Ho fokotseha ha LPP bakeng sa litšoantšo tsa thobalano ho basebelisi ba nang le bothata ba ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho kanna ha tsamaellana le mehlala ea lithethefatsi. Ntho e ngoe le e ngoe e ipapisitse le mohlala (Commentary on Prause, Steele, Staley, Sabatinelli, & Hajcak, 2015)

Tlhokomeliso - Lipampiri tse ling tse ngata tse hlahlojoang ke lithaka lia lumela hore Prause et al., 2015 e ts'ehetsa mohlala oa ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa: Litlhaloso tse hlahlojoang ke lithaka tsa Prause et al., 2015


QETHA PDF HA HO

Biol Psychol. 2016 May 24. pii: S0301-0511 (16) 30182-X. doi: 10.1016 / j.biopsycho.2016.05.003.

  • 1Setsi sa Swartz sa Computational Neuroscience, Institute for Neural Computations, University of California San Diego, San Diego, USA; Institute of Psychology, Academy ea Poland ea Scientific, Warsaw, Poland. Aterese ea elektronike: [imeile e sirelelitsoe]

Mahlale a marang-rang a marang-rang a fana ka phihlello e sa rekoang le e sa tsejoeng ea litaba tse fapaneng tsa bootsoa (Cooper, 1998). Lintlha tse fumanehang li bonts'a hore 67.6% ea banna le 18.3% ea basali ba baholo ba Danish (ba lilemo li 18-30) ba sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa beke le beke (Hald, 2006). Har'a baithuti ba koleche ea USA 93.2% ea bashanyana le 62.1% ea banana ba ne ba shebelletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng pele ho lilemo tse 18 (Sabina, Wolak, & Finkelhor, 2008). Bakeng sa basebelisi ba bangata, ho shebella litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho bapala karolo ea boithabiso, thabo le khothatso (Rothman, Kaczmarsky, Burke, Jansen, & Baughman, 2014) (Häggström-Nordin, Tydén, Hanson, & Larsson, 2009), empa ho ba bang , Ho sebelisa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro khafetsa ke sesosa sa mahlomola (hoo e ka bang 8% ho tsoa ho basebelisi ho latela Cooper et al., 1999) mme e ba lebaka la ho batla kalafo (Delmonico le Carnes, 1999; Kraus, Potenza, Martino, & Grant, 2015; Gola, Lewczuk, & Skorko, 2016; Gola le Potenza, 2016). Ka lebaka la ho tsebahala hohle le ho tsekisana ha bongaka, tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ke taba ea bohlokoa sechabeng, e hohelang tlhokomelo e kholo mecheng ea litaba, (mohlala, lifilimi tse tummeng: "Lihlong" tsa McQueen le "Don Jon" tsa Gordon-Levitt) le ho tloha bo-ralipolotiki (mohlala, puo ea Tonakholo ea UK David Cameron ka 2013 mabapi le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tse sebelisoang ke bana), hammoho le lipatlisiso tsa methapo ea kutlo (Steele, Staley, Fong, & Prause, 2013; Kühn le Gallinat, 2014; Voon et al., 2014). ea lipotso tse botsoang khafetsa ke: na ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e ka lemalla?

Ho fumanoa ha Prause, Steele, Staley, Sabatinelli, & Hajcak, (2015) e phatlalalitsoeng tokollong ea Phuptjane ea Biological Psychology e fana ka lintlha tse khahlisang ka taba ena. Bafuputsi ba bontšitse hore banna le basali ba tlaleha bothata ba ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (N = 55),1 li bonts'itse monyetla o monyenyane oa nako e telele (LPP - bokhoni bo amanang le ketsahalo e bontšang bohlokoa ba EEG le ho khutsisa ka mokhoa o ikhethileng oa sephetho) litšoantšong tsa thobalano ha li bapisoa le litšoantšo tse seng tsa thobalano, ha li bapisoa le likarabo tsa taolo. Ba boetse ba bontša hore bothata ba bootsoa ba basebelisi ba nang le takatso e phahameng ea ho kopanela liphate ba na le phapang e nyenyane ea LPP bakeng sa litšoantšo tsa thobalano le tsa thobalano. Bangoli ba phethile hore: "Mokhoa ona oa liphetho o bonahala o sa lumellane le likarolo tse ling tse boletsoeng ka mekhoa ea ho lemala" (leq. 196) mme o phatlalatsa qeto ena sehloohong sa sehlooho se reng: "Ho feto-fetoha ha bokhoni ba nako e khutšoanyane ka litšoantšo tsa thobalano ho ba sebelisang mathata le ho laola ho se lumellane le "Ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate" ".

Ka bomalimabe, sengoloeng sa bona, Prause et al. (2015) ha ea ka ea hlalosa ka ho hlaka hore na ba ne ba leka mofuta ofe oa bokhoba ba tahi. Litholoana tse hlahisitsoeng ha ho nahanoa mabapi le meetso e tsebahalang haholo ha li fane ka netefatso e hlakileng ea khopolo ea hore bothata ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro bo sebelisoa ke ho lemalla (joalo ka ha ho ka ba le Khopolo ea Khothatso ea Khothatso; Robinson le Berridge, 1993; Robinson, Fischer, Ahuja, Lesser, & Maniates, 2015) kapa tšehetsa taba ena ea maikutlo (joalo ka ha ho ka etsahala ka Reward Deficiency Syndrome; Blum et al., 1996; 1996; Blum, Badgaiyan, & Gold, 2015). Ka tlase ke e hlalosa ka botlalo.

Aterese ea litlhaloso: Setsi sa Swartz sa Computational Neuroscience, Institute for Neural Computations, Univesithi ea California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, CA 92093-0559, USA. Aterese ea imeile: [imeile e sirelelitsoe]

1 Ho loketse ho hlokomela hore bangoli ba fana ka litholoana bakeng sa barupeluoa le ba basali hammoho, ha lipatlisiso tsa morao-rao li bontša hore litšoantšo tsa thobalano tsa tsosoa le valence li fapana ka mokhoa o hlollang pakeng tsa banna (bona: Wierzba et al., 2015)

2 Monahano ona o tšehetsoa ke 'nete hore litemana tse sebelisitsoeng Prause et al. (2015) e boetse e bua ka IST (e leng Wölfling et al., 2011

Ke hobane'ng ha moelelo oa litsebi le ho hlakisa maikutlo a hlakileng

Ho itšetlehile ka mekhoa e mengata ea lentsoe "cue-reactivity" ke bangoli re ka nahana hore bangoli ba nahanne ka khopolo ea ho khotsofatsa maikutlo (IST) e hlalositsoeng ke Robinson le Berridge (Berridge, 2012; Robinson et al., 2015).2 Mosebetsi ona oa moralo o khetholla likarolo tse peli tsa mantlha tsa boits'oaro bo susumetsoang - "ho batla" le "ho rata". Ea morao-rao e hokahane ka kotloloho le boleng bo nang le boiphihlelo ba moputso, ha ea pele e amana le boleng bo lebelletsoeng ba moputso, hangata bo lekantsoeng mabapi le selelekela sa ponelopele. Mabapi le thuto ea Pavlovia, moputso ke tšusumetso e sa hlokahaleng (UCS) mme lintlha tse amanang le moputso ona ka ho ithuta li susumetsoa ke maemo (CS). Li-CS tse ithutileng li fumana matšeliso le ho tsosa "ho batla", ho bonts'ang boits'oaro bo susumetsang (Mahler le Berridge, 2009; Robinson & Berridge, 2013). Kahoo ba fumana thepa e tšoanang le moputso ka booona. Mohlala likoekoe tse ruuoang lapeng li ithaopela ho ikamahanya le seaparo sa terrycloth (CS) se neng se kopane le monyetla oa ho etsisa likoekoe tse tšehali (UCS), leha e le hore mosali oa 'nete o teng (Cetinkaya le Domjan, 2006)

Ho ea ka IST, bokhoba ba tahi bo tšoauoa ka "ho batla" ho eketsehileng (ts'ebetso e phahameng e amanang le ts'oaetso; ke hore, LPP e phahameng) le ho fokotsa "ho rata" (ho fokotseha hoa ts'ebetso e amanang le moputso; ke hore, LPP e tlase). Bakeng sa ho toloka lintlha ka har'a moralo oa IST bafuputsi ba tlameha ho hlakola ka ho hlaka "ho batla" le "ho rata" ho amanang le meputso. Liteko tsa liteko tsa liteko tsa bobeli li hlahisa lintlha tse fapaneng le meputso (ke hore Flagel et al., 2011; Sescousse, Barbalat, Domenech, & Dreher, 2013; Gola, Miyakoshi, & Sescousse, 2015). Prause et al. (2015) ho e-na le hoo, sebelisa mokhoa o bonolo oa liteko, moo lihlooho li shebang litšoantšo tse fapaneng ka litaba tsa thobalano le tseo eseng tsa thobalano. Ka moralo o bonolo joalo oa liteko potso ea bohlokoa ho tsoa ponong ea IST ke: Na litšoantšo tsa thobalano li phetha karolo ea li-cues (CS) kapa meputso (UCS)? Ka lebaka leo: Na LPP e lekantsoeng e bontša "ho batla" kapa "ho rata"?

Bangoli ba nahana hore litšoantšo tsa thobalano ke lintlha, 'me ka hona, ho toloka LPP e fokotsehile e le mokhoa oa "ho batla" ho fokotsehileng. "Ho batla" ho fokotsehileng mabapi le lintlha ho tla be ho sa lumellane le mofuta oa ts'ebeliso ea lithethefatsi oa IST. Empa lithuto tse ngata li bonts'a hore litšoantšo tsa thobalano ha se maikutlo feela. Baa putsa ka botsona (Oei, Rombouts, Soeter, van Gerven, & Both, 2012; Stoléru, Fonteille, Cornélis, Joyal, & Moulier, 2012; e hlahlojoe ka: Sescousse, Caldú, Segura, & Dreher, 2013; Stoléru le al., 2012). Ho shebella litšoantšo tsa thobalano ho hlahisa tšebetso ea ventral striatum (moputso system) (Arnowet al., 2002; Demos, Heatherton, & Kelley, 2012; Sabatinelli, Bradley, Lang, Costa, & Versace, 2007; Stark et al., 2005; Wehrum-Osinskyet al., 2014), tokollo ea dopamine (Meston le McCall, 2005) ka bobeli ba itlaleha le ho lekanya ka nepo ho tsosa takatso ea thobalano (tlhahlobo: Chivers, Seto, Lalumière, Laan, & Grimbos, 2010).

Litšobotsi tse putsang tsa litšoantšo tsa thobalano e ka ba tsa tlhaho ka lebaka la hore thobalano (joalo ka lijo) ke moputso oa mantlha. Empa leha motho e mong a hana tlhaho e joalo ea tlhaho, litheko tse ntle tsa litakatso tsa botona le botšehali li ka fumanoa ka lebaka la thuto ea Pavlovia. Tlas'a maemo a tlhaho, litakatso tse bonts'ang takatso ea botona kapa botšehali (joalo ka molekane ea hlobotseng kapa video ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa) e kanna ea ba temoso (CS) bakeng sa thobalano e lebisang sehlohlolong (UCS) ka lebaka la thobalano e matla kapa ho ipholla litho tsa botona kapa botšehali ho tsamaeang le thobalano. Ntle le moo, ts'ebelisong ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro khafetsa, litšusumetso tse amanang le thobalano (CS) li amahanngoa le orgasm (UCS) mme li ka fumana meputso (UCS; Mahler le Berridge, 2009; Robinson & Berridge, 2013) ebe li lebisa katamelong ( ho batla litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro) le boits'oaro bo khotsofatsang (ke hore, lihora tsa ho shebella pele o fihla sehlohlolong)

Ho sa tsotelehe boleng ba moputso kapa ba boithuto boo ba ithutileng bona, lithuto li bonts'a hore litšoantšo tsa thobalano li a susumetsa ka botsona, leha ho se na monyetla oa ho fihla sehlohlolong. Kahoo ba na le boleng ba tlhaho ba hedonic bakeng sa batho (Prévost, Pessiglione, Météreau, Cléry-Melin, & Dreher, 2010) hammoho le rhesus macaques (Deaner, Khera, & Platt, 2005). boemo, moo boiphihlelo ba sehlohlolo (UCS ea tlhaho) bo sa fumaneheng, joalo ka ho thuto ea Prause et al .'s (2015) ("bankakarolo thutong ena ba ile ba laeloa hore ba se ke ba ipholla litho tsa botona kapa botšehali nakong ea mosebetsi", leq. 197). Ho ea ka Berridge, moelelo oa mosebetsi o susumetsa ponelopele ea moputso (Berridge, 2012). Kahoo, kaha ho ne ho se monate o mong ntle le litšoantšo tsa thobalano o neng o le teng mona, ho shebella litšoantšo e bile moputso oa mantlha (ho fapana le ho tseba feela).

Ho fokotseha ha LPP bakeng sa meputso ea thobalano ho batho ba ts'oanang le litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso ea boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba ts'oanang le lithethefatsi

Ha re nahana ka tsohle tse kaholimo re kanna ra nahana hore litšoantšo tsa thobalano ho Prause et al. (2015) ho ithuta, ho fapana le ho ba lintlha, e kanna eaba e nkile karolo ea moputso. Haeba ho joalo, ho latela moralo oa IST, LPP e tlase bakeng sa litšoantšo tsa thobalano le tse seng tsa thobalano ho basebelisi ba nang le bothata ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le lihlooho tse nang le takatso e phahameng ea thobalano li bonts'a "ho rata" ho fokotsehileng. Sephetho se joalo se tsamaellana le mofuta oa tahi o hlahisitsoeng ke Berridge le Robinson (Berridge, 2012; Robinson et al., 2015). Leha ho le joalo, ho netefatsa ka botlalo mohopolo oa bokhoba ba tahi kahare ho moralo oa IST, ho hlokahala lithuto tse tsoetseng pele tsa liteko, ho qhekella maikutlo le moputso. Mohlala o motle oa paradigm ea liteko e entsoeng hantle e sebelisitsoe ho lithuto tsa papali ea chelete ke Sescousse, Redouté, & Dreher (2010). E ne e sebelisa chelete le likamano tsa botona le botšehali (litšusumetso tsa tšoantšetso) le meputso e hlakileng (katleho ea chelete kapa litšoantšo tsa thobalano). Ka lebaka la khaello ea lintlha tse hlalositsoeng hantle le meputso ho Prause et al. (2015), karolo ea litšoantšo tsa thobalano e ntse e sa hlaka, ka hona litlamorao tsa LPP li hlakile ka har'a moralo oa IST. Bakeng sa sephetho se tiileng se hlahisitsoeng sehloohong sa thuto "Ho feto-fetoha ha maemo a nakong e tlang ka litšoantšo tsa thobalano ho basebelisi ba mathata le taolo e sa lumellaneng le" bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa "ha ea koaheloa mabapi le IST

Haeba re nka mehlala e meng e tloaelehileng ea lithethefatsi - Reward Deficency Syndrome (RDS; Blum et al., 1996, 2015) lintlha tse fumanoang ke bangoli ha e le hantle li bua ka mokhoa oa ho lemalla ho lemala. RDS-mosebetsing o nka hore mefuta ea liphatsa tsa lefutso e fokotsa karabo ea dopaminergic bakeng sa tšusumetso e khotsofatsang (e hlalositsoeng ka BOLD le electrophysiological reactivity) e amana le ho batla ho utloa bohloko, ho hloka boikutlo le kotsi e phahameng ea ho lemala. Liphuputso tsa bangoli ba LPP tse tlaase ho basebeletsi ba litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso ea boitšoaro bo bobe li lumellana ka ho feletseng le mekhoa ea ho lemalla taolo ea RDS. Haeba Prause le al. (2015) ba ne ba hlahloba mohlala o mong, o sa tsejoeng haholo ho feta IST kapa RDS, e ka ba ntho e lakatsehang haholo ho e hlahisa ka bokhutšoanyane mosebetsing oa bona.

Mantsoe a ho qetela

Thuto ea Prause et al. (2015) e fana ka boitsebiso bo thahasellisang tabeng ea ho sebelisa litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso.3 Leha ho le joalo, ka lebaka la ho haelloa ke polelo e hlakileng ea khopolo-taba eo mokhoa oa ho lemalla lithethefatsi o lekiloeng le palo ea litlhahlobo tse sa tloaelehang (ho thata ho hlalosa karolo ea litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso), ho ke ke ha khoneha ho bolela hore liphello tse hlahisitsoeng li khahlanong le, kapa ho lumellana, "Lithethefatsi tse litšila tse tsosang takatso." Liphuputso tse tsoetseng pele tse nang le likhopolo tse hlalositsoeng hantle li hlokahala. Ka bomalimabe tlotla ea Prause et al. (2015) sehlooho se se se bile le tšusumetso ho mecha ea litaba,4 kahoo ho fetisa qeto e sa nepahalang ea saense. Ka lebaka la bohlokoa ba sechaba le ba lipolotiki mabapi le liphello tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​bafuputsi ba lokela ho etsa liqeto tse tlang ka hloko haholoanyane.

3 Ho loketse ho hlokomela hore Prause le al. (2015) ba sebelisang bothata ba ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ka karolelano bakeng sa 3.8 h / beke (SD = 1.3) ho batla ho tšoana le basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ba Kühn le Gallinat (2014) ba jang ka karolelano 4.09 h / beke (SD = 3.9) . Ho Voon et al. (2014) basebelisi ba mathata ba tlalehile 1.75 h / beke (SD = 3.36) le bothata ba 13.21 ka beke (SD = 9.85) - lintlha tse hlahisoang ke Voon nakong ea seboka sa American Psychological Conference ka May 2015.

4 Mehlala ea litlotla tsa lihlooho tse tsebahalang tsa saense ka Prause et al. (2015): "Litšoantšo tse litšila ha li kotsi joaloka tse ling tsa lithethefatsi, litlaleho tsa thuto" (http://metro.co.uk/2015/07/04/porn-is-not-as-harmful-as-other-addictions- litsebi tsa ho ithuta-5279530 /), "Lithethefatsi Tsa Hao Tsa Bootsoa ha li Ntle" (http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/06/26/your-porn-addiction-isn-t-real.html) , "Tšebeliso ea Bootsoa" Na ha e le Hantle ke Lithethefatsi, Litsebi Tsa Maoetse li re "(http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/30/porn-addiction- n7696448.html)

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