Litlhaloso tse hlahlojoang ke lithaka tsa Prause et al., 2015

Selelekela

Boithuto ba EEG: "Ho feto-fetoha ha maikutlo ka mekhoa e metle ea nakoana ka litšoantšo tsa thobalano ho basebelisi ba mathata le litsamaiso tse sa lumellaneng le lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa"(Prause et al., 2015)

Kleima: Ho tla fihlela kajeno, mofuputsi oa mehleng oa UCLA Nicole Prause ka sebete o re thuto ea hae e le 'ngoe ea EEG "e qhekelletse mohlala oa ho lemalla litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso."

Ntho ea sebele: Liphetho li bontša tloaelo / ts'oaetso ho batho ba tloaelehileng ba ho kopanela liphate. Hobane pampiri ena e tlalehile tšebeliso e khōloanyane ea litšoantšo tse amanang le Nyane ho tsosoa ke boko ho pornography vanilla ho thathamisitsoe ho sena Websaeteng e le ho tšehetsa khopolo ea hore litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tse sa foleng li laola fatše ho laola tsoho ea thobalano. Ka mantsoe a bonolo, basebeletsi ba tloaelehileng ba ho kopanela liphate ba ne ba halefile ke litšoantšo tse tsitsitseng tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba ho-hum (Lipatlisiso tsena li bapisoa Kuhn le Gallinat., 2014.) Liphuputso tsena li lumellana le mamello, letšoao la lemalla ntho. Ho mamella ho hlalosoa e le karabelo e fokotsehileng ea motho ea lithethefatsi kapa tšusumetso eo e leng sephetho sa tšebeliso e hangata. Lipampiri tse robong tse hlahlojoang ke lithaka tse thathamisitsoeng ka tlase li lumellana le sena YBOP tlhahlobo ea Prause et al., 2015.

Liphuputso tse mashome a mabeli a metso e supileng li tlalehile liphuputso tse lumellanang le sensitization / cue-reactivity. Hobane basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa khafetsa ba ne ba bala li-EEG tse tlase ho feta taolo, mongoli ea etelletseng pele Nicole Prause o ile a re pampiri ea hae, ka liqeto tsa eona tse mpe, e "thetsitse" mofuta oa lithethefatsi oa bootsoa. O re lipalo tsa hae tsa EEG li lekotse "cue-reactivity," ho fapana le tloaelo. Esita le haeba Prause e ne e nepahetse, o hlokomoloha habonolo bothata ba hae ba "bohata". Ho sa tsotellehe seo a se buang ka Prause et al. 2015 ho fumana basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa khafetsa, 26 tse ling liphuputso tsa kelello li tlalehile boikutlo ba maikutlo kapa litakatso (senitization) ho ba qobellang ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27. Saense ha e tsamaee le thuto e ikemetseng e senyehileng e sitisoang ke mekhoa e tebileng ea litsela le ba leeme ho li-spokespersons;; saense e tsamaisana le ho senyeha ha bopaki.

Hlokomela: Lenaneong lena la 2018 Gary Wilson o senola 'nete ka mor'a lithuto tse belaetsang le tse khelosa tsa 5, ho akarelletsa le lithuto tse peli tsa Nicole Prause EEG (Steele et al., 2013 le Prause et al., 2015): Lipatlisiso Tsa Bootsoa: 'Nete kapa Khopolo-taba?

Litlhahlobo tse leshome tse lekotsoeng ke lithaka tsa Prause et al., 2015. Ho theosa le lilemo lithuto tse ling tse ngata tsa thuto ea kelello li phatlalalitsoe (MRI, fMRI, EEG, neuropsychological, hormonal). Bohle ba fana ka ts'ehetso e matla bakeng sa mofuta oa bokhoba ba tahi ha liphetho tsa bona li bonahatsa sephetho sa methapo ea pelo se tlalehiloeng lithutong tsa bokhoba ba lithethefatsi. Maikutlo a litsebi tsa 'nete mabapi le bokhoba ba thobalano / thobalano a ka bonoa lenaneng lena la 25 litlhahlobo tsa morao-rao tsa lingoliloeng le litlhaloso (tsohle li lumellana le mokhoa oa ho lemalla lithethefatsi). Lipampiri tse ka tlase kaofela li lumela hore Prause et al. Liphuputso tsa tloaelo li etsa tšehetso ho ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate mohlala. Karolo ea #2 (ka Gola) e ikemiselitse ho bapisa feela Prause et al., 2015. Litokomane tse ling tsa 9 li na le likarolo tse khutšoanyane tse hlahlobang Prause et al., 2015 (bohle e re thuto ea EEG e hlile e fumane bolulo kapa ho nyahlatsa). Lipampiri tsena li thathamisitsoe ka letsatsi la phatlalatso.


1) Boitsebiso bo bongata ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa Inthaneteng Ho lemalla: Tlhahlobo le Tlhahlobo (2015)

Tlhaloso ea tlhaloso Prause et al., 2015 (tlhaloso 309)

Phuputso e 'ngoe ea EEG e amanang le bangoli ba bararo ba tšoanang e sa tsoa hatisoa [309]. Ka bomalimabe, thuto ena e ncha e bile le mathata a mangata a tšoanang le a pele [303]. Ka mohlala, e ne e sebelisa letamo la lipuo tse sa tšoaneng, bafuputsi ba ile ba sebelisa lipotso tsa ho hlahloba lipotso tse sa kang tsa tiisoa bakeng sa basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba Internet, mme litaba ha lia hlahlojoa bakeng sa mehlala e meng ea ho lemala kapa mathata a maikutlo.

Thuputsong e ncha, Prause et al. o bapisa mosebetsi oa EEG oa batho ba atisang ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro Inthaneteng le ba li laola ha ba ntse ba sheba litšoantšo tse peli tsa thobalano le lipolotiki [309]. Joalokaha ho lebeletsoe, bophahamo ba LPP mabapi le litšoantšo tse sa nke lehlakore bo ile ba eketseha ho lihlopha tsena ka bobeli, le hoja ho eketseha ha matšoafo ho ne ho le nyane ho lihlooho tsa IPA. Ho lebella bophahamo bo boholo ho ba shebelli ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tsa Inthaneteng, bangoli ba re, "Mokhoa ona o hlaha o fapane le mefuta ea lithethefatsi".

Le hoja e kholo ea ERP amplitudes ho arabela litlamong tsa lithethefatsi tse amanang le litšoantšo tse sa nkeheng li bonahala lithutong tsa lithethefatsi tse sa lebelloang, ho fumana hona joale ho sa lebelloa, 'me ho lumellana le liphuputso tsa Kühn le Gallinat [263], ea ileng a fumana tšebeliso e eketsehileng e amanang le ho sebetsa ha boko bo fokolang ha a arabela litšoantšong tsa thobalano. Karolong ea puisano, bangoli ba qotsitse Kühn le Gallinat mme ba fana ka tloaelo e le tlhaloso e nepahetseng bakeng sa mokhoa o ka tlaase oa LPP. Tlhaloso e eketsehileng e fanoeng ke Kühn le Gallinat, leha ho le joalo, ke hore ho tsosolosa ho matla ho ka 'na ha fella ka liphetoho tsa meriana. Haholo-holo, litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso li sebelisana hantle le taba e tlaase ea bohlooho molomong oa dorsal striatum, tsoho e amanang le thobalano e amanang le ho susumetsa [265].

Ke habohlokoa ho hlokomela hore lintho tse fumanoeng ke Prause et al. ba ne ba le ka lehlakoreng le leng la seo ba neng ba se lebeletse [309]. Motho a ka lebella hore ba shebellang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le Inthanete ba atisa ho ba le LPP amplitudes e tšoanang ka lebaka la ho pepesehela litšoantšo tsa thobalano haeba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tsa Inthanete li se na phello. Ho e-na le hoo, ho fumana ntho e sa lebelloang ea Prause le al. [309] e fana ka maikutlo a hore hangata ba shebellang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba Inthaneteng ba tloaetse ho sheba litšoantšo. E ka 'na eaba e mong o ka tšoana le sena ho mamellana. Lefatšeng la kajeno la ho sebelisa Inthanete ka lebelo le leholo, ho ka etsahala hore hangata bareki ba inthaneteng ba sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le livideo ho fapana le likarolo tse ntseng li le joalo. Litšoantšo tsa ho kopanela liphate li hlahisa ho tsosoa ha lintho tsa 'mele le ho ikokobetsa ho feta litšoantšo tsa thobalano [310] le ho shebella lifilimi tsa thobalano ho baka thahasello e fokolang le boikarabelo ba thobalano litšoantšong tsa thobalano [311]. Ho kopanngoa, Prause le al., Le lithuto tsa Kühn le Gallinat li lebisa qeto e utloahalang ea hore hangata bashebelli ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba inthaneteng ba hloka boikutlo bo eketsehileng ba ho hlahisa likarabo tsa boko bo lekanang le ho laola bophelo bo botle kapa basebelisi ba bootsoa ba itekanetseng.

Ho phaella moo, polelo ea Prause et al. [309] hore, "Tsena ke ditaba tsa pele tse sebetsang tsa batho ba tlaleha mathata a taolo ya VSS" ke bothata hobane e hlokomoloha patlisiso e hatisitsoeng pejana [262,263]. Ho feta moo, ke habohlokoa ho hlokomela hore e 'ngoe ea mathata a maholo ha ho hlahlojoa likarabo tsa boko bo hlaselang litabeng tsa bootsoa ba Inthanete ke hore ho shebella thobalano ke boitšoaro bo hlephileng. Ka lehlakoreng le leng, lithuto tsa mahlaseli a li-cocaine li na le litšoantšo tse amanang le tšebeliso ea cocaine (mela e mosoeu seiponeng), ho e-na le ho ba le lihlooho tse hlileng li kenyang cocaine. Kaha ho shebella litšoantšo tsa thobalano le livideo ke boitšoaro bo hlephileng, liphuputso tsa bokooa nakong ea bokooa ba Inthaneteng basebeletsi ba lokela ho ela hloko bobeli ba liteko le ho hlalosa liphello. Ka mohlala, ho fapana le tlhahiso ea bobeli ho litšoantšo tse ntseng li sebelisoa ke Prause et al. [309], Voon et al. o ile a khetha likarolo tse hlakileng tsa video tsa bobeli ba 9 molemong oa bona oa ho fetola li-paradigm ho ea haufi-ufi le litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso ea Internet [262]. Ho fapana le tlhahiso ea bobeli ho litšoantšo tse ntseng li le teng (Prause et al. [309]), ho hlahella li-video tsa 9-seconds ho ile ha etsa hore boko bo boholo bo sebetsane le ba shebelli ba boima ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho feta kamoo ba bonts'ang litšoantšo tse ntseng li le teng. Ho phaella tabeng ea hore bangoli ba bua ka thuto ea Kühn le Gallinat, ba lokolloa ka nako e tšoanang le thuto ea Voon [262], leha ho le joalo ba ne ba sa amohele Voon et al. ho ithuta kae kapa kae pampiring ea bona ho sa tsotellehe bohlokoa ba eona.


2) Ho fokotseha ha LPP bakeng sa litšoantšo tsa thobalano ho basebelisi ba nang le bothata ba ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho kanna ha tsamaellana le mehlala ea lithethefatsi Ntho e ngoe le e ngoe e ipapisitse le mohlala: Tlhaloso ka Prause, Steele, Staley, Sabatinelli, & Hajcak, 2015 (2016)

Biol Psychol. 2016 May 24. pii: S0301-0511 (16) 30182-X. doi: 10.1016 / j.biopsycho.2016.05.003.

Gola Matuesz1. 1Setsi sa Swartz sa Computational Neuroscience, Institute for Neural Computations, University of California San Diego, San Diego, USA; Institute of Psychology, Academy ea Poland ea Scientific, Warsaw, Poland. Aterese ea elektronike: [imeile e sirelelitsoe]

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Mahlale a marang-rang a marang-rang a fana ka phihlello e sa rekoang le e sa tsejoeng ea litaba tse fapaneng tsa bootsoa (Cooper, 1998). Lintlha tse fumanehang li bonts'a hore 67.6% ea banna le 18.3% ea basali ba baholo ba Danish (ba lilemo li 18-30) ba sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa beke le beke (Hald, 2006). Har'a baithuti ba koleche ea USA 93.2% ea bashanyana le 62.1% ea banana ba ne ba shebelletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng pele ho lilemo tse 18 (Sabina, Wolak, & Finkelhor, 2008). Bakeng sa basebelisi ba bangata, ho shebella litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho bapala karolo ea boithabiso, thabo le khothatso (Rothman, Kaczmarsky, Burke, Jansen, & Baughman, 2014) (Häggström-Nordin, Tydén, Hanson, & Larsson, 2009), empa ho ba bang , Ho sebelisa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro khafetsa ke sesosa sa mahlomola (hoo e ka bang 8% ho tsoa ho basebelisi ho latela Cooper et al., 1999) mme e ba lebaka la ho batla kalafo (Delmonico le Carnes, 1999; Kraus, Potenza, Martino, & Grant, 2015; Gola, Lewczuk, & Skorko, 2016; Gola le Potenza, 2016). Ka lebaka la ho tsebahala hohle le ho tsekisana ha bongaka, tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ke taba ea bohlokoa sechabeng, e hohelang tlhokomelo e kholo mecheng ea litaba, (mohlala, lifilimi tse tummeng: "Lihlong" tsa McQueen le "Don Jon" tsa Gordon-Levitt) le ho tloha bo-ralipolotiki (mohlala, puo ea Tonakholo ea UK David Cameron ka 2013 mabapi le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tse sebelisoang ke bana), hammoho le lipatlisiso tsa methapo ea kutlo (Steele, Staley, Fong, & Prause, 2013; Kühn le Gallinat, 2014; Voon et al., 2014). ea lipotso tse botsoang khafetsa ke: na ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e ka lemalla?

Ho fumanoa ha Prause, Steele, Staley, Sabatinelli, & Hajcak, (2015) e phatlalalitsoeng tokollong ea Phuptjane ea Biological Psychology e fana ka lintlha tse khahlisang ka taba ena. Bafuputsi ba bontšitse hore banna le basali ba tlaleha bothata ba ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (N = 55),1 li bonts'itse monyetla o monyenyane oa nako e telele (LPP - bokhoni bo amanang le ketsahalo e bontšang bohlokoa ba EEG le ho khutsisa ka mokhoa o ikhethileng oa sephetho) litšoantšong tsa thobalano ha li bapisoa le litšoantšo tse seng tsa thobalano, ha li bapisoa le likarabo tsa taolo. Ba boetse ba bontša hore bothata ba bootsoa ba basebelisi ba nang le takatso e phahameng ea ho kopanela liphate ba na le phapang e nyenyane ea LPP bakeng sa litšoantšo tsa thobalano le tsa thobalano. Bangoli ba phethile hore: "Mokhoa ona oa liphetho o bonahala o sa lumellane le likarolo tse ling tse boletsoeng ka mekhoa ea ho lemala" (leq. 196) mme o phatlalatsa qeto ena sehloohong sa sehlooho se reng: "Ho feto-fetoha ha bokhoni ba nako e khutšoanyane ka litšoantšo tsa thobalano ho ba sebelisang mathata le ho laola ho se lumellane le "Ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate" ".

Ka bomalimabe, sengoloeng sa bona, Prause et al. (2015) ha ea ka ea hlalosa ka ho hlaka hore na ba ne ba leka mofuta ofe oa bokhoba ba tahi. Litholoana tse hlahisitsoeng ha ho nahanoa mabapi le meetso e tsebahalang haholo ha li fane ka netefatso e hlakileng ea khopolo ea hore bothata ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro bo sebelisoa ke ho lemalla (joalo ka ha ho ka ba le Khopolo ea Khothatso ea Khothatso; Robinson le Berridge, 1993; Robinson, Fischer, Ahuja, Lesser, & Maniates, 2015) kapa tšehetsa taba ena ea maikutlo (joalo ka ha ho ka etsahala ka Reward Deficiency Syndrome; Blum et al., 1996; 1996; Blum, Badgaiyan, & Gold, 2015). Ka tlase ke e hlalosa ka botlalo.

Aterese ea litlhaloso: Setsi sa Swartz sa Computational Neuroscience, Institute for Neural Computations, Univesithi ea California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, CA 92093-0559, USA. Aterese ea imeile: [imeile e sirelelitsoe]

1 Ho loketse ho hlokomela hore bangoli ba fana ka litholoana bakeng sa barupeluoa le ba basali hammoho, ha lipatlisiso tsa morao-rao li bontša hore litšoantšo tsa thobalano tsa tsosoa le valence li fapana ka mokhoa o hlollang pakeng tsa banna (bona: Wierzba et al., 2015)

2 Monahano ona o tšehetsoa ke 'nete hore litemana tse sebelisitsoeng Prause et al. (2015) e boetse e bua ka IST (e leng Wölfling et al., 2011

Ke hobane'ng ha moelelo oa litsebi le ho hlakisa maikutlo a hlakileng

Ho itšetlehile ka mekhoa e mengata ea lentsoe "cue-reactivity" ke bangoli re ka nahana hore bangoli ba nahanne ka khopolo ea ho khotsofatsa maikutlo (IST) e hlalositsoeng ke Robinson le Berridge (Berridge, 2012; Robinson et al., 2015).2 Mosebetsi ona oa moralo o khetholla likarolo tse peli tsa mantlha tsa boits'oaro bo susumetsoang - "ho batla" le "ho rata". Ea morao-rao e hokahane ka kotloloho le boleng bo nang le boiphihlelo ba moputso, ha ea pele e amana le boleng bo lebelletsoeng ba moputso, hangata bo lekantsoeng mabapi le selelekela sa ponelopele. Mabapi le thuto ea Pavlovia, moputso ke tšusumetso e sa hlokahaleng (UCS) mme lintlha tse amanang le moputso ona ka ho ithuta li susumetsoa ke maemo (CS). Li-CS tse ithutileng li fumana matšeliso le ho tsosa "ho batla", ho bonts'ang boits'oaro bo susumetsang (Mahler le Berridge, 2009; Robinson & Berridge, 2013). Kahoo ba fumana thepa e tšoanang le moputso ka booona. Mohlala likoekoe tse ruuoang lapeng li ithaopela ho ikamahanya le seaparo sa terrycloth (CS) se neng se kopane le monyetla oa ho etsisa likoekoe tse tšehali (UCS), leha e le hore mosali oa 'nete o teng (Cetinkaya le Domjan, 2006)

Ho ea ka IST, bokhoba ba tahi bo tšoauoa ka "ho batla" ho eketsehileng (ts'ebetso e phahameng e amanang le ts'oaetso; ke hore, LPP e phahameng) le ho fokotsa "ho rata" (ho fokotseha hoa ts'ebetso e amanang le moputso; ke hore, LPP e tlase). Bakeng sa ho toloka lintlha ka har'a moralo oa IST bafuputsi ba tlameha ho hlakola ka ho hlaka "ho batla" le "ho rata" ho amanang le meputso. Liteko tsa liteko tsa liteko tsa bobeli li hlahisa lintlha tse fapaneng le meputso (ke hore Flagel et al., 2011; Sescousse, Barbalat, Domenech, & Dreher, 2013; Gola, Miyakoshi, & Sescousse, 2015). Prause et al. (2015) ho e-na le hoo, sebelisa mokhoa o bonolo oa liteko, moo lihlooho li shebang litšoantšo tse fapaneng ka litaba tsa thobalano le tseo eseng tsa thobalano. Ka moralo o bonolo joalo oa liteko potso ea bohlokoa ho tsoa ponong ea IST ke: Na litšoantšo tsa thobalano li phetha karolo ea li-cues (CS) kapa meputso (UCS)? Ka lebaka leo: Na LPP e lekantsoeng e bontša "ho batla" kapa "ho rata"?

Bangoli ba nahana hore litšoantšo tsa thobalano ke lintlha, 'me ka hona, ho toloka LPP e fokotsehile e le mokhoa oa "ho batla" ho fokotsehileng. "Ho batla" ho fokotsehileng mabapi le lintlha ho tla be ho sa lumellane le mofuta oa ts'ebeliso ea lithethefatsi oa IST. Empa lithuto tse ngata li bonts'a hore litšoantšo tsa thobalano ha se maikutlo feela. Baa putsa ka botsona (Oei, Rombouts, Soeter, van Gerven, & Both, 2012; Stoléru, Fonteille, Cornélis, Joyal, & Moulier, 2012; e hlahlojoe ka: Sescousse, Caldú, Segura, & Dreher, 2013; Stoléru le al., 2012). Ho shebella litšoantšo tsa thobalano ho hlahisa tšebetso ea ventral striatum (moputso system) (Arnowet al., 2002; Demos, Heatherton, & Kelley, 2012; Sabatinelli, Bradley, Lang, Costa, & Versace, 2007; Stark et al., 2005; Wehrum-Osinskyet al., 2014), tokollo ea dopamine (Meston le McCall, 2005) ka bobeli ba itlaleha le ho lekanya ka nepo ho tsosa takatso ea thobalano (tlhahlobo: Chivers, Seto, Lalumière, Laan, & Grimbos, 2010).

Litšobotsi tse putsang tsa litšoantšo tsa thobalano e ka ba tsa tlhaho ka lebaka la hore thobalano (joalo ka lijo) ke moputso oa mantlha. Empa leha motho e mong a hana tlhaho e joalo ea tlhaho, litheko tse ntle tsa litakatso tsa botona le botšehali li ka fumanoa ka lebaka la thuto ea Pavlovia. Tlas'a maemo a tlhaho, litakatso tse bonts'ang takatso ea botona kapa botšehali (joalo ka molekane ea hlobotseng kapa video ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa) e kanna ea ba temoso (CS) bakeng sa thobalano e lebisang sehlohlolong (UCS) ka lebaka la thobalano e matla kapa ho ipholla litho tsa botona kapa botšehali ho tsamaeang le thobalano. Ntle le moo, ts'ebelisong ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro khafetsa, litšusumetso tse amanang le thobalano (CS) li amahanngoa le orgasm (UCS) mme li ka fumana meputso (UCS; Mahler le Berridge, 2009; Robinson & Berridge, 2013) ebe li lebisa katamelong ( ho batla litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro) le boits'oaro bo khotsofatsang (ke hore, lihora tsa ho shebella pele o fihla sehlohlolong)

Ho sa tsotelehe boleng ba moputso kapa ba boithuto boo ba ithutileng bona, lithuto li bonts'a hore litšoantšo tsa thobalano li a susumetsa ka botsona, leha ho se na monyetla oa ho fihla sehlohlolong. Kahoo ba na le boleng ba tlhaho ba hedonic bakeng sa batho (Prévost, Pessiglione, Météreau, Cléry-Melin, & Dreher, 2010) hammoho le rhesus macaques (Deaner, Khera, & Platt, 2005). boemo, moo boiphihlelo ba sehlohlolo (UCS ea tlhaho) bo sa fumaneheng, joalo ka ho thuto ea Prause et al .'s (2015) ("bankakarolo thutong ena ba ile ba laeloa hore ba se ke ba ipholla litho tsa botona kapa botšehali nakong ea mosebetsi", leq. 197). Ho ea ka Berridge, moelelo oa mosebetsi o susumetsa ponelopele ea moputso (Berridge, 2012). Kahoo, kaha ho ne ho se monate o mong ntle le litšoantšo tsa thobalano o neng o le teng mona, ho shebella litšoantšo e bile moputso oa mantlha (ho fapana le ho tseba feela).

Ho fokotseha ha LPP bakeng sa meputso ea thobalano ho batho ba ts'oanang le litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso ea boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba ts'oanang le lithethefatsi

Ha re nahana ka tsohle tse kaholimo re kanna ra nahana hore litšoantšo tsa thobalano ho Prause et al. (2015) ho ithuta, ho fapana le ho ba lintlha, e kanna eaba e nkile karolo ea moputso. Haeba ho joalo, ho latela moralo oa IST, LPP e tlase bakeng sa litšoantšo tsa thobalano le tse seng tsa thobalano ho basebelisi ba nang le bothata ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le lihlooho tse nang le takatso e phahameng ea thobalano li bonts'a "ho rata" ho fokotsehileng. Sephetho se joalo se tsamaellana le mofuta oa tahi o hlahisitsoeng ke Berridge le Robinson (Berridge, 2012; Robinson et al., 2015). Leha ho le joalo, ho netefatsa ka botlalo mohopolo oa bokhoba ba tahi kahare ho moralo oa IST, ho hlokahala lithuto tse tsoetseng pele tsa liteko, ho qhekella maikutlo le moputso. Mohlala o motle oa paradigm ea liteko e entsoeng hantle e sebelisitsoe ho lithuto tsa papali ea chelete ke Sescousse, Redouté, & Dreher (2010). E ne e sebelisa chelete le likamano tsa botona le botšehali (litšusumetso tsa tšoantšetso) le meputso e hlakileng (katleho ea chelete kapa litšoantšo tsa thobalano). Ka lebaka la khaello ea lintlha tse hlalositsoeng hantle le meputso ho Prause et al. (2015), karolo ea litšoantšo tsa thobalano e ntse e sa hlaka, ka hona litlamorao tsa LPP li hlakile ka har'a moralo oa IST. Bakeng sa sephetho se tiileng se hlahisitsoeng sehloohong sa thuto "Ho feto-fetoha ha maemo a nakong e tlang ka litšoantšo tsa thobalano ho basebelisi ba mathata le taolo e sa lumellaneng le" bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa "ha ea koaheloa mabapi le IST

Haeba re nka mehlala e meng e tloaelehileng ea lithethefatsi - Reward Deficency Syndrome (RDS; Blum et al., 1996, 2015) lintlha tse fumanoang ke bangoli ha e le hantle li bua ka mokhoa oa ho lemalla ho lemala. RDS-mosebetsing o nka hore mefuta ea liphatsa tsa lefutso e fokotsa karabo ea dopaminergic bakeng sa tšusumetso e khotsofatsang (e hlalositsoeng ka BOLD le electrophysiological reactivity) e amana le ho batla ho utloa bohloko, ho hloka boikutlo le kotsi e phahameng ea ho lemala. Liphuputso tsa bangoli ba LPP tse tlaase ho basebeletsi ba litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso ea boitšoaro bo bobe li lumellana ka ho feletseng le mekhoa ea ho lemalla taolo ea RDS. Haeba Prause le al. (2015) ba ne ba hlahloba mohlala o mong, o sa tsejoeng haholo ho feta IST kapa RDS, e ka ba ntho e lakatsehang haholo ho e hlahisa ka bokhutšoanyane mosebetsing oa bona.

Mantsoe a ho qetela

Thuto ea Prause et al. (2015) e fana ka boitsebiso bo thahasellisang tabeng ea ho sebelisa litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso.3 Leha ho le joalo, ka lebaka la ho haelloa ke polelo e hlakileng ea khopolo-taba eo mokhoa oa ho lemalla lithethefatsi o lekiloeng le palo ea litlhahlobo tse sa tloaelehang (ho thata ho hlalosa karolo ea litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso), ho ke ke ha khoneha ho bolela hore liphello tse hlahisitsoeng li khahlanong le, kapa ho lumellana, "Lithethefatsi tse litšila tse tsosang takatso." Liphuputso tse tsoetseng pele tse nang le likhopolo tse hlalositsoeng hantle li hlokahala. Ka bomalimabe tlotla ea Prause et al. (2015) sehlooho se se se bile le tšusumetso ho mecha ea phatlalatso, 4 kahoo e fetisa qeto ea saense e sa utloahaleng. Ka lebaka la bohlokoa ba sechaba le ba lipolotiki mabapi le liphello tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, bafuputsi ba lokela ho ela hloko liqeto tse tlang ka hloko haholoanyane. (ho hatisoa)

3 Ho loketse ho hlokomela hore Prause le al. (2015) ba sebelisang bothata ba ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ka karolelano bakeng sa 3.8 h / beke (SD = 1.3) ho batla ho tšoana le basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ba Kühn le Gallinat (2014) ba jang ka karolelano 4.09 h / beke (SD = 3.9) . Ho Voon et al. (2014) basebelisi ba mathata ba tlalehile 1.75 h / beke (SD = 3.36) le bothata ba 13.21 ka beke (SD = 9.85) - lintlha tse hlahisoang ke Voon nakong ea seboka sa American Psychological Conference ka May 2015.

4 Mehlala ea litlotla tsa lihlooho tse tsebahalang tsa saense ka Prause et al. (2015): "Litšoantšo tse litšila ha li kotsi joaloka tse ling tsa lithethefatsi, litlaleho tsa thuto" (http://metro.co.uk/2015/07/04/porn-is-not-as-harmful-as-other-addictions- litsebi tsa ho ithuta-5279530 /), "Lithethefatsi Tsa Hao Tsa Bootsoa ha li Ntle" (http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/06/26/your-porn-addiction-isn-t-real.html) , "Tšebeliso ea Bootsoa" Na ha e le Hantle ke Lithethefatsi, Litsebi Tsa Maoetse li re "(http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/30/porn-addiction- n7696448.html)

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3) Mokhoa oa ho phekola liketso tsa ho kopanela liphate ka mokhoa o tsitsitseng oa ho kopanela liphate: Setsebi se hlahisang (2016)

LITABA: Le hoja pampiri ena e le khutsufatso e khutšoane feela, e na le lintlha tse seng kae tsa bohlokoa. Ka mohlala, e bolela hore ka bobeli Prause et al., 2015 'me Kuhn le Gallinat, 2014 bolela tlaleho e tšoanang: ho sebelisa litšoantšo tse ngata tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho amana le litloaelo tse ngata tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Liphuputso tsena ka bobeli li tlalehile tlaase ho sebetsa ka bokooa ho arabela ka ho pepesehela habonolo litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba vanilla. Lekhetlong le latelang "Ntho e ka tlaase ho nako e ntle" e bolela ho fumanoa ha EEG Prause et al.:

"Ka papiso, lithuto ho batho ba phetseng hantle li fana ka maikutlo a bohlokoa bakeng sa ho ntlafatsa tloaelo ea ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ka tsela e feteletseng. Ho banna ba phetseng hantle, nako e eketsehileng e sebelisitsoeng ho shebella litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tse amanang le setšoantšo se ka tlaase sa putaminal ho litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (Kühn le Gallinat, 2014). Mesebetsi e ka tlaase ea nako e khutšoanyane ea liketsahalo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso e ne e bonoa litabeng tse nang le bothata ba ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. (ho hatisoa)

Leqephe le bolela bobeli Prause et al., 2015 'me Kuhn le Gallinat, 2014 fumanoa tloaelo ho basebelisi ba kamehla ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.

Tlhaloso e feletseng:

Boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba ho kopanela liphate (CSB) bo khetholloa ke takatso, ho hloka tšusumetso, ho senyeha ha sechaba / ts'ebetsong, le bothata ba kelello. Ho ata ha CSB ho hakanngoa ho potoloha 3-6%, le banna ba bangata. Le hoja e sa kenngoa DSM-5, CSB e ka fumanoa ka ICD-10 e le lefu la ho laola maikutlo. Leha ho le joalo, moqoqo o teng mabapi le likarolo tsa CSB (mohlala, e le bothata ba ho qobella motho ho itšunya-tšunya, e leng tšobotsi ea bothata ba ho kopanela liphate, ho tsuba, kapa ho tsoelapele ka boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba ho kopanela liphate).

Bopaki ba pele bo bontša hore dopamine e ka kenya letsoho ho CSB. Parallinson's (PD), dopamine phekolo ea phekolo (Levo-dopa, dopamine agonists) e amahanngoa le CSB le mathata a mang a ho laola maikutlo (Weintraub et al, 2010). Palo e fokolang ea lintlha tse sebelisang naltrexone ts'ehetso ea eona ka katleho ea ho fokotsa litakatso le mekhoa e amanang le CSB (Raymond et al, 2010), e lumellanang le phetoho ea opioidergic ea mesolimbic dopamine e sebetsang ho fokotsa CSB. Hona joale, ho na le liteko tse kholo, tse nang le matla a ho etsa lipatlisiso le lithethefatsi tse lekaneng, tse hlokahalang ho ntlafatsa morero oa CSB.

Khothatso ea ts'ebetso ea ts'ebetso e amanang le thobalano ea reactivity. CSB le banna bao e seng ba CSB ba ne ba e-na le ts'ebetso e kholo ea ho kopanela liphate-cuerelated ea pele-pele, e leng ventral striatum le amygdala (Voon et al, 2014). Lihloohong tsa CSB, ho hokahanya ha mosebetsi oa marang-rang ona ho amana le takatso ea thobalano e amanang le thobalano, kahoo ho hlahella ka liphuputso tsa lithethefatsi tsa lithethefatsi (Voon et al, 2014). Banna ba CSB ba tsoela pele ho bonts'a boiketlo ba ho shebella litšoantšo tse hlephisang boitšoaro, ho ameha ka likarabo tsa pele tsa ho shebella litaba tse kang ho lemalla (Mechelmans et al, 2014). Bakeng sa bakuli ba CSB le bao e seng ba CSB PD, ho pepesehela litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho ile ha eketsa ts'ebetso boemong ba ho ba le sekhahla, ho kopanya le ho loantša li-cortex, ho kopanya le takatso ea thobalano (Politis et al, 2013). Thuto e fokolang ea ho nahana ka litšoantšo e senya liketso tse sa tloaelehang tsa CSB le banna bao e seng ba CSB (Miner et al, 2009).

ILeha ho le joalo, lithuto tsa batho ba phetseng hantle li fana ka maikutlo a bohlokoa bakeng sa ho ntlafatsa tloaelo ea ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ka tsela e feteletseng. Ho banna ba phetseng hantle, nako e eketsehileng e sebelisitsoeng ho shebella litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tse amanang le setšoantšo se ka tlaase sa putaminal ho litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (Kühn le Gallinat, 2014). Mosebetsi o tlaase o tlaase ka morao litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso li ne li hlokomeloa litabeng tse nang le bothata ba ho sheba litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso. Liphuputso tsena, ha li bapisoa, ha li lumellane. Ho tloaela ho sheba litšoantšo tse amanang le video e ka ntlafatsoa ho batho ba phetseng hantle ba nang le tšebeliso e feteletseng; empa, lihlooho tsa CSB tse nang le ts'ebetso e matla haholo kapa tse nang le ts'oaetso li ka 'na tsa ntlafatsa cue reactivity.

Le hoja lipatlisiso tsa morao-rao tsa morao-rao li bontšitse hore ho na le mekhoa e meng ea phekolo ea kelello ea CSB, liphello tsena li lokela ho tšoaroa e le ho fokotseha ho fanoeng ka meeli ea mokhoa (mohlala, mekhahlelo e nyane ea lipeo, lihlopha tse fapaneng, lihlooho tsa banna feela joalo-joalo). Likhahla tsa morao tjena tsa lipatlisiso li na le mathata a hlakileng a hore na CSB e nkoa e le meriana kapa che. Lipatlisiso tse ling li hlokahala ho utloisisa hore na likarolo tsa neurobiological li amana joang le litekanyetso tse amehang joaloka liphello tsa kalafo bakeng sa CSB. Ho khetholla CSB e le 'ho lemalla boitšoaro' ho tla ba le liphello tse kholo bakeng sa boiteko ba tsamaiso, thibelo le kalafo; leha ho le joalo, nakong ena, lipatlisiso li sa le monyenyane. Ho fanoe ka ho tšoana ho teng pakeng tsa lik'homphieutha tsa CSB le lithethefatsi, mehato e atlehang bakeng sa lithethefatsi e ka 'na ea e-ba le tšepiso ea CSB, kahoo e fana ka temohisiso mabapi le lipatlisiso tsa nakong e tlang hore li batlisise sena ka ho toba. (ho hatisoa)

  1. Kühn S, Gallinat J (2014). Mekhoa ea boko le ho sebetsa ho amanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa: boko ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. JAMA Psychiatry 71: 827-834.

  2. Mechelmans DJ, Irvine M, Banca P, Etela L, Mitchell S, Mole TB le al (2014). Ho ntlafatsa boiketlo ba litabeng tsa thobalano ho batho ba nang le boitšoaro bo bobe ba ho kopanela liphate le ba se nang boikemelo. PloS One 9: e105476.

  3. Miner MH, Raymond N, Mueller BA, Lloyd M, Lim KO (2009). Tlhahlobo ea pele ea litšobotsi tse sa tsitsang le tsa tšohanyetso tsa boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba ho kopanela liphate. Psychiatry Res 174: 146-151.

  4. Politis M, Loane C, Wu K, O'Sullivan SS, Woodhead Z, Kiferle L et al (2013). Tlhaloso ea li-neural ho tsejoang ka thobalano e ts'oaetsanoang ka bongata bo bong bo amanang le lefu la Parkinson. Bokooa 136: 400-411.

  5. Raymond NC, Grant JE, Coleman E (2010). Ho eketseha ka naltrexone ho tšoara boitšoaro bo bobe ba likamano tsa botona le botšehali: lihlooho tsa liketsahalo. Ann Clin Psychiatry 22: 55-62.

  6. Voon V, Mofuta oa TB, Banca P, Porter L, Morris L, Mitchell S le al (2014). Mekhoa e metle ea likamano tsa botona le botšehali ka ho kopanela liphate ho batho ba nang le mekhoa ea ho kopanela liphate le ntle le ho qobella. PloS One 9: e102419.

  7. Weintraub D, Koester J, Potenza MN, Siderowf AD, Stacy M, Voon V le al (2010). Mathata a ho laola tšusumetso ho mafu a Parkinson: ho hlahloba lihlopha tsa bakuli ba 3090. Arch Neurol 67: 589-595. Litlhahlobo tsa Neuropsychopharmacology (2016) 41, 385-386; doi: 10.1038 / npp.2015.300


4) Na boitšoaro bo bobe ba ho kopanela liphate bo lokela ho nkoa e le tahi? (2016)

LITABA: Tlhahlobo ena, joaloka lipampiri tse ling, e re Prause et al., 2015 li lumellana le Kühn le Gallinat, 2014 (Sepheo sa 72) e leng ho fumanoang hore litšoantšo tse ling tsa litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso li tsamaisana hantle le ho sebelisoa ha boko bo fokolang ho latela litšoantšo tsa litšoantšo tsa vanilla

Tlhaloso e hlalosang Prause et al., 2015 (tlhaloso 73):

Ka lehlakoreng le leng, lipatlisiso tse ling tse lebisang tlhokomelo ho batho ba se nang CSB li hatelitse karolo ea ho tloaela batho. Banna bao e seng ba CSB, pale e telele ea ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e ne e amana le likarabo tse ka tlaase tsa putaminal ho lifoto tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​li fana ka maikutlo a hore ho ka ba bonolo [72]. Ka mokhoa o ts'oanang, nakong ea thuto ea boiphihlelo e amanang le banna le basali ntle le CSB, ba neng ba tlaleha ho sebelisa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ba ne ba e-na le monyetla o fokolang oa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tse amanang le ba se nang tšebeliso ea mathata. Mokhoa o motle oa nakoana o atisa ho arabela litabeng tsa lithethefatsi litabeng tsa ho lemalla [73]. Liphuputso tsena li fapane le, empa ha li lumellane le, tlaleho ea ts'ebetso e ntlafetseng lithutong tsa fMRI lihloohong tsa CSB; liphuputso li fapana le mofuta oa boikhathollo, tekanyetso ea tekanyo le baahi ba tlas'a thuto. Phuputso ea CSB e sebelisitse ka nako e telele livideo ha e bapisoa le litšoantšo tse phetoang; tekanyo ea ts'ebetso e bontšitsoe hore e fapane le livideo ho ea ka lifoto le tloaelo e ka 'na ea fapana ho itšetlehile ka seo u se etsang. Ho feta moo, ho tsebelisoang ka bothata ho tlaleho ea liketsahalo tse amanang le liketsahalo, palo ea lihora tse sebelisoang e ne e le tlaase [bothata: 3.8, ho fapana ka mokhoa o tloaelehileng (SD) = 1.3 khahlanong le taolo: 0.6, SD = lihora tsa 1.5 / beke] ho bapisoa le tlhahlobo ea fBRI ea CSB (CSB: 13.21, SD = 9.85 le ho laola: 1.75, SD = lihora tsa 3.36 / beke). Ka tsela eo, tloaelo e ka 'na ea amana le tšebeliso e tloaelehileng, ka tšebeliso e matla e ka amanang le ho ntlafatsa mokhoa oa ho etsa lintho. Liphuputso tse ling tse kholo li hlokeha ho hlahloba phapang ena. (ho hatisoa)


5) Na Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa Tsa Inthanete li baka Mathata a Kopanela Liphate? Tlhahlobo le Litlaleho tsa Bongaka (2016)

LITABA: Tlhahlobo ena, joaloka lipampiri tse ling, e re Prause et al., 2015 li lumellana le Kühn le Gallinat, 2014 (Sepheo sa 72) e leng ho fumanoang hore litšoantšo tse ling tsa litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso li tsamaisana hantle le ho sebelisoa ha boko bo fokolang ho latela litšoantšo tsa litšoantšo tsa vanilla

Tlhaloso e hlakileng e hlalosang Prause et al., 2015 (temana 130):

A Thuto ea 2015 EEG ea Prause et al. o bapisa ba shebelang litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tsa Inthanete (e bolelang 3.8 h / beke) ba neng ba tšoenyehile ka maikutlo a bona a ho laola (e bolelang 0.6 h / beke) ha ba ntse ba shebella litšoantšo tsa thobalano (tlhahiso ea 1.0) [130]. Ha ho fumanoa hore ho tšoana le Kühn le Gallinat, ba shebellang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa hangata ba Inthaneteng ba bonts'a matla a ho etsa li-neural activation (LPP) ho litšoantšo tsa thobalano ho feta taolo [130]. Liphello tsa lipatlisiso tsena tse peli li bontša hore hangata ba shebellang litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro Inthaneteng ba hloka boikutlo bo eketsehileng ba ho hlahisa maikutlo a boko ha ba bapisoa le ho laola bophelo bo botle kapa basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba Inthaneteng [167,168]. Ho phaella moo, Kühn le Gallinat ba tlaleha hore litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso tsa Inthanete li sebelisana le ho kopana ho tlaase ho pakeng tsa striatum le prefrontal cortex. Ho se sebetse ho potolohileng hona ho amana le khetho e sa lokelang ea boitšoaro ho sa tsotellehe hore na ho ka ba le liphello tse mpe hakae [169]. Tumellanong le Kühn le Gallinat, lipatlisiso tsa kelello li tlaleha hore litaba tse nang le tšekamelo e phahameng ea ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate Inthaneteng li fokolitse taolo ea bolaoli ba tsamaiso ha li tobane le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa [53,114]. (ho hatisoa)


6) "Mekhoa ea Boikutlo ba Tlhokomelo le e sa Hlokomelehang: Na li Khathatsoa ke Hangata ea Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa Sebelisa?" (2017)

LITABA: Thuto ena ea EEG ka basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e qotsitse lithuto tsa XEUMX Nicole Prause EEG. Bangoli ba lumela hore lithuto tsohle tsa 3 tsa Prause EEG li hlile li fumanoa e le ts'oaetso kapa tloaelo ho ba sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (hangata e bakoang ke ho tsuba). Litemana tse ka tlase ho litemana tsa 3 li bontša lithuto tse latelang tsa Nicole Prause EEG (#8 ke Prause et al., 2015):

  • 7 - Thapeli, N .; Steele, VR; Staley, C ;; Sabatinelli, D. Ho ba le monyetla o motle oa litšoantšo tse hlakileng tsa thobalano tse amanang le palo ea balekane ba thobalano. Soc. Tšoara. E ama. Neurosc. 2015, 10, 93-100.
  • 8 - Prause, N .; Steele, VR; Staley, C ;; Sabatinelli, D .; Hajcak, G. Ho feto-fetoha ha mekhoa e metle ka nako e telele ka litšoantšo tsa thobalano ho basebelisi ba mathata le litsamaiso tse sa lumellaneng le "lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa". Biol. Psychol. 2015, 109, 192-199.
  • 14 - Steele, VR; Staley, C ;; Fong, T .; Phumello, N. Takatso ea thobalano, eseng bosodoma, e amana le likarabo tsa maikutlo tse hlalositsoeng ke litšoantšo tsa thobalano. Tlhahisoleseding. Neurosci. Psychol. 2013, 3, 20770

Litemana tse hlalosang Prause et al., 2015 (temana 8):

Hangata menyetla e amanang le liketsahalo (ERPs) e 'nile ea sebelisoa e le tekanyo ea' mele ea ho itšoara ha maikutlo a maikutlo, mohlala, [24]. Liphuputso tse sebelisang data ea ERP li atisa ho lebisa tlhokomelo ho liphello tsa ERP hamorao tse kang P300 [14] 'me Bokgoni bo Molemo ka Potlako (LPP) [7, 8] ha u batlisisa batho ba shebellang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Likarolo tsena tsa morao-rao tsa ponahalo ea wave ea ERP li 'nile tsa boleloa hore li na le ts'ebetso ea ts'ebetso e kang ho ela hloko le ho sebetsa mohopolo (P300) [25] hammoho le ts'ebeliso e tsitsitseng ea tšusumetso e amang maikutlo (LPP) [26]. Steele et al. [14] o bontšitse hore phapang e khōlō ea P300 e boneng pakeng tsa ho shebella litšoantšo tse bontšang thobalano ho amana le litšoantšo tse sa nke lehlakoreng e ne e amana hampe le mehato ea takatso ea thobalano, 'me ha e na phello ho karolo ea bosodoma ea barupeluoa. Bangoli ba ile ba fana ka maikutlo a hore sena se fumanoang hampe se ne se ka etsahala ka lebaka la litšoantšo tse bontšitsoeng li se na bohlokoa ba libapali ho letamo la barupeluoa, kaha barupeluoa bohle ba tlaleha hore ba shebile boitsebiso bo bongata ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​ka lebaka leo ba lebisa tlhokomelong ea karolo ea P300. Bangoli ba ile ba tsoela pele ho fana ka maikutlo a hore mohlomong ho sheba LPP hamorao ho ka fana ka sesebelisoa se sebetsang haholoanyane, kaha se bontšitsoe mekhoeng ea ho susumetsa maikutlo. Liphuputso tsa lipatlisiso tsa phello ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li na le LPP e bontšitseng hore boholo ba LPP ke ba bohlokoa ho ba bangata ba nang le takatso ea ho kopanela liphate le mathata a laolang ho sheba ha bona litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. [7, 8]. Sephetho sena ha se sa lebelloa, ha lipatlisiso tse ling tse ngata tse amanang le lithethefatsi li bontšitse hore ha li etsoa ka mosebetsi oa maikutlo a amanang le lithethefatsi, batho ba tlaleha hore ba na le bothata ba ho bua ka lithethefatsi tsa bona ba atisa ho bontša maqhubu a maholo a LPP ha ba hlahisa litšoantšo tsa bona tse hlahisang lithethefatsi [27]. Prause et al. [7, 8] fana ka litlhahiso tsa hore na ho sebelisa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho ka baka liphello tse nyenyane tsa LPP ka ho fana ka maikutlo a hore e ka ba ka lebaka la tloaelo ea ho tloaela batho, kaha ba kenang phuputsong ba tlaleha ho sebelisa lintlha tse litšila tse tsosang takatso ba fumaneha haholo ka nako e ngata e sebelisitsoeng ho shebella bootsoa .

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Liphuputso li 'nile tsa bontša hore ho na le mokhoa o fokolang oa phekolo ho latela mokhoa oa ho khotsofatsa ka lebaka la tloaelo ea batho ba atisang ho batla boitsebiso ba bootsoa [3, 7, 8]. Ke maikutlo a bangoli ba hore phello ena e ka 'na ea ikarabella bakeng sa liphetho tse nkiloeng.

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Liphuputso tsa nakong e tlang li ka 'na tsa hlokahala hore li sebelise boitsebiso bo bongata ba setšoantšo bo hlakileng ho fihlela ho fetola litso. Hape, mohlomong basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa litšoantšo tsa thobalano ba fokotsa likarabo tsa bona tsa thobalano nakong ea thuto. Tlhaloso ena e bonyane e sebelisoa ke [7, 8] ho hlalosa sephetho sa bona se bontšang ho fokolloa ho finyella sepheo se ngotsoeng ke LPP e nyenyane (nako e ntle ea nako e telele) bokhoni ba litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso ke batho ba tlaleha litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephileng tsa boitšoaro bo bobe. LPP amplitudes e bontšitsoe hore e fokotseha ka ho fokotsa molao ka boomo [62, 63]. Ka hona, LPP e sa thibeloang ho litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso e ka 'na ea ikarabella ka ho haelloa ke liphello tse kholo tse fumanoang thutong ea hona joale hohle lihlopha bakeng sa boemo ba "ts'oaetso". (ho hatisoa)


7) Mekhoa ea ho ba le tšebetso ea kelello ea khatello ea boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba ho kopanela liphate (2018)

Tlhaloso e hlakileng Prause et al., 2015 (e leng tlhaloso 87):

Phuputso e sebelisoang ke EEG, e entsoeng ke Prause le basebetsi-'moho le eona, e ile ea fana ka tlhahiso ea hore batho ba ikutloang ba tšoenyehile ka litšoantšo tsa bona tsa bootsoa, ​​ha ba bapisoa le sehlopha se laolang ba sa ikutloeng ba tšoenyehile ka tšebeliso ea bona ea litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso, [87]. Barupeluoa ba nang le maikutlo a feteletseng ba nang le mathata a laolang maikutlo a bona a thobalano '(M= Lihora tse 3.8 ka beke) -a bonts'a matla a macha a sebelisoang ke neural (a lekantsoe ke bokhoni ba nako e khutšoanyane ea letšoao la EEG) ha a pepesitsoe litšoantšong tsa thobalano ho feta sehlopha sa lipapiso ha li pepesitsoe litšoantšo tse tšoanang. Ho itšetlehile ka tlhaloso ea tšusumetso ea ho kopanela liphate thutong ena (e le sekolo kapa moputso; kaha ba bangata ba bona Gola le al. [4]), liphuputso li ka tšehetsa lintlha tse ling tse bontšang liphello tsa ho lemalla lithethefatsi [4]. Ka 2015, Banca le basebetsi-'moho le eena ba hlokometse hore banna ba nang le CSB ba khetha mokhoa oa ho kopanela liphate ka morao-rao le ho bontša liphuputso tse bontšang tloaelo ho DACC ha li pepesitsoe hangata litšoantšong tse tšoanang [88]. Liphello tsa lipatlisiso tse boletsoeng ka holimo li bontša hore litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro hangata li ka fokotsa matla a ho utloisisa litlhokofatso, mohlomong ho lebisa ho ho eketsa tloaelo le mamello, ka tsela eo ho eketsa tlhokahalo ea ho tsosolosa ho hoholo ho kopanela liphate. Leha ho le joalo, lipatlisiso tsa longitudinal li bontšoa ho hlahloba monyetla ona hape. Ho hlophisitsoe, ho etsa lipatlisiso tsa mahlale ho fihlela joale ho fane ka ts'ehetso ea pele ea khopolo ea hore CSB e arolelana litšebelisano le lithethefatsi, papali ea chelete, le lithethefatsi tsa lipapali mabapi le lisebelisoa tsa boko le bohato bo fetotsoeng, ho kenyelletsa ho matlafatsa le tloaelo. (ho hatisoa).


8) Bootsoa bo Inthaneteng: Seo re se Tsebang le Seo re sa se Tsebeng - Tlhahlobo ea Ts'ebetso (2019)

Tlhaloso e qaqileng ea 2 EEG ea lithuto: Steele et al., 2013 le Prause et al., 2015 (polelo ea 105 ke Steele, tlhaloso 107 ke Puseletso):

Bopaki ba sena sa neural sign signaling takatso ke sa bohlokoa ka ho khetheha ho prefrontal cortex [101] le amygdala [102,103], e leng bopaki ba ho khothatsa. Ho kenya letsoho libakeng tsena tsa boko ho hopotsa moputso oa lichelete [104] 'me e ka ba le phello e tšoanang. Ho feta moo, ho na le litlaleho tse phahameng tsa EEG ho basebelisi bana, hammoho le takatso e fokotsehileng ea ho kopanela liphate le molekane, empa eseng ka ho ipholla litho tsa botona kapa botšehali [105], ho hong ho bonahatsang phapang pakeng tsa boleng ba boleng [8]. Sena se ka nkoa e le letšoao la ts'oaetso. Leha ho le joalo, ho ithuta ha Steele ho na le mekhoa e 'maloa ea mokhoa oa ho hlahloba (ka taba ea ho heterogeneity, ho hloka ho hlahloba mathata a kelello kapa ho lemalla, ho se be le sehlopha sa taolo, le tšebeliso ea lipotso tse sa tiisetsoeng bakeng sa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa) [106]. Thuto ea Prause [107], lekhetlong lena le sehlopha sa taolo, se pheta liphihlelo tsena. Boikarabello ba ts'ebetso ea ho ts'oaroa ha maikutlo le takatso ea ho ts'ebelisoa ha lithethefatsi tsa litaba tsa inthaneteng li 'nile tsa khothatsoa ka basali ba bong bo fapaneng [108] le litekanyetso tsa banna ba ratanang le ba bong bo tšoanang [109].

Comments: Tlhaloso e ka holimo e bolela hore Praice ea 2015 EEG e hlalositse lintho tse fumanoeng thutong ea hae ea 2013 EEG (Steele et al.): Liphuputso tsena ka bobeli li tlalehile bopaki ba ho tloaela kapa ho ts'oanela ho ts'oaroa, e leng se lumellanang le mokhoa oa ho lemalla (ho mamellana). E-re ke hlalose.

Ke habohlokoa ho tseba seo Prause et al., 2015 LE Steele et al., 2013 e ne e le "lihlooho tse tšoanang" tse hlephileng tsa boitšoaro bo bobe ". Bothata ke hore Steele et al. o ne a se na sehlopha sa taolo sa ho bapisa! Kahoo Prause et al., 2015 e bapisa lihlooho tsa 2013 tse tsoang ho Steele et al., 2013 ho sehlopha sa sebele sa taolo (leha ho le joalo se ile sa e-ba le mefokolo e tšoanang ea litsela tse boletsoeng ka holimo). Liphello: Ha li bapisoa le litsamaiso "batho ba nang le mathata a laolang ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bona tsa bootsoa" ba ne ba e-na le likarabo tse fokolang tsa boko bo hlahelang ka lekhetlo le le leng ho lifoto tsa vanilla tse hlephisang boitšoaro. Litholoana tsa SEBELE tsa Prause tse peli tsa EEG li ithuta:

  1. Steele et al., 2013: Batho ba nang le boitsebiso bo bongata-ba ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba ne ba le joalo Nyane takatso ea ho kopanela liphate le molekane, empa e seng takatso ea ho ipholla litho tsa botona kapa botšehali.
  2. Prause et al., 2015: "Porn lemaletse basebelisi" ne Nyane bokhoni ba bokooa ho etsa litšoantšo tse tsitsitseng tsa vanilla tse hlephisang boitšoaro. Litemana tsa EEG tse tlaase li bolela hore "batho ba ts'oanang le lithethefatsi" ba ne ba sa ele hloko litšoantšo.

Tlhahlobo e hlakileng e tsoa liphuputsong tsa 2: "Litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso ea bootsoa" li ne li laoloa kapa li tloaetse ho ba le litšoantšo tsa vanilla, le ba nang le boitsebiso bo bongata ba ho kopanela liphate ba ratang ho ipholla litho tsa thobalano ho feta ho kopanela liphate le motho oa sebele. Ka mantsoe a bonolo ba ne ba lahleheloa ke maikutlo (e leng pontšo e tloaelehileng ea ho lemaletse) 'me ba khetha tšusumetso ea maiketsetso ho moputso o matla haholo oa tlhaho (thobalano e arohaneng). Ha ho na mokhoa oa ho hlalosetsa liphetho tsena ha u khelosa ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa. Liphuputso li tšehetsa mokhoa oa ho lemala.



10) Etsa maemo a feto-fetohang a ho pepesetsoa ke litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro le pefo li ka ba le phello ho maikutlo a sa tsebeng letho ho banna (2020)

Comments: Ho hlokomoloha Prause et al.'s sehlooho se sa tšehetsoeng, bangoli ba amohetse litlhaloso tse ka bang teng tse boletsoeng ho Prause et al., 2015: "Thapelo et al. o khothalelitse hore phumano ena e sa lebelloang e ka bakoa ke litlamorao tsa bolulo, joalo ka barupeluoa ba ileng ba fana ka tlhahiso ea LPP e fokotsehileng alkahoo ba fumane lintlha tse phahameng haholo ho latela lihora tseo ba li qetileng ba shebelletse litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro. ”

Sekhechana se buang ka Prause et al a., 2015:

Lithuto tse batlisisang litšobotsi tsa neural mabapi le tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso kapa tse etsahalang khafetsa li haella. Ts'ebeliso e sa nepahalang kapa e sa tloaelehang ea lisebelisoa tsa bootsoa hangata e etsa hore ho be le ntlafatso e ntlafalitsoeng ea LPP ha batho ka bomong ba fuoa tlhaiso-leseling e sa bonahaleng (Thapelo et al., 2015). Kofuto e kholo ea LPP ke mohloli oa ts'ebetso e tsitsitseng ea ts'usumetso e amanang le maikutlo mme ke letšoao la bohlokoa bo susumetsang (Voon et al., 2014). Ho fapana le sena, mabapi le litlamorao tsa ERP tsa ho shebella bothata ba takatso ea ho shebella thobalano, lingoliloeng tse seng li le teng ka kakaretso li bonts'itse karolo e fokotsitsoeng ea LPP. Thapelo et al. hlahisa batho ba tlalehileng kapa ba hanang tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso ka litšoantšo tse susumetsang maikutlo (ho kenyeletsa le litšoantšo tse hlakileng tsa thobalano). Batho ka bomong ba tlalehileng mathata a ts'ebeliso ea bona ea thobalano le ba neng ba e-na le takatso e matla ea thobalano ba bonts'itse maqhubu a tlase a LPP ha a araba litšoantšo tse hlakileng tsa thobalano. Thapelo et al. fana ka tlhahiso ea hore sephetho sena se ne se sa lebelloa. Boithuto bo bongata ba batho ba nang le boits'oaro bo lemalletseng ba sebelitse mesebetsi e meng ea maikutlo. Ka tloaelo, lithuto tsena li fumane ho eketseha ha LPP ha ho hlahisoa ka litšoantšo tsa ntho e kenyelletsang motho litlamong (Minnix et al., 2013). Thapelo et al. o khothalelitse hore phumano ena e sa lebelloang e ka bakoa ke litlamorao tsa bolulo, joalo ka barupeluoa ba ileng ba fana ka tlhahiso ea LPP e fokotsehileng alba nepile haholo ka lihora tse ba li qetileng ba shebelletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.