseba hore basebelisi ba bang ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba kanna ba hloka ho sebeletsa boitlhompho ba bona le ts'ebeliso efe kapa efe e litšila ea bootsoa, ​​ha ho thuse sechaba ho thetsoa hore liteko li ka khetholla lipakeng tsa "tse lemohuoang" le tsa nnete ho lemalla. Ebile ha ho na thuso ho ferekanya likhopolo tse peli le ho etsa lipolelo tse se nang motheo ho ipapisitsoe le pherekano e joalo.

Update: On podcast ea hae, Natasha Helfer Parker o buisana le Dr. Brian Willoughby ka thuto ena. Puisanong ena, Willoughby e etsa lipolelo tse makatsang hore:

"Re bone ka 10-15% ea sampuli ea rona e lumellanang le mofuta oo (e leng bokhoba bo hlephileng ba ho kopanela liphate) ... empa ha re sheba pono feela e ne e le ka nako ea 2-3 e kholo ho feta palo eo. Kahoo re bone batho ba bangata ba ikhethang ba ipepesetsa ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Karolo ea boitšoaro ea seo e ne e bonahala eka ha ea ka ea ema. "

Ha ho na letho thutong ea hae le supang lintlha tse kaholimo. Ha re hlakeng: Lipotso feela tse amanang le "ho lemalla ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" kapa "ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" e ne e le lipotso tse 5 tse thathamisitsoeng kaholimo. Lipotso tsena tse 5 li ke ke tsa fana ka leseli leo Willoughby a reng o na le lona: bokhoni ba ho khetholla hore na ke mang ha e le hantle lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa 'me ke mang feela ba lumela ba ne ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (empa ha e le hantle ba ne ba se).

Lipolelo tsena tsa Willoughby ha li tšehetsoe ka botlalo. Ho lemalla lithethefatsi ho ka fumanoa feela ka ho kopanya nalane ea bareki mabapi le ho nka lipotso, lipotso le lipotso tsa tlhahlobo (joalo ka Univesithi ea Cambridge e sebelisitsoeng le bafo ba eona). Ha ho mofuputsi ea nang le lebaka la ho beha sehlooho "ho lemalla" kapa "ho lumela ka bohata hore ba lemaletse" ka ho sebelisa lipotso tsa lipotso tse 5 tse tlatsitsoeng ho Amazon M-turk.

Willoughby ha a sebelise poleloana "ho lemalla ho lemalla" le "maikutlo a kahare a bokhoba", o bolela hore bafo "ba itse" ba lemaletse ". Ke tla pheta: sehlooho se arabetse lipotso tsa lipotso tse 5. Thuto 'me joale Willoughby o na le eona E ngotse lintlha kaofela lipotsong tsa 5 e le tse latelang: "ho lemalla ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa", "ho lumela bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa", "pono ​​ea kahare ea bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa". “Ba iketsa eka ke makhoba”.

Kamora nako, thuto le Willoughby li fana ka maikutlo a hore kamano lipakeng tsa tumelo le lintlha tse lenaneng la lipotso tse 5 li tlameha ho bonts'a hore basebelisi ba bangata ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba hlajoa ke lihlong ebile ha ba na matšoao a bokhoba. Hoo ho qhoma haholo ha ho nahanoa hore thuto ea bona ha ea ka ea lekola lihlong, kapa maikutlo afe kapa afe.


Karolo ea 3: Ho ngola hape le ho fetolela bocha Leonhardt, et al. inahaneloang

E ne e tla ba efe Leonhardt, et al. ponahalo e hlakileng ekare tumelo le temoho li felisitsoe? Taba ea mantlha ke ena:

Lipatlisiso tsa morao-rao litšoantšong tsa bootsoa li bontša hore maikutlo a ho lemala a bolela liphello tse mpe ka holimo ho feta litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Lipatlisiso li boetse li bontšitse hore batho ba bolumeli ba ka 'na ba lemoha hore ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​ho sa tsotellehe hore na ba sebelisa litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso hangata hakae. Ho sebelisa mohlala oa batho ba baholo ba sa nyalaneng ba 686, thuto ena e lumellana le ho eketsa lipatlisiso tsa pele ka ho hlahloba ho lemalla ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e le mokena-lipakeng pakeng tsa bolumeli le kamano ea matšoenyeho e amanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Liphello li senola hore litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li sebelisoa le ho itšetleha ka boleng bo fokolang li amana le kamano e phahameng ea ho tšoenyeha e amanang le litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro, ha pono ea ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e ne e amana haholo le kamano ea matšoenyeho e amanang le bootsoa. Leha ho le joalo, ha pono ea ho lemalla litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro e kenngoa e le mokena-lipakeng oa mekhoa ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li ne li e-na le phello e fokolang ka kamano ea matšoenyeho e amanang le litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso, le ho lemoha ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ka tsela e itseng pakeng tsa bolumeli le likamano tse amanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Ka ho utloisisa kamoo litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso li sebelisoang kateng, bolumeli, le ho lemoha ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li amahanngoa le kamano ea matšoenyeho e amanang le litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li sebelisa mekhahlelo ea pele ea likamano, re tšepa ho ba le menyetla ea hore banyalani ba atlehe ho bua ka litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le ho fokotsa mathata ka likamano tsa lerato.

Tšepahala, na 'mali ha a na ho nahana hore ho tloha ka holimo ke hore the tumelo ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate ke eona feela sesosa sa mathata ohle a amanang le litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso ea ho kopanela liphate a hlahlojoang

Joale, mona ke Leonhardt, et al. mongolo o hlakileng o ngotsoeng kamoo re nahanang hore o lokela hore ebe o ipapisitse le seo o se fumaneng, ntle le lipolelo tse sa nepahalang joalo ka "tumelo ho," "temoho ea," le moelelo o eketsehileng o amanang le lipatlisiso tsa Grubbs Leonhardt, et al. bangoli ba itšetlehile ka:

Phuputso ea morao-rao mabapi le litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro e fana ka maikutlo a hore bokhoba ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro bo bolela esale pele litholoana tse mpe tse kaholimo ho tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Liphuputso tse 'maloa tsa sehlopha sa Grubbs li fumane hore "basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba bolumeli" ba fumana lintlha hanyenyane e phahameng ho feta basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho "Cyber ​​Pornography Use Inventory" (CPUI-9). Sephetho sena se tlameha ho bonoa maemong ao lithuto tsohle tsa likarolo tse fapaneng li tlalehang litefiso tse tlaase haholo tsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho batho ba ratang bolumeli. Sena se bolela hore batho ba seng bakae ba bolumeli ba sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa hangata tlaase sekhahla sa "ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" har'a batho ba bolumeli. Ho na le mabaka a 'maloa a ka khonang mabapi le hore na ke hobane'ng ha batho ba bangata ba sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba ka 'na ba lekanngoa ho feta lipotso tsa ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho feta baahi ba sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.

Ho sebelisa mohlala oa batho ba baholo ba sa nyalaneng ba 686, thuto ena e phaella ka patlisiso e fetileng ka ho lekola litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso ea bootsoa e sebelisa moemeli pakeng tsa bolumeli le kamano ea matšoenyeho e amanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Liphello li senola hore litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li sebelisoa le ho itšetleha ka boleng bo fokolang tse amanang le kamano e phahameng ea litlokotsi tse amanang le litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso, empa ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho ne ho amana haholo le kamano ea matšoenyeho e amanang le bootsoa.

Leha ho le joalo, ha lithethefatsi tsa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li ne li kenngoa e le mokena-lipakeng oa mekhoa e metle ea litšoantšo, litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li ne li e-na le phello e fokolang ka kamano ea matšoenyeho e amanang le litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso, ' Ka ho utloisisa kamoo litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li sebelisang kateng, bolumeli le litlamo tsa bootsoa li amahanngoa le kamano ea matšoenyeho e amanang le litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li sebelisa mekhahlelo ea pele ea likamano, re tšepa ho ba le menyetla ea ho ntlafatsa menyetla ea banyalani ka katleho ho bua ka taba ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le ho fokotsa mathata ka likamano tsa lerato.

TAKE -WAY: Ho ba molumeli e ne e le feela "ho amahanngoa le bofokoli”Ka matšoenyeho a kamano a amanang le ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Ka lehlakoreng le leng, bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (joalo ka ha bo hlahlobiloe ke lipotso tse 5) "bo ne bo e amanang haholo”Ka matšoenyeho a kamano a amanang le ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Ka kakaretso, ho ba molumeli ho eketsa matšoenyeho kamanong le ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa - e leng ntho e utloahalang. Empa e ne e le lekhoba la litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (ebang ke tsa bolumeli kapa che) tse phethileng karolo e kholo ho nts'etsopele matšoenyeho a amanang le ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Matšoenyeho a kamano a bonahetse joang ho basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro? Joalokaha thuto e itse:

"Kamano ena ea matšoenyeho e amanang le ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e bontšitsoe ka ho tsilatsila ho batla balekane le bothata bo boholo ba ho senola ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa."

Lits'enolo tse peli tse kholo tsa thuto:

  1. Batho ba lemaletseng lit soant so tsa bootsoa ha ba batle ho bua ka bokhoba ba bona ba bootsoa.
  2. Ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate ho na le liphello tse kotsi bophelong ba hau ba lerato. Ka tsela e fapaneng, motho ea lemaletseng boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba ho kopanela liphate a ka 'na a khetha ho kopanela liphate le motho ea hlileng a kopanelang liphate le eena,' me kahoo a se ke a ba le nako e ngata.

Na liphuputso tsee li makatsa motho leha e le ofe?


Karolo ea 4: Na bolumeli bo amana haholo le ho lemalla lithethefatsi?

Selelekela: Bopaki bo sa tloaelehang ho litsebi tsa thobalano bo bontša hore ho na le bareki ba ikutloa lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​empa u li shebe ka linako tse ling. Ho ka etsahala hore ba bang ba bareki bana ke ba bolumeli mme ba ikutloa ba le molato ebile ba le lihlong ho potoloha tšebeliso ea bona ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Na batho bana ba na le bothata ba "ho lemalla ho lemalla" eseng lithethefatsi tsa 'nete tsa bootsoa? Mohlomong ho joalo. Seo se boletse hore batho bana ba batla ho emisa leha ho le joalo ba ntse ba tsoela pele ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Hore na "basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro" kapa che, ba lemaletse kannete kapa ba ikutloa ba le molato ebile ba le lihlong, ho na le ntho e le 'ngoe: ha ho Grubbs CPUI-9, kapa Leonhardt, et al. Lenane la lipotso tse 5 le ka khetholla "ho lemalla ho lemalla" ho lemalla batho ba bang kapa motho e mong le e mong.

Bolumeli ha bo tsamaisane le tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa kapa ho lemalla lithethefatsi

Bolumeli ha bo bolele esale pele hore motho o lemalla ho kopanela liphate. Ho fapana le hoo. Batho ba bolumeli ha ba na monyetla oa hore ba sebelise litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro 'me kahoo ba se ke ba ba le lithethefatsi tse hlephileng.

Leonhardt, et al. le Joshua Grubbs lithuto ha aa ka a sebelisa sehlabelo sa batho ba ratang bolumeli. Ho e-na le hoo, ke feela basebelisi ba kajeno ba bootsoa (ba bolumeli kapa ba sa lumeleng) ba ne ba botsoa lipotso. Thuto e 'ngoe le e' ngoe e monate e ile ea hatisa litlaleho tse tlaase tsa litšebeliso tsa bootsoa ho batho ba bolumeli ha li bapisoa le batho bao e seng balumeli (ho ithuta 1, ho ithuta 2, ho ithuta 3, ho ithuta 4, ho ithuta 5, ho ithuta 6, ho ithuta 7, ho ithuta 8, ho ithuta 9, ho ithuta 10, ho ithuta 11, ho ithuta 12, ho ithuta 13, ho ithuta 14, ho ithuta 15, ho ithuta 16, ho ithuta 17, ho ithuta 18, ho ithuta 19, ho ithuta 20, ho ithuta 21, ho ithuta 22.)

Liphuputso tsa ho hlahloba basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li qetella li e-na le palo e nyenyane haholo ea batho bohle ba bolumeli ha li bapisoa le basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (bao har'a bona ho sebelisoang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa hohle ho banna bohle). Li-two-aways: 1) bolumeli bo sireletsa khahlanong le lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa; 2) mohlala oa batho ba sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba bolumeli o ts'oareloa ke batho ba bolumeli ba mehleng ea bolumeli.

Ka mohlala, thuto ena ea 2011 (The Cyber ​​Pornography Sebelisa Inventory: Ho bapisa Mohlala oa Bolumeli le oa Sekolo) o ile a tlaleha palo ea banna ba k'holejeng ba bolumeli le ba sekolo ba neng ba sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa bonyane hang ka beke:

  • Sechaba: 54%
  • Bolumeli: 19%

Tlhahlobo e 'ngoe k'holejeng ea banna ba bolumeli (Ke lumela hore ho fosahetse empa ke ntse ke ho etsa - Papiso ea bahlankana ba bolumeli ba hanyetsanang ha ba sebelise litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, 2010) e senola hore:

  • 65% ea bahlankana ba bolumeli ba tlalehile ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa lilemong tse fetileng tsa 12
  • 8.6% e tlalehile ho sheba matsatsi a mabeli kapa a mararo ka khoeli
  • 8.6% e tlalehile ho shebella letsatsi kapa letsatsi le leng le le leng

Ka lehlakoreng le leng, lipatlisiso tsa li-cross-sectional tsa banna ba lilemo tsa koleche li tlaleha hore ho na le litekanyetso tse phahameng tsa ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoaUS - 2008: 87%, China - 2012: 86%, Netherlands - 2013 (lilemo tse 16): 73%).

Leonhardt, et al. e hlokomoloha tsohle tse ling liphuputso li kileng tsa phatlalatsoa ka litefiso tsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa litšoantšo har'a ba sebelisang bolumeli

Ka ts'ebetso e makatsang ea Leonhardt, et al. Bangoli ba bolela hore lipatlisiso le lipatlisiso ka litefiso tsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa har'a basebelisi ba bolumeli li fosahetse. Ka mantsoe a mang, Leonhardt, et al. e fana ka maikutlo a hore palo e kholo le e sa tsitsang ea batho ba bolumeli ba thetsitse ka litšoantšo tsa bona tsa bootsoa li sebelisa lipatlisiso tsohle tse sa tsejoeng tse buang ka litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro. Haele hantle, Leonhardt, et al ho fihlela ho bolela hore batho ba bolumeli ba sebelisa lipapali tse hlephisang boitšoaro ka litekanyetso tse phahameng ho feta batho bao e seng balumeli! Kakaretso e latelang e fana ka mabaka a utloahalang bakeng sa ts'epo ena e tiileng:

Mohlomong ka lebaka la litekanyetso tsena tsa thobalano, le ho tšoenyeha ho ka bang teng ts'ebelisong ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​batho ba bolumeli ba lula ba tlaleha maemo a tlase a litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho feta batho ba lefatše (Carroll et al., 2008; Poulsen, Busby, & Galovan, 2013; Wright, 2013) . Leha ho le joalo, lithuto tse ling tse lekolang lienjineri tsa ho batla (MacInnis & Hodson, 2015) le lipeeletso tsa inthanete (Edelman, 2009) li fana ka maikutlo a hore batho ba tsoang bolumeling, bathong ba tloaetseng ho itšireletsa ba kanna ba ba le monyetla oa ho batla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho feta balekane ba bona ba lefatše.. Phapang ena pakeng tsa boitsebiso ba boipiletso le mehato ea sepheo e susumetsa sekhobo khahlanong le litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tse sebelisoang litsoeng tsa bolumeli, kaha batho ba bolumeli ba ka 'na ba pata litšoantšo tsa bona tsa bootsoa ka lebaka la lihlong tsa boipheliso bo joalo.

Kahoo, tšehetso bakeng sa sena Leonhardt, et al. litlhahiso li tsoa lithuto tsa 2 ho ho pholletsa le naha dintlha: 1) MacInnis le Hodson, 2015 (Google e batla litemana tse amanang le thobalano), le 2) Edelman, 2009 (Ho ngolisoa sebakeng se le seng sa phomolo se lefshoang ho 2007).

Meme e phetoang khafetsa ea hore Utah e na le ts'ebeliso e phahameng ea ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e hlahile pampiring ea moruo ea 2009 ea Benjamin Edelman "Lefats'e le Lefubelu la Bofubelu: Ke Bo-mang ba Rekang Boithabiso ba Batho ba Atlehileng ka Inthanete”O ne a its'etleha ka botlalo ho data ea peeletso ho tsoa ho E masoha mofani oa top-ten oa litaba tse lefuoang ha a ne a beha maemo mabapi le ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa - a sa natse liwebosaete tse ling tse makholo joalo. Hobaneng a ile a khetha eo hore a e hlahlobe?

Rea tseba hore tlhahlobo ea Edelman e entsoe ka selemo sa 2007, kamora hore "libaka tsa" li-tube "tsa mahala li sebetse, 'me bashebelli ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba ne ba ntse ba retelehela ho bona. Kahoo, tlhaiso-leseling e le 'ngoe ea Edelman e supa likete (tsa libaka tsa mahala le tse ngolisitsoeng) e ke ke ea nkuoa e le moemeli oa basebelisi bohle ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba Amerika. O hlahisa pampiri ea hae e khelosa. (Bakeng sa tse ling bona - Na Utah #1 ho Porn e Sebelisa?) Ha e le hantle, lipatlisiso tse ling le lintlha tse teng li fumaneha tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa litšoantšo tsa Utah pakeng tsa 40th le 50th har'a linaha. Bona:

  1. Pampiri ena e hlahlojoang ke lithaka: “Tlhahlobo ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro sebelisa mokhoa oa ho etsa lipatlisiso (2015)." Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research ka Cyberspace (2015).
  2. Kapa ho bonolo ho bala sehlooho sa 2014: Ho fetola li-Mormone le Litlhaku: Utah 40th ho US ho New Porn Data.
  3. Maikutlo a leqephe la maqephe a mang, a nkiloeng ho Pornhub in 2014 (graph ho YBOP).

Pampiri "Tlhahlobo ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro sebelisa mokhoa oa ho etsa lipatlisiso (2015)”Hape e sekaseka MacInnis le Hodson, 2015. Tlhaloso e hlalosang hore na MacInnis le Hodson o ile a etsa:

MacInnis le Hodson, (2014) sebelisa ditshwantsho tsa ditshwantsho tsa Google Trends e le moemeli oa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro sebelisa le ho hlahloba kamano pakeng tsa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tsa naha le mekhoa ea bolumeli le conservatism. Ba fumana hore e bolelang ka maikutlo a nepahetseng haholo a maikutlo a na le litekanyetso tse phahameng tsa ho phenyekolla ho amanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tsa Google.

Bothata ba pele ka MacInnis le Hodson: Lipatlisiso tsa Google Trend ha se moemeli oa ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Mohlala, litlaleho tsa hau li fana ka maikutlo a hore basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ba etela libaka tseo ba li ratang ka li-bookmark kapa ka ho thaepa lebitso la sebaka sa tube sebakeng sa liaterese tsa sebatli (ha ba le ka mokhoa oa incognito). Hang ha ba le sebakeng seo ba se ratang haholo, hangata basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso ba fihla sebakeng se secha sa bootsoa ka li-hyperlink le lipapatso, ka hona ba fetisa lipatlisiso tsa Google ka botlalo.

Bofokoli ba bobeli ho MacInnis le Hodson: Ho phenyekolla ha Google ha ho re bolelle letho ka nako eo motho e mong le e mong ea sebelisang ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Ka mohlala, mmuso o ka ba le tekanyo e phahameng ea ba batlang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (ka mohlala, bacha), ba bonang feela litšoantšo tse fokolang, ha linaha tse ling li ka ba le litekanyetso tse phahameng tsa basebelisi ba li-porno ba sa sebeliseng Google, leha ho le joalo ba qeta lihora tse 'maloa ho shebella litšoantšo tse litšila

Bofokoli ba boraro: MacInnis le Hodson e hlotsoe ho nahana ka mabaka a mang a ka bang teng bakeng sa litefiso tse phahameng tsa lipatlisiso tsa Google bakeng sa thobalano le mantsoe a amanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Ho na le monyetla oa hore bacha ba batlang tlhaiso-leseling ka thobalano kapa thobalano ba ka sebelisa Google, ha basebelisi ba bootsoa ba nang le boiphihlelo ba ka feta lienjiniking mme ba ea ka kotloloho libakeng tsa bootsoa. Ho feta moo, lipatlisiso li bonts'a hore litefiso tse phahameng ka ho fetisisa tsa ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li etsahala ho bacha le ho batho ba baholo ba baholo. Ka lebaka leo, re ka lebella hore linaha tse nang le palo e phahameng ea bacha li tla ba le litekanyetso tse phahameng tsa lipatlisiso tsa Google bakeng sa litaba tsa thobalano.

Hlahloba ntša boemo ba palo ea baahi ba naha. The 16 e hlalosa le karolo e phahameng ka ho fetisisa ea bacha li nkoa e le "Linaha tse khubelu" (tse nang le bolumeli le tsa lipolotiki haholo). Ka lehlakoreng le leng, linaha tsohle ntle le e le 'ngoe e nang le karolo e tlaase ka ho fetisisa ea bacha ke "Naha e Putsoa" (e seng ea bolumeli, e nang le bolokolohi bo eketsehileng). Mofuta ona o le mong o ka hlalosa file ea MacInnis & HodsonLiphuputso.

Hona ke e 'ngoe ea mefuta e mengata e lokelang ho kenyelletsoa ha ho hokelloa bohlokoa ba likamano lipakeng tsa maemo a boemo ba mmuso bolumeling le "moemeli oa ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" a belaetsang haholo. Haholo-holo ha lipatlisiso le lithuto tsohle li tlaleha tšebeliso e nyane ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa har'a batho ba bolumeli.

Pampiri "Tlhahlobo ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro sebelisa mokhoa oa ho etsa lipatlisiso (2015).”E bolela tse latelang ka MacInnis le Hodson:

Liphetho ho lethathamong la pele la Lethathamo la 3 le bontšang hore re boetse re fumana kamano ea bohlokoa le lipalo pakeng tsa bolumeli le conservatism hangata ha re sebelisa data ea Google Trends. Leha ho le joalo, mela e meng ho Lethathamo la 3 e bontša hore re fumana kamano e fokolang haholoanyane ha re sebelisa mohloli ofe kapa ofe oa tse ling tse tharo. Liphello tsena li bontša hore haeba MacInnis le Hodson (2014) ba sebelisitse mohloli ofe kapa ofe oa tse ling tse tharo, ba ka be ba fihletse qeto e fapaneng pampiring ea bona ka matla a kamano eo ba neng ba e hlahloba.

Taba ea hore MacInnis le Hodson (2014) ba fumana kamano e bohlokoa haholo pakeng tsa litumelo tsa boipheliso le maemo a boipheliso ba mmuso, hoa thahasellisa ho nahana hore liphuputso tse fetileng tse sebelisang lintlha tsa litekanyetso li fumana hore batho ba kenang kerekeng hangata ha ba khone ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.

Ntlha ea bohlokoa: Re na le Leonhardt, et al. ho hlokomoloha lithuto tse 'maloa le lipatlisiso tse fapaneng ho batho ba bolumeli bakeng sa liqeto tsa thuto e belaetsang ea mokhoa oa mokhoa o lumellanang le mekhoa ea bolumeli ea baahi ba mmuso, le setšoantšo se senyenyane haholo sa lipatlisiso tsa inthanete bakeng sa thobalano. Ha ho kholoe.

Ho se lumellane ka hare: The Leonhardt, et al. 'nete ke hore karolo e kholo haholo ea batho ba ratang bolumeli ba bua leshano ka litšoantšo tsa bona tsa bootsoa ka lipatlisiso tse sa tsejoeng. Le seo ba nang le sona ba bua leshano lintlheng tsohle tse entsoeng. Haeba sena ke 'nete, re lokela ho se hlokomolohe Leonhardt, et al.'s lithuto tsa hau tse itšetlehileng ka litlaleho tsa batho ba sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​joalo ka Leonhardt, et al. ba ile ba theoleloa khafetsa 'me ba hlokomoloha lipatlisiso tse ling tsohle tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ka pel'a bonas.

If Leonhardt, et al.'s Litaba tsa bolumeli li lula li tlaleha tšebeliso ea bona ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (joalo ka ha ba bolela hore basebelisi ba bolumeli ba na le lipatlisiso tse ling), hona ho bolela hore boleng ba linomoro ba "tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" lithutong tsa bona tsa bolumeli bo hloka ho fetoloa ho ea holimo. Ho phahamisa ("ho lokisa") khafetsa ts'ebeliso ea sehlopha sa bolumeli ho tlisa ts'ebeliso ea bona tsamaisanong le lintlha tsa bona lenaneng la lipotso tse 5. Ka mantsoe a bonolo, litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso tsa bootsoa li sebelisoa lithutong tsa bolumeli li tsamaellana hantle le lintlha tse phahameng lenaneng la lipotso tse lemalloang ke lithethefatsi. Kapa e bonolo hajoale: bongata ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa bo sebelisitsoeng = litekanyetso tsa bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa - ho basebelisi ba bolumeli le bao e seng balumeli. Haeba ho joalo, ha ho na letho Leonhardt, et al. ho tlaleha. Ho fumanoa ho se na thuso.

Kahoo, ke botsa bangoli ba Leonhardt, et al., ke efe ea 3 e latelang e nepahetseng?

  1. Liphuputso tsohle tse sa tsejoeng litabeng tsa bolumeli li lokela ho hlokomolohuoa hobane karolo e kholo haholo ea batho ba bolumeli ba lula ba tlaleha tlaleho ea bona ea bootsoa. Sena se tlameha ho kenyelletsa lithuto tsohle tsa Grubbs le Leonhardt, et al. 2017
  2. Lipatlisiso tsohle tse sa tsejoeng litabeng tsa bolumeli li lokela ho nkoa ka botlalo, ha bohle ba tlaleha se fumanoang ka tsela e tšoanang: litekanyetso tse fokolang tsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa har'a batho ba bolumeli.
  3. Ke lipatlisiso feela tsa Leonhardt, et al. e lokela ho tšeptjoa. Liphuputso tsohle tse sa tsejoeng litabeng tsa bolumeli li lokela ho hlokomolohuoa. Sena ke Leonhardt, et al., Boemo ba bangoli ba hajoale.

Basebeletsi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba ka ba le maemo a phahameng a ho ba teng pele

Kaha boholo ba bongata ba lilemo tsa koleche, banna ba bolumeli ha ba atlehe ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​the Grubbs le Leonhardt, et al. mehlala e shebiloeng ea "basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" e ne e emela palo e nyane ea batho ba bolumeli. Ka lehlakoreng le leng, mehlala ea "basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" e tloaetse ho emela bongata ba batho bao e seng balumeli.

Bacha ba bangata ba ts'oanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba bolumeli ba re ba ka rata ho se shebe litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (100% in Thutong ena). Joale hobaneng basebelisi bana ba shebella? Ho na le monyetla o moholo oa hore sampole e sa emeleng ea "basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" e na le liperesente tse phahameng haholo tsa selaete sa sechaba sohle se loantšanang le maemo a seng a ntse a le teng kapa li-comorbidities. Maemo ana a lula a le teng ho batho ba lemalloang (ke hore, OCD, khatello ea maikutlo, khatello ea maikutlo, khatello ea maikutlo sechabeng, ADHD, nalane ea lelapa ea bokhoba, khatello ea maikutlo ea bongoana kapa tlhekefetso ea thobalano, lithethefatsi tse ling, jj.

Ntlha ena feela e ka hlalosetsa hore na ke hobane'ng ha basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​e le sehlopha, ba lekanang haholo ka Grubbs le Leonhardt, et al. lipotso tsa ho lemalla lithethefatsi. Tlhahiso ena e tšehetsoa ke liphuputso ho batla kalafo batho ba lemaletseng ho kopanela liphate / ba kopanela liphate (bao re neng re ka lebella ho cheka ka sekhahla ho tsoa sekhabeng seo se futsanehileng). Ba batlang ho phekola ba senola Che kamano pakeng tsa borapeli le litekanyo tsa tahi le bolumeli (Thuto ea 2016 1, Thuto ea 2016 2). Haeba Leonhardt, et al.Liqeto li ne li nepahetse, ka sebele re tla bona palo e sa lekanyetsoang ea basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba batlang kalafo.

Boemong bo phahameng ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​batho ba bolumeli ba khutlela mekhoeng ea bolumeli 'me bolumeli bo ba bohlokwa haholoanyane

sena se Phuputso ea 2016 ho basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e tlalehile se fumanehang se thahasellisang se le seng se ka hlalosang kamano e nyenyane pakeng tsa sebele boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba ho kopanela liphate le bolumeli. Kamano pakeng tsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le tumelo ea bolumeli ke nako e telele. Ha tšebeliso ea litšoantšo e ntse e eketseha, mokhoa oa bolumeli le bohlokoa ba bolumeli fokotseha - ho fihlela ntlheng. Empa ha motho oa bolumeli a qala ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa hanngoe kapa habeli ka beke mokhoa ona oa iphetola: Motho ea sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa o qala ho ea kerekeng khafetsa mme bohlokoa ba bolumeli bophelong ba hae boa eketseha. Tlhaloso ea thuto:

"Leha ho le joalo, litlamorao tsa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tsa pele ho ts'ebeliso ea litšebeletso tsa bolumeli hamorao le thapelo li ne li koaloa hanyane: Ho ba teng litšebeletsong tsa bolumeli le thapelo li theoha ho isa ntlheng ebe li nyoloha le ho shebella litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro."

Setšoantšo sena, se nkiloeng thuputsong ena, se bapisa ho ba teng ha tšebeletso ea bolumeli le palo ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tse sebelisoang:

Ho bonahala eka ha tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ea batho ba bolumeli e ntse e tsoa taolong, ba khutlela bolumeling e le leqheka la ho sebetsana le boits'oaro ba bona bo thata. Sena ha se makatse, kaha lihlopha tse ngata tsa ho hlaphoheloa ka joala tse ipapisitseng le mehato ea 12 li kenyelletsa karolo ea moea kapa ea bolumeli. Sengoli sa pampiri se hlahisitse sena e le lebaka le ka etsahalang:

… Lithuto tsa bokhoba ba tahi li fana ka maikutlo a hore ba ikutloang ba hloka thuso bokhobeng ba bona khafetsa ba kopa thuso e sa tloaelehang. Ho joalo, mananeo a mehato e leshome le metso e 'meli a batlang ho thusa batho ba loantšanang le bokhoba ba ho akaretsa a kenyelletsa lithuto tsa ho inehela ho matla a phahameng, mme lenane le ntseng le phahama la mananeo a Bokreste a mehato e leshome le metso e' meli a etsa hore khokahano ena e hlake le ho feta. Ho ka etsahala hore ebe batho ba sebelisang litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro maemong a fetelletseng (ke hore, ho sebelisa maemo a ka bang tšobotsi ea ho qobelloa kapa ho lemalla) ba hlile ba sutumelloa bolumeling ka nako ho fapana le ho ikhula ho bona.

Ts'ebetso ena ea basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba khutlelang tumelong ea bona e le ho lemalla ho lemala e ka hlalosetsa habonolo phapang leha e le efe e teng pakeng tsa ho lemalla lithethefatsi le ts'epo ea bolumeli.

Ho fapana le litaba tsa bolumeli, litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tsa lefatše tse sebelisang litaba li kanna tsa se ke tsa lemoha litlamorao tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa hobane ha ba leke ho tlohela

Na ho ka etsahala hore basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ba fumane lintlha tse holimo lipotsong tsa lipotso tse lemalloang ke thobalano hobane ba lekile ho tlohela, ho fapana le baena ba bona ba lefatše? Ka ho etsa joalo ba tla ba le monyetla oa ho tseba matšoao a bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa joalo ka ha ho hlahlojoa ke Leonhardt, et al. Lethathamo la lipotso tsa 5.

Ho ipapisitsoe le lilemo tse ngata tsa ho lekola liforamo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng, re fana ka maikutlo a hore bafuputsi ba lokela ho arola basebelisi ba lekileng ho tlohela litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho ba sa li tsebeng, ha ba ba botsa ka litlamorao tsa bootsoa. Hangata ho joalo hore basebelisi ba kajeno ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (ba bolumeli le ba sa lumeleng) ba na le kutloisiso e fokolang ea litlamorao tsa porno tsa inthanete ho bona ho fihlela ka mor'a ba leka ho tlohela (le ho feta ka leha e le efe matšoao a ho ikhula).

Ka kakaretso, basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba lumela hore ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ha e na kotsi, ka hona ha ba na boikemisetso ba ho tlohela… ho fihlela ba ba le matšoao a sa mamelleheng (mohlomong, a fokolisang matšoenyeho a sechaba, ho se khone ho etsa thobalano le molekane oa 'nete kapa ho nyoloha hoa litaba tseo ba li fumanang li ferekanya / li khathatsa. kapa e kotsi haholo). Pele ho phetoho eo, haeba u ba botsa ka ts'ebeliso ea bona ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​ba tla tlaleha hore tsohle li hantle. Ka tlhaho ba nka hore ke "basebelisi ba tloaetseng ho sebetsa," ba ka tlohelang nako efe kapa efe, mme matšoao ao ba nang le ona, haeba a teng, a bakoa ke ho hong. hape. Ho hlajoa ke lihlong? Nope.

Ka lehlakoreng le leng, batho ba bangata ba sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba 'nile ba lemosoa hore ho sebelisa litšoantšo tse litšila ho kotsi Ka lebaka leo, ba ka 'na ba sebelisa litšoantšo tse nyenyane tsa bootsoa' me ba leka ho li fa, mohlomong hangata. Liteko tse joalo tsa ho tlohela litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tsa inthanete li khanya haholo, joalo ka ha ba sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (bolumeli kapa che) ba fumana:

  1. Ho thata hakae ho tlohela (haeba ba lemaletse)
  2. Tšebeliso ea bootsoa e ba ama hampe, maikutlong, thobalanong le ka tsela efe kapa efe (hangata hobane matšoao a qala ho khaotsa ho tlohela)
  3. [Tabeng ea matšoao a joalo] Joang ho itokolla ho ka etsa hore matšoao a bobe le ho feta ka nakoana, pele boko bo khutla
  4. Ho bohloko hakaakang ha ba batla ho tela ho hong mme ba sa khone (Hona ke lihlong, empa eseng hakaalo "lihlong tsa bolumeli / tsa thobalano" - joalo ka ha bafuputsi ba nahana joalo hobane basebelisi ba bolumeli ba e tlaleha khafetsa. Ka bomalimabe bohle ba lemalloang ba ikutloa ba hlajoa ke lihlong ha ba ikutloa ba se na matla a ho tlohela, ebang ke balumeli kapa che.)
  5. Hore ba be le litakatso tse matla tsa ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Litakatso hangata li eketseha ka matla ka beke kapa nako e teletsana ho tlohela ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.

Liphihlelo tse joalo li etsa hore ba lekileng ho tlohela ho ts'oenyeha haholo ka ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Kaha basebelisi ba bangata ba bolumeli ba tla etsa liteko tse joalo khafetsa, lisebelisoa tsa kelello li tla bontša hore ba amehile haholo ka ts'ebeliso ea bona ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho feta basebelisi bao eseng balumeli - leha ba sebelisa litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso!

Ka mantsoe a mang, na bafuputsi ha baa lokela ho etsa lipatlisiso hore na basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ka linako tse ling utloisisa hampe Litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ha li kotsi, ho fapana le ho nka hore ke batho ba bolumeli ba sa utloisisi boteng ba mathata a amanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa leha ba sebelisa hanyane? Bokhoba, ha e le hantle, ha bo hlahlojoe ho ipapisitsoe le bongata kapa makhetlo a ts'ebeliso, empa e le litlamorao tse fokolisang.

Leha ho le joalo, ho hlōleha ho arola ba lekang ho tlohela ho ba sa e tsebeng, ho ferekanya haholo ho etsa lipatlisiso ho leka ho fihlela liqeto mabapi le se boleloang ke kamano pakeng tsa bolumeli, lihlong le tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.. Ho bonolo ho toloka data e le bopaki ba hore “tumelo e etsa hore batho ba tšoenyehe ka litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le haeba ba sebelisa hanyane ho feta ba bang, le hore haeba ba ne ba sa rate bolumeli ba ne ba ke ke ba ameha. ”

Qeto e nepahetseng e kanna ea ba hore ba lekileng ho tlohela, mme ba hlokomela lintlha tse kaholimo ba amehile haholo, mme tumelo ke sona feela sesosa sa ho etsa liteko tse joalo (mme ka tsela e 'ngoe e sa ameheng). Ho nyahamisa ho bona litsebi tsa kelello li etsa likamano tse bonolo le bolumeli / bomoea mme li etsa liqeto tse "hlabisang lihlong", ntle le ho hlokomela hore ba bapisa "liapole" le "lilamunu" ha ba bapisa basebelisi ba lekileng ho tlohela le basebelisi ba so kang ba etsa joalo. Hape, ke batho ba pele ba kileng ba bona likotsi le likotsi tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ka mokhoa o hlakileng, ebang ke ba bolumeli kapa che.

Sena se ferekanya hangata se sebelisoa hampe ke ba batlang ho lebisa tlhokomelo hōle le matšoao a matla ao basebelisi bao e seng balumeli ba atisang ho ba le bona. Basebelisi ba agnostic ba atisa ho ba le matšoao a matla ka nako ea bona do tlohela, hobane feela ba tloaetse ho tlohela maemong a tlase ha matšoao a ntse a theoha ho feta basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Hobaneng ha bafuputsi ba sa ithute ketsahalo ee e makatsang?

Ebile, re ka becha hore karolo ea tau ea ba nang le eona ho hlekefetsa likamano tsa thobalano ke agnostics. Hobane'ng? Hobane batho bao e seng balumeli ba atisa ho kholiseha ka ts'ebeliso e mpe ea ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba Inthanete eo ba tsoelang pele ho e sebelisa ho feta matšoao a lemosang, joalo ka ho eketsa matšoenyeho a sechaba, ho nyolohela ho lintho tse feteletseng, ho se thahaselle, bothata ba ho finyella erection ntle le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​bothata ba ho sebelisa likhohlopo kapa tlhōlisano le molekane, joalo-joalo.

Taba ke hore, le ha e le ka mokhoa o sa tloaelehang, kapa o sa tloaelehang, ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e ka etsa hore basebelisi ba bang ba kopanele liphate hoo e ka ba sitisang. khotsofalo ea thobalano le kamano. Mona ke tlaleho ea motho a le mong. Ho nyolohela ho litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tseo pele e neng e le tse sa thabiseng kapa tsa ho pheta-pheta li tloaelehile halofo ea basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Ka bokhutšoanyane, joalokaha ho builoe ka holimo, tšebeliso e sa tloaelehang ha e na ho hlajoa ke pelo. Ba sa sebeliseng hangata empa ba tšoenyehile ka tšebeliso ea bona ea bootsoa ba na le mabaka a utloahalang a ho ameha ka litlhahlobo tsa bona, ntle ho seo ba se utloang ka litšoantšo tsa bootsoa nakong ea litšebeletso tsa bolumeli.

Na ho ka ba molemo ho haha ​​lipatlisiso tse botsang basebeletsi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (ka bobeli bolumeling le ka tsela leha e le efe) ho tlohela litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ka nakoana le ho bapisa liphihlelo tsa bona le likoloi? Bona Qoba Lintho Tse sa Lebelloang Tsa Inthanete Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa Sebelisa ho Senola Liphello Tsa Bona bakeng sa moqapi o ka khonehang oa ho ithuta.

Lebaka la hore na ke hobane'ng ha basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse ts'oanang le ba bang ba ka ba le lintlha tse phahameng holim'a lipotso tsa lithethefatsi tsa lithethefatsi

Ho sebelisa litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso ea Internet ho na le likotsi tse tloaelehileng ho ba bangata ba basebelisi ba kajeno. Tsena li kenyeletsa ho eketseha ho boitsebiso bo feteletseng, ho khotsofatsa likamano tsa botona le botšehali le khotsofalo ea kamano, ho lemala, le / kapa ho khahloa ho fokolang ho balekane ba sebele (hammoho le litokisetso tse sa tšepahaleng le tse sa tšepahaleng).

Ntho e sa tsejoeng ka ho fetisisa ke hore tšebeliso ea li-intermittent (mohlala, lihora tsa 2 tsa ho itlosa bolutu bo hlephisang boitšoaro li lateloa ke libeke tse 'maloa tsa boithaopo pele ho nako e' ngoe ea bootsoa) li baka kotsi ea ho lemala. Mabaka a teng, 'me ho na le lipatlisiso tsa meriana eohle tšebeliso ea nako e khutšoanyane liphoofolo le batho ba hlokomelang liketsahalo tsa boko bo ikarabellang.

Ka mohlala, bobeli lithethefatsi 'me lijo tsa phepo e sa lokang liphuputso li senola hore tšebeliso ea nako e khutšoanyane e ka lebisa kapele ho feta ho fetoha ha boko bo amanang le lithethefatsi (ebang ke motho ea sebelisang ho lemalla ho lemalla). Phetoho e kholo ke ho hlohlelletsa e senyang setsi sa moputso oa boko ka lipontšo tse hlahisang ho hlokomoloha litakatso. Ka ho khothaletsoa, ​​lipotoloho tsa boko li kenngoa molemong oa boipheliso le moputso ho batla ho ba le mekhoa e metle ea likhopotso kapa litloaelo tse amanang le boitšoaro bo hlephileng. Boemo bo tebileng ba Pavlovian bo hlahisa ho eketsa "ho batla" kapa ho lakatsa. Lintlha tse kang ho fetola k'homphieutha, ho bona pop-up, kapa ho ba mong, ho etsa hore litakatso tse tsosang takatso tsa ho kopanela liphate li be le takatso e matla. (Studies reports reporting sensitization kapa cue-reactivity ho basebelisi ba litšoantšo: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20.)

Ntho e tsotehang le ho feta ke hore nako ea ho ikhula (libeke tsa 2-4) e lebisa liphetohong tsa neuroplastic seo ha se hlahe ho motho ea sa sebeliseng khefu e telele joalo. Liphetoho tsena bokong li eketsa litakatso tseo li ka li sebelisang ho arabela lits'ebollo. Ho feta moo, ea khatello ea tsamaiso ea khatello e le hore esita le khatello ea maikutlo e tebileng e ka baka sesosa litakatso tsa ho li sebelisa.

Tšebeliso e sa tloaelehang (haholo-holo ho mofuta oa ho noa joala) e ka hlahisa hape matšoao a matla a ho khaotsa, tse kang tsa bohata, ho tepella maikutlong hona 'me litakatso. Ka mantsoe a mang, ha motho e mong a sebelisa kamora nako ea ho ithiba, le li-bees, e ka otla motho ea sebetsang ka thata-mohlomong ka lebaka la matla a eketsehileng ea phihlelo.

Ho itšetlehile ka phuputso ena, bo-rasaense ba fihlile qeto ea hore letsatsi le leng le le leng ho sebelisoa ha lijo k'hok'heine, joala, koae, kapa lijo tsa phepo e sa lokang ha ho hlokahale ho hlahisa liphetoho tsa boko bo amanang le lithethefatsi. Ho itlopa lijo ka nako e sa lekanyetsoang ho ka etsa ntho e ts'oanang le ts'ebeliso e tsoelang pele, 'me maemong a mang etsa joalo Hape.

Joale, a re ke re khutleleng papisong ea basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bolumeli le ba sa rapeleng. Ke sehlopha sefe se ka kenyelletsang basebelisi ba bang ba bangata? Ho entsoe lipatlisiso tse bontšang hore Basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba khetha ho se sebelise litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ho ka 'na ha e-ba le bolumeli bo fetang ba basebetsi ba lefatše ba khomaretseng ho itlosa joala. Ka mantsoe a mang, karolo e sa lekanyetsoang ea basebelisi ba bolumeli e ka ba "basebelisi ba nakoana." Basebelisi ba sechaba hangata ba tlaleha hore hangata ba nka matsatsi a seng makae feela - ntle le hore ba be basebelisi ba nakoana hobane ba leka ho tlohela tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.

Phello e 'ngoe ea bohlokoa ea potoloho ea ho itlopa joala ke hore basebeletsi ba litšoantšo ba bootsoa ba na le likheo tse eketsehileng (le hangata ntlafatso). Ba ka bona ka ho hlaka kamoo tšebeliso ea bona ea bootsoa e ba amme kateng, ho fapana le basebelisi ba kamehla. Sena se ka 'na sa etsa hore ho be le lipotso tse phahameng holim'a lipotso tsa lithethefatsi tsa lithethefatsi. Phello ea bobeli, ea bohlokoa ka ho fetisisa ke hore basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse ts'oanang le ba bang ba tla ba le likarolo tse ngata tsa litakatso tse matla. Ntlha ea boraro, ha basebelisi ba li-intermittent ba ikakhela ka setotsoana, saense e boletsoeng ka holimo e bolela hore hangata ba tla ikutloa ba sa laolehe, 'me ba tla ba le bothata bo bongata ka mor'a ho itlopa joala. Ka bokhutšoanyane, basebelisi ba nakoana (bao e leng balumeli) ba ka lemalla haholo 'me ba hlolloa ka mokhoa o tsotehang litabeng tsa ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​le hoja ba ntse ba sebelisa ka makhetlo a fokolang ho feta barab'abo bona ba lefats'e.

Tlas'a maemo, ho e-s'o ee kae ho fihlela qeto ea hore lihlong li baka phapang pakeng tsa basebelisi ba bolumeli le ba sa lumeleng. Bafuputsi ba tlameha ho laola bakeng sa phello ea tšebeliso ea nako e khutšoanyane. E fapane ka ho fapaneng, haeba e mengata Leonhardt et al's lithuto tsa bolumeli li ne li kenyelletsa karolo e phahameng ea basebelisi ho feta lihlooho tsa bona tse seng tsa bolumeli, motho a ka lebella hore basebelisi ba bolumeli ba kenelle litekong tsa lithethefatsi ho sa tsotellehe hore ba sebelise hangata haholo.

Ha e le hantle, ts'oaetsano ea ho sebelisa lithethefatsi ka nako e khutšoanyane ha e felle feela ho basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Ts'ebetso ena e hlahisoa ka mehlala ea liphoofolo le basebelisi ba bootsoa ba lefatše ba lekang ho tlohela empa ba ntse ba itima lijo ka linako tse ling. Ntho ea bohlokoa ke hore ts'ebetso ea ho sebelisa lithethefatsi le lithethefatsi ka nako e khutšoanyane e lokela ho ithutoa ka boinotlolo pele e hohela le ho phatlalatsa litlhahiso mabapi le ho hlajoa ke lihlong (kapa "ho lemoha" ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa) e le eona feela tlhaloso ea hore na ke hobane'ng ha ba sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba tlaleha lithethefatsi tse phahameng ka ho kopana le ho sebedise hangata.

Kakaretso ea Bolumeli le Tšebeliso ea Litlhaku:

  1. Bolumeli ha bo bolele esale pele ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (ho lemoha kapa ho seng joalo). Karolo e kholo ka ho fetisisa ea batho ba lefatše ba sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.
  2. Kaha palo e nyenyane haholo ea batho ba bolumeli ba sebelisa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro, ho hlakile hore bolumeli bo teng e sireletsang khahlanong le ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate.
  3. Grubbs le Leonhardt, et al. disampole tse nkiloeng ho ba fokolang ba "basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" li sotetsoe mabapi le basebelisi ba bolumeli, mohlomong ho baka liperesente tse phahameng haholo tsa mehlala ea bolumeli e nang le likotsi. Ka lebaka leo, basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ba na le lintlha tse batlang li phahame hanyane ka hofe kapa hofe ka lisebelisoa tse lemalloang ke thobalano le ho tlaleha bothata ba ho laola tšebeliso.
  4. Ha tšebeliso ea bootsoa e e-ba khafetsa kapa e qobelloa, basebeletsi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba khutlela tumelong ea bona. Sena se bolela hore ba ts'oanang le litekanyetso tse phahameng ka ho fetisisa litsong tsa lithethefatsi tsa lithethefatsi li tla boela li phahamise holimo ho bolumeli.
  5. Batho ba bangata ba sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba 'nile ba lemosoa hore ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho kotsi Ka lebaka leo, ba ka 'na ba sebelisa litšoantšo tse nyenyane tsa bootsoa' me ba leka ho li fa. Ha ba etsa joalo ba ka 'na ba lemoha matšoao a ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa joalokaha ho hlahlojoa ke Leonhardt, et al. Lipotso tsa lipotso tse 5 (le tse tšoanang) - ho sa tsotelehe tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.
  6. Basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso ba ka lemalla joala 'me ba fumana limaraka tse phahameng tsa ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa, ​​leha ba sebelisa khafetsa ho feta lithuto tsa lefatše tse tšoanang (bao e seng basebelisi ba nakoana).

Karolo ea 5: Boithuto bo amohela hore "maemo a ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" hase e amanang le lithethefatsi tse amanang le lithethefatsi

Likopanong tsa Grubbs le Leonhardt, et al. ho na le maikutlo a mangata a hore lihora tse ngata tsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li tšoana le "ho lemalla lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa" Ka mantsoe a mang, boholo ba "ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" bo bontšoa hantle feela ke "lihora tsa hajoale tsa tšebeliso" kapa "makhetlo a ts'ebeliso" ho fapana le liteko tse tloaelehileng tsa litlolo tsa bootsoa kapa matšoao a susumetsoang ke litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Litsebi tsa lithethefatsi ha li lumellane.

Lesoba la mantlha a mongoli ona, leo u ka khannang teraka ho lona, ​​ke hore lipatlisiso tsa bootsoa ba inthanete le lithethefatsi tsa inthanete (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) e tlalehile hore mefuta e mecha ea ho lemalla marang-rang ha e kopane ka tsela e lumellanang le lihora tsa tšebeliso. Ebile, 'lihora tsa tšebeliso' tse fapaneng ke mokhoa o sa tšepahaleng oa ho lemalla. Lisebelisoa tse seng li thehiloe tsa ho lekola bokhoba ba tahi li lekola bokhoba ba tahi bo sebelisa lintlha tse ling tse ngata tse tšepahalang (joalo ka tse thathamisitsoeng likarolong tse peli tsa pele tsa CPUI-9 kapa Leonhardt, et al. lipotso). Liphuputso tse latelang tsa lithethefatsi tsa thelevishene li tlaleha kamano e nyenyane pakeng tsa lihora le lits'enyeho tsa tahi:

1) Ho shebella Litšoantšo Tsa Litšoantšo Tsa Porn Porn Inthaneteng: Karolo ea Litlhahlobo Tsa ho Kopanela Liphate Tsa Botona le Botšehali le Matšoao a Maiketsetso-Maqakabetsing a Maiketsetso a ho Sebelisa Inthaneteng Litabeng Tsa ho Kopanela Liphate Inthaneteng (2011)

"Liphetho li bontša hore mathata a ho itlaleha bophelong ba letsatsi le letsatsi a amanang le thobalano inthaneteng a ne a boletsoe esale pele ke likhahla tsa thobalano tse ikhethileng, lits'oants'o tse matla tsa lefats'e tsa matšoao a kelello le palo ea likopo tsa thobalano tse sebelisoang ha u le libakeng tsa thobalano tsa inthanete bophelong ba letsatsi le letsatsi. , ha nako eo u e sebelisitseng libakeng tsa ho kopanela liphate Inthaneteng (metsotso ka letsatsi) ha ea ka ea tlatsetsa haholo ho tlhaloso ea phapang pakeng tsa tekanyo ea ho kopanela liphate Inthaneteng. (IATsex). Re bona ho tšoana ho itseng lipakeng tsa mekhoa ea kelello le kelello e ka 'nang ea tlatsetsa tlhokomelong ea ho kopanela liphate ka tsela e feteletseng le ho tse hlalositsoeng bakeng sa batho ba itšetlehileng ka lithethefatsi. ”

2) Ho khaotsa ho kopanela liphate le ho se sebetse ka mokhoa o sa sebetseng Ho lekanyetsa ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate ka thobalano ho banna ba bong bo fapaneng (2015)

"Liphuputso tsa morao-rao li bonts'itse kamano pakeng tsa ho tiea ha CyberSex Addiction (CA) le lits'oants'o tsa thabo ea thobalano, le hore ho sebetsana le boits'oaro ba thobalano ho emisitse kamano lipakeng tsa thabo ea thobalano le matšoao a CA. Liphetho li bonts'itse likamano tse matla lipakeng tsa matšoao a CA le lits'oants'o tsa ho tsosa takatso ea thobalano le thabo ea thobalano, ho sebetsana le boits'oaro ba thobalano le matšoao a kelello. Tlhekefetso ea CyberSex e ne e sa amahanngoa le mekhoa ea ho kopanela liphate ntle le thobalano le nako ea ho sebelisa li-cyber le beke le beke. "

3) Lintho Tse Bohlokoa: Ntho e Eketsehileng kapa Boleng ba Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa li Sebelisa? Lintlha tsa kelello le boitšoaro ba ho batla phekolo ea bothata ba bootsoa Sebelisa (2016)

Ho ea ka tsebo ea rona e molemo ka ho fetisisa, thuto ena ke ho hlahloba ka ho toba litloaelano pakeng tsa makhetlo a tloaelehileng a ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le boitšoaro bo nepahetseng ba ho phekola ho sebelisoa ha litšoantšo tse mpe (ho lekantsoe le ho etela setsebi sa kelello, setsebi sa mafu a kelello kapa setsebi sa thobalano ka morero ona). Liphello tsa rona li bontša hore lithuto tsa nakong e tlang, le kalafo, ho tšimo ena e lokela ho tsepamisa mohopolo ho phello ea tšebeliso ea bootsoa bophelong ba motho ka mong (boleng) ho e-na le matšoao a eona feela (bongata), kaha matšoao a seng matle a amanang le tšebeliso ea litšoantšo (ho e-na le makhetlo a sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa) ke mokhoa o bohlokoa ka ho fetisisa oa phekolo boits'oaro ba boitšoaro.

Tlhaloso pakeng tsa PU le matšoao a fosahetseng e ne e le a bohlokoa ebile e sebelisanoa ke boithati bo ikhethileng, bo ikhethang (ho fokolisa, ho ba le phetisano e itseng) har'a batho ba sa etseng kalafo. Har'a ba batlang litšebeletso tsa bolumeli, ha ho amane le matšoao a fosahetseng.

4) Ho Hlahloba Li-Correlates tsa Bothata ba Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa Inthaneteng Sebelisa Har'a Seithuti sa Univesithi (2016)

Lintlha tse phahameng ka mehato ea ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba Internet li ne li amana le ts'ebetso ea letsatsi le letsatsi kapa ho feta ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Leha ho le joalo, liphello li bontša hore ho ne ho se na kamano e tobileng pakeng tsa palo le makhetlo ao litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li e sebelisang le ho loana le ho tšoenyeha, ho tepella maikutlong, le bophelo le khotsofalo ea kamano. Likamano tse bohlokoa ho batho ba bangata ba ho kopanela liphate boitšoarong bo hlephileng ba ho kopanela liphate ba ne ba akarelletsa ho pepesehela lipapali tsa bootsoa, ​​ho lemalla lipapali tsa video le ho ba banna. Le hoja liphello tse ling tsa ts'ebetsong ea litšoantšo tsa litšoantšo tsa li-intanete li ngotsoe libukeng tse fetileng, liphello tsa rona ha li bontše hore ts'ebeliso ea kelello e ntlafatsa ka mokhoa o itekanetseng kapa o sa tloaelehang oa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.

5) Ho sheba Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa Inthaneteng: Ke Hobane'ng ha e le Bothata, Joang, Hona Hobane'ng? (2009)

Phuputso ena e ile ea batlisisa ho ata ha litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tsa Inthaneteng ho shebella, kamoo ho leng thata kateng, le mekhoa ea kelello e sebetsanang le bothata ka sampuli ea banna ba lilemo li lekholo tsa 84 ho sebelisa lipatlisiso tse sa tsejoeng. E fumanoe hore hoo e batlang e le 20% -60% ea sampuli ea bonang litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro e fumana e le bothata ho itšetlehile ka sebaka sa thahasello. Thutong ena, palo ea ho shebella ha ea ka ea bolela esale pele hore na mathata a hlahetsoe ke eng.

Nahana u leka ho lekola boteng ba bokhoba ba tahi ka ho botsa feela, "Hona joale u qeta lihora tse kae u ja (bokhoba ba lijo)?" kapa "U qeta lihora tse kae u becha (ho eketsa papali ea chelete)?" kapa "U qeta lihora tse kae u noa (bokhoba ba tahi)?" O ka fumana haholo liphetho tse khelosang. Habohlokoa le ho feta, lipotso tsa "tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" li hloleha ho botsa ka mefuta e ka sehloohong ea ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa: ts'ebeliso ea lilemo e qalile, lilemo tsa ts'ebeliso, hore na mosebelisi o nyolohetse ho mofuta oa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa kapa o hlahisitse manyalo a sa lebelloang a bootsoa ntle le eona, palo ea thobalano le molekane oa nnete, joalo-joalo. Ho kopana ha lipotso tse joalo ho ka re fa leseli la hore na ke mang ea nang le bothata ba ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho fapana le "maqhubu / lihora tsa ts'ebeliso tsa hajoale."


inahaneloang

Lintho Tse Senyehileng: Pono ea Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa Ho lemalla ho ba Mokena-lipakeng pakeng tsa ho tšepahala le kamano ea botšehali Ho tšoenyeha ho potolohileng litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro Sebelisa.

J Sex Res. 2017 Mar 13: 1-12. doi: 10.1080 / 00224499.2017.1295013.

Leonhardt ND1, Willoughby BJ1, Young-Petersen B1.

1 - Sekolo sa Bophelo ba Lelapa, Brigham Young University.

Lipatlisiso tsa morao-rao litšoantšong tsa bootsoa li bontša hore maikutlo a ho lemala a bolela liphello tse mpe ka holimo ho feta litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Lipatlisiso li boetse li bontšitse hore batho ba bolumeli ba ka 'na ba lemoha hore ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​ho sa tsotellehe hore na ba sebelisa litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso hangata hakae. Ho sebelisa mohlala oa batho ba baholo ba sa nyalaneng ba 686, thuto ena e lumellana le ho eketsa lipatlisiso tsa pele ka ho hlahloba ho lemalla ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e le mokena-lipakeng pakeng tsa bolumeli le kamano ea matšoenyeho e amanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Liphello li senola hore litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li sebelisoa le ho itšetleha ka boleng bo fokolang li amana le kamano e phahameng ea ho tšoenyeha e amanang le litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro, ha pono ea ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e ne e amana haholo le kamano ea matšoenyeho e amanang le bootsoa. Leha ho le joalo, ha pono ea ho lemalla litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro e kenngoa e le mokena-lipakeng oa mekhoa ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li ne li e-na le phello e fokolang ka kamano ea matšoenyeho e amanang le litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso, le ho lemoha ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ka tsela e itseng pakeng tsa bolumeli le likamano tse amanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Ka ho utloisisa kamoo litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso li sebelisoang kateng, bolumeli, le ho lemoha ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li amahanngoa le kamano ea matšoenyeho e amanang le litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li sebelisa mekhahlelo ea pele ea likamano, re tšepa ho ba le menyetla ea hore banyalani ba atlehe ho bua ka litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le ho fokotsa mathata ka likamano tsa lerato.

PMID: 28287845

DOI: 10.1080 / 00224499.2017.1295013