Ho ithuta ho thibela CPUI-9 e le sesebelisoa sa ho hlahloba "ho lemalloa ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" kapa ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa

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KAROLO 1: Selelekela

Thuto e ncha (Fernandez le al., 2017) e ile ea lekoa le ho hlahlojoa CPUI-9, e leng lipotso tsa "ho lemoha ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" tse hlahisitsoeng ke Joshua Grubbs, mme ea fumana hore e ke ke ea lekola ka nepo "lithethefatsi tsa 'nete tsa bootsoa" or “Lemalla ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate” (Etsa Li-Pornography Tse Sebelisang Li-Inventory-9 Lipontšo Tse Bontšang ho Iketsetsa Maikutlo ka Sebele Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa Tse Inthaneteng li Sebelisa? Ho Hlahloba Karolo ea Boithaopo). E boetse e fumane hore 1/3 ea lipotso tsa CPUI-9 e lokela ho tlohelloa ho khutlisa litholoana tse nepahetseng tse amanang le "boitšoaro bo sa amoheleheng", "tumelo" le "lihora tsa ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa." Liphuputso li hlahisa lipelaelo tse kholo mabapi le liqeto tse fumanoeng thutong efe kapa efe e sebelisitseng CPUI-9 kapa e itšetlehileng ka lithuto tse e sebelisitseng. Boholo ba matšoenyeho le nyatso ea thuto e ncha li tšoantšetsa tse boletsoeng katolosong ena YBOP e nyatsa.

Ka mantsoe a bonolo lipatlisiso tsa CPUI-9 le lihlooho tseo ba li hlahisitseng li ile tsa kenya letsoho litabeng tse latelang tse belaetsang:

  1. "Tumelo ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" kapa "ho lemalla ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro" ho ka khetholloa ho "ts'oaetso ea nnete ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" ke CPUI-9.
  2. "Mehlala ea hona joale ea tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" ke ea e leng moemeli a le mong ea sebetsang sebele ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate, eseng ho bala litlhahlobo tsa bokooa ba litlokotsebe.
  3. Litabeng tse ling "mekhoa ea hona joale ea tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" eseng amahanya ka tatellano le lintlha tse felletseng tsa CPUI-9. Grubbs o tiisa batho bana ka leshano "ba lumela" hore ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.
  4. Liphuputsong tsa CPUI-9, "bolumeli ba bolumeli" bo amana le Kakaretso Lintlha tsa CPUI-9. Ka lebaka la Grubbs ena e fana ka maikutlo a hore batho ba bangata ba sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ke bona feela Lumela ba lemalla, mme ha ba na sebele ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate
  5. Ho tse ling tsa lithuto tsena "tumelo" le "boitšoaro bo sa amoheleheng" li amana le Kakaretso Lintlha tsa CPUI-9. Ka lebaka la Grubbs le lihlopha tsa hae ba bolela hore basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba na le lihlong-ba susumelletsa "ho lumela ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa," eseng ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.

Lihlooho tse thehiloeng liphuputsong tse sa tšoaneng tsa CPUI-9 li akaretsa liphuputso tsena e le:

  • Ho lumela ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa ke mohloli oa mathata a hau, eseng litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.
  • Basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ha ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (leha ba ka fumana lintlha tse phahameng ho CPUI-9) - ba mpa ba hlajoa ke lihlong ebile ba le molato mabapi le ts'ebeliso ea bona ea bootsoa.

ka sena 2016 e sa tloaelehang Psychology kajeno Sehlooho se, Joshua Grubbs o akaretsa maikutlo a hae, a bolela hore ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa hase feela ho hlajoa ke lihlong tsa bolumeli:

Ho bitsoa "motho ea lemaletseng litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" ke molekane, kapa le uena ka boeena, ha ho moo e amanang le bongata ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tseo monna a li bonang, ho bolela Joshua Grubbs, motlatsi oa moprofesa oa thuto ea kelello Univesithing ea Bowling Green. Sebakeng seo, e amana ka botlalo le tumelo le boits'oaro mabapi le thobalano. Ka bokhutšoanyane o re, "Ke tšusumetso e hlabisang lihlong."

Ho fapana le polelo e kaholimo ea Grubbs, lithuto tsa hae li hlile li fumane hore "palo ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tseo monna a li bonang" ke haholo e amahanngoa le lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa (likarolo tse ling tsa CPUI-9).

Grubbs o tsoela pele:

… .Grubbs ee bitsa "ho lemalla ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro" "E sebetsa ka tsela e fapaneng haholo le tse ling tse lemalloang."

As Fernandez le al., 2017 e senola, CPUI-9 ha e le hantle e hlotsoe ho lekola "ho lemalla ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" Mme sebele ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate e sebetsa haholo haholo joaloka lithethefatsi tse ling.

Ntlha ea bohlokoa: Diphetho tsa Fernandez le al., Sebaka sa 2017 bohle lipolelo tse thehiloeng liphellong tsa CPUI-9, le lihlooho tsohle tse hlahisoang, ka lipelaelo tse tebileng.

Mathata a lipotso tsa "ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" (CPUI-9)

Ho utloisisa bohlokoa ba thuto e ncha re hloka ho qala ho hlahloba Cyber ​​Pornography Use Inventory (CPUI-9). Bohlokoa ho hlokomela:

  • CPUI-9 e arotsoe likarolo tse 3 tse boletsoeng ka lipotso tse 3 ka 'ngoe (ela hloko ka ho khetheha lipotso tsa "Khatello ea Maikutlo").
  • Potso ka 'ngoe e fumanoe ho sebelisoa sekala sa Likert sa 1 ho isa ho 7, ha 1 e le "ho hang, "Le 7 e le"haholo. "
  • Nako le nako ha Grubbs a sebelisa poleloana "ho lemoha ho lemalla" ha a hlile ha a bolele letho ho feta palo eohle tekong ea hae ea CPUI-9, leha ho le joalo teko e hlile e ke ke ea khetholla bokhoba ba "bo lemohuoang" le tahi ea 'nete.

Karolo e nahannoeng ea ho qobella motho ho ikemela

  1. Ke lumela hore ke lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tsa Inthanete.
  2. Ke ikutloa ke sitoa ho emisa tšebeliso ea ka ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng.
  3. Esita le ha ke sa batle ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng, ke ikutloa ke hoheloa ke eona

Karolo ea Boiteko ba ho Finyella

  1. Ka linako tse ling, ke leka ho hlophisa kemiso ea ka e le hore nka khona ho ba mong e le hore ke shebe litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.
  2. Ke hanne ho tsamaea le metsoalle kapa ho ea likarolong tse ling tsa sechaba ho ba le monyetla oa ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.
  3. Ke tlohetse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa haholo.

Mahlomola a Maikutlo Karolo

  1. I hlajoa ke lihlong ka mor'a ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng.
  2. I ikutloa o tepeletse maikutlo ka mor'a ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng.
  3. I a kula ka mor'a ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng.

Ho hlahloba CPUI-9 ho senola linnete tse tharo tse phatsimang tse hlalositsoeng ke bangoli ba Fernandez le al., 2017 (le ho YBOP e nyatsa):

  • CPUI-9 e ke ke ea khetholla pakeng tsa lithethefatsi tse hlephisang boitšoaro tsa bootsoa le tumelo feela ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa ("ho lemalla ho lemalla lithethefatsi").
  • Likarolo tse peli tsa pele (lipotso 1-6) li hlahloba lipontšo le matšoao a sebele ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (eseng "ho lemalla ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa").
  • Lipotso tsa "khatello ea maikutlo" (7-9) li lekola maemo a lihlong le molato, 'me ha li fumanoe mofuteng o fe kapa o fe oa tlhahlobo ea bokhoba ba tahi (ke hore, ha se ba bona).

Re tla fana ka kakaretso e khutšoanyane ea Fernandez le al., 2017 e lateloa ke likarolo tse qotsitsoeng ho seo e se fumaneng ka litlhaloso tsa rona.

KAROLO 2: Fernandez le al., 2017 - Moralo le Liphetho

Tlhaloso e khutšoanyane ea Fernandez le al., 2017:

Ena e ne e le thuto e ikhethang ka hore e kopa barupeluoa ho tlohela litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ka matsatsi a 14. (Lithuto tse seng kae feela ba kopa barupeluoa ho itlosa litšoantšong tsa bootsoa, ​​e leng e 'ngoe ea litsela tse sa hlaheletseng tsa ho senola liphello tsa bona.) Barupeluoa ba ile ba nka CPUI-9 pele le ka mor'a hore ba se ke ba shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ka letsatsi la 14. (Tlhokomeliso: Ha baa ka ba itlosa bolutu kapa ho kopanela liphate, bootsoa feela.) Morero oa mantlha oa bafuputsi e ne e le ho bapisa 'pele' le 'kamora' bongata ba Likarolo tsa 3 ea CPUI-9 ho tse latelang Liphetoho tsa 3:

1) Ha e le hantle ho khotsofatsa. Taba ea hore barupeluoa ba ne ba leka ho khaotsa ho kopanela liphate ba ile ba lumella bafuputsi ho lekanya sebele ho hloka boikemelo (mabapi le tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa). Bafuputsi ba ile ba sebelisa mokhoa oa "o ile a hlōleha boiteko ba ho ithiba X boiteko ba ho ithiba"Ho lekanya sebele ho qobella. Ena ke thuto ea pele ho bapisa sebele ho qobelloa ho ba bangata ba lihlooho tsa lipotso tsa lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa (CPUI-9).

2) Hangata ho sebelisoa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa Inthaneteng. Makala a lihlooho tsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng pele ho thuto.

3) Lipotso tsa boitšoaro bo sa amoheleheng. Ntle le ho nka CPUI-9, Ea Fernandez lihlooho li nkile lipotso tsa Moral Disapproval, kahoo bafuputsi ba ka kopanya liphello tsa eona ka lipotso tsa CPUI-9. Ho nyonya boitšoaro bo bobe ba boitšoaro bo ne bo lekantsoe ka lintlha tse 'nè tse lekantsoeng sekaleng sa Likotlolo sa 7-ntlha ho tloha 1 (ho hang) ho 7 (haholo):

  • "Ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro Inthaneteng ho tšoenya letsoalo la ka,
  • "Ho sheba litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso ho senya tumelo ea ka,"
  • "Ke lumela hore ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho fosahetse boitšoarong," le
  • "Ke lumela hore ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ke sebe."

Hlokomela hore lipotso tse 3 ho tse 4 tsa "ho se amohele boitšoaro" li kenyelletsa tumelo.

A re ke re hlahlobe eng Fernandez le al., Tlaleho ea 2017 le seo e se buang ka CPUI-9 le liqeto tse hlahisoang lithutong tse sebelisang CPUI-9.

E ne e le eng Fernandez le al., Tlaleho ea 2017?

Sephetho #1: Mokhoa o phahameng oa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse hlephisang boitšoaro o amana le: 1) Lipalo tsohle tsa CPUI-9, 2) Lipotso tse "lemohiloeng ka ho qobella", le 3) sebele ho hloka boikemelo (ho hlōleha ho itokisa boits'oaro ba X boithaopo). Leha ho le joalo, palo ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e ne e le e sa amaneng ho fumana lintlha tsa lipotso tsa "khatello ea maikutlo" 7-9 (e lekolang molato le lihlong).

Translation: Ho sa tsotellehe hore na u e lekanya joang, sebele Ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa ho amana haholo le tšebeliso e mpe ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Leha ho le joalo, lipotso tsa molato le tse hlabisang lihlong 7-9 ha ea lokela ho ba karolo ea tlhekefetso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (kapa le "ho lemoha bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa") hobane ha li amane le khafetsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Lipotso tse 3 tsa "khatello ea maikutlo" ha se tsa. Ebile, ba senya liphetho tsa CPUI-9.

Tlosa 1: Lithuto tsa Grubbs (kapa boithuto bofe kapa bofe bo sebelisitseng CPUI-9) ha bo a ka ba lekola "ho lemalla ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" kapa "ho lumela ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" kapa "ho iponahatsa e le makhoba." Ke habohlokoa ho hopola hore "o lemohile ho lemalla litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro"Ha e bontše letho ho feta palo e feletseng ea CPUI-9. Sehlooho sa sehlooho se kang "Ho lumela hore u na le lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa ke sesosa sa bothata ba hau ba bootsoa, ​​boithuto bo fumana" joale e tlameha ho fetoleloa hape e le "Ho ba le Bokhoba ba Thobalano Ke Sesosa sa Bothata ba Hao ba Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa. Ke habohlokoa ho hlokomela hore ha ho na mohlala oa mahlale oa "tlhahlobo ea" bokhoba ba "bokhoba", le CPUI-9 ha e e-s'o tiisetsoe joalo.

Tlosa 2: Lipotso tsa molato le tse hlabisang lihlong 7-9 ha li na sebaka sa lipotso tsa lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa hobane ba skew Kakaretso ea CPUI-9 e tlaase haholo bakeng sa basebelisi ba bootsoa bao e seng ba bolumeli, ha ho phahamisa litlhahlobo tsa basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Mohlala, haeba motho ea sa lumeleng ho Molimo le Mokreste ea inehetseng a e-na le lintlha tse tšoanang lipotsong tsa CPUI-9 ho 1-6, ho hlakile hore Mokreste o tla qetella a fumane lintlha tse phahameng haholo tsa CPUI-9, kamora hore lipotso tsa 7-9 li eketsoe - ho sa tsotelehe ea ho lemalla taba efe kapa efe.

Tsa Tsau-tsau 3: Ho tlohela lipotso tsa molato le tse hlabisang lihlong 7-9 ho fella ka "lihora tsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" (eseng bolumeli) ho ba sesosa se matla sa ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa. Ho bua ka tsela e 'ngoe, lipotso tsa "Mahlomola a Maikutlo" li amahanngoa ka matla le "tšebeletso ea bolumeli" empa eseng ka "lihora tsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa." Ho fapana le lihlooho tse khelosang, lipatlisiso tsa CPUI-9 li fumanoe hore mefuta e phahameng ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e tsamaisana le seo ho thoeng ke "ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa."

Sephetho #2: Liteko tse hlolehileng tsa ho ithiba tse amanang le 1) Kakaretso ea lintlha tsa CPUI-9, le 2) lipotso tse "Utloiloeng ea ho Qobelloa" - empa eseng ka lipotso tse "7-9."

Translation: Ho sitoa ho laola tšebeliso e sebelisanoang le CPUI-9 sebele lipotso tse lemalloang 1-6, empa eseng ka lipotso tsa molato le tse hlabisang lihlong 7-9.

Tsa Tsau-tsau: Hape, lipotso tsa CPUI-9 1-6 li hlahloba sebele ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa, ​​ha lipotso tse molato le tse hlabisang lihlong 7-9 li sa. Ho kenyelletsoa ha lipotso tsa "khatello ea maikutlo" ho isa hole tlaase Lintlha tsa CPUI-9 tsa batho ba lemaletseng lit soant so tsa bootsoa le tsa khale e phahameng Lintlha tsa CPUI-9 bakeng sa batho ba ratang bolumeli, kapa hoo e ka bang mang kapa mang ea ka ratang ho se sebelise litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.

Sephetho #3: "Ho se amohele boitšoaro" ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho ne ho amana haholo le 1) Kakaretso ea lintlha tsa CPUI-9, le 2) lipotso tsa "Khatello ea Maikutlo". Leha ho le joalo, "ho se amoheloe ke boitšoaro" ho ne ho amana hanyane feela le lintlha tsa CPUI-9 "Perceived Compulsivity". Ka mantsoe a mang, lihlooho tse lemalloang ka ho fetisisa ha lia ka tsa ngolla ka holimo bolumeling.

Phetolelo: "Boitšoaro bo hlephileng ”ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa bo amana haholo le lipotso tsa molato tsa CPUI-9 le lipotso tse hlabisang lihlong 7-9. Habohlokoa ka ho fetisisa, lipotso tsa 7-9 ke feela lebaka "ho nyatsa boitšoaro" le amanang le Kakaretso ea CPUI-9 ("ho lemalla ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa"). Ho kenyelletsoa ha lipotso tsa "Khatello ea Maikutlo" ke hona ho hlahisang polelo e khelosang ea hore "tumelo ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" e susumetsoa ke boitšoaro bo sa amoheleheng.

Tlosa 1: Ho tlohela lipotso tsa molato le tse hlabisang lihlong (7-9) ho fella ka "ho se amohele boitšoaro" ho sa amane le ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa. Lipotso "Maikutlo a Maikutlo" lipotso tsa ho ba molato le ho hlajoa ke lihlong li baka feela motho leha e le ofe ea ka ratang ho se sebelise litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (haholo-holo batho ba bolumeli) ho ba le lintlha tse phahameng tsa CPUI-9.

Tlosa 2: Ho kenyeletsoa lipotso tsa molato le tse hlabisang lihlong 7-9 e lebisa ho likamano tse matla tsa maiketsetso lipakeng tsa "kamohelo ea boitšoaro" le Kakaretso ea CPUI-9 (e lemalitsoeng e lemalla). Taba ea hore batho ba bolumeli ba iphahamisa haholo ka "ho se amohele boitšoaro" le lipotso tsa "Khatello ea Maikutlo" e lebisitse lipolelong tse sa tšehetsoeng tsa hore batho ba bolumeli ba na le monyetla o moholo oa ho "ipona" ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (hopola "temallo ea maikutlo" e khuts'oane bakeng sa "Palo eohle ea CPUI-9"). Leha ho le joalo, sena ha se nnete, hobane lintlha tse "eketsehileng" tseo batho ba bolumeli ba li fumanang lipotsong tsa 7-9 u se ke ua lekanya ho lemalla, kapa esita le "temoho" ea bokhoba. Ha ba lekanye letho haese khatello ea maikutlo ka lebaka la litekanyetso tse loantšanang.

Tlosa 3: Batho ba bolumeli ba ipabola haholo lipotsong tsa "ho se amohelehe boitšoarong" le lipotso tsa "Khatello ea Maikutlo". Liphuputso tse entsoeng ka CPUI-9 li amohetse ho lumellana pakeng tsa "boitšoaro bo khahlanong le boitšoaro" le lipotso tsa 3 "Mahlomola a Maikutlo" ho theha litšōmo tseo batho ba bolumeli ba nang le tsona feela Lumela ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Leha ho le joalo, lipotso tsena ha li hlahlobe bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa kapa "tumelo" kapa "temoho" ea bokhoba, kahoo ha li eo sebakeng sena.

Ka kakaretso, liqeto le litlaleho tse hlahisoang ke CPUI-9 ha li na thuso. Joshua Grubbs o thehile lipotso tse sa khoneng, le ha ho mohla e ileng ea tiisoa bakeng sa, ho hlophisa "ho lemohuoa" ho tloha ho lemalla: CPUI-9. Le zero saense ea toka he e ngotsoe hape CPUI-9 ea hae e le "lipotso tsa ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa".

Hobane CPUI-9 e kenyeletsa lipotso tse ling tse sa amaneng le 3 tse hlahlobang boikutlo ba molato le lihlong, basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba li-CPUI ba atisa ho ts'oaroa holimo. Ho ba teng ha lipalo tse phahameng tsa CPUI-9 bakeng sa basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li ile tsa fepeloa ho mecha ea phatlalatso e le boipiletso bo reng "batho ba bolumeli ba bua ka bohata hore ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. "Sena se ile sa lateloa ke lithuto tse 'maloa ho hokahanya boitšoaro bo khahlanong le lintlha tsa CPUI-9. Kaha batho ba bolumeli ba le sehlopha ba phahametse boitšoaro bo hlephileng, 'me (kahoo) kakaretso ea CPUI-9, e ne e phatlalatsoa (ntle le ts'ehetso ea sebele) e khahlanong le boitšoaro bo amohelehang bolumeling ke 'nete sesosa sa ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Ke ho tlōla ho hoholo, ebile ha ho na motheo oa saense.

Hona joale re tla hlahisa likarolo tse qotsitsoeng Fernandez le al., 2017 e tsamaisana le litlhaloso le ho hlakisa litšoantšo.


KAROLO 3: Lintlha tsa Fernandez le al., 2017 (ka maikutlo)

Karolo ea puisano ea Fernandez le al., 2017 e na le litlhaloso tse tharo tse kholo, litlhaloso tse tharo tsa maikutlo, le litlhoko tse peli tsa phekolo. Li latela.

Tlhaloso ea pele ea bohlokoa: Lipotso tsa CPUI-9 tsa "ho lemoha ho qobelloa" li hlahloba sebele ho qobelloa eseng "tumelo" ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa

Fernandez le al., 2017 buisana kamoo sebele lipalo tsa ho qobelloa ho tsamaellana le lintlha tse ngata lipotsong tsa "I Perceived Compulsivity" tsa CPUI-9, empa eseng ka lipotso tsa "Mahlomola a Maikutlo".

Re fumane ts'ehetso ea ts'ehetso bakeng sa maikutlo a rona a bobeli, boiteko bo hlōlehileng ba ho itokolla bo ne bo tla kopana le boiteko ba ho ithiba ho bolela esale pele lintlha tse phahameng tsa CPUI-9, ho laola boitšoaro bo sa amoheleheng. Leha ho le joalo, kamano ena e ne e lekanyelitsoe lits'ebetsong tse qobelloang tsa ho qobelloa ke ho qobelloa, 'me ha ho likarolo tsa Mahlomola a Maikutlo le CPUI-9 e feletseng litekanyetso tse ngata. Haholo-holo, ha boiteko ba ho ithiba bo le boemong bo phahameng ba ho ithiba bo le boemong bo holimo le boithaopo bo phahameng, litekanyetso tse phahameng ka lebaka la ho qobelloa ho qobelloa ho qobelloa ho phehelloa. Tlhaloso ena e lumellana le maikutlo a rona a hore ha e sebelisoe hangata ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro, e leng se tlatsetsang mehopolong ea ho qobella batho, empa hore sena se tla boela se itšetlehile ka ho fetoha hoa bohlokoa ho lekaneng, boiteko ba ho ithiba. Nakong e fetileng, lithuto li na le e bontšitse hore hangata litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li sebelisa litlaleho bakeng sa phapang e itseng ea CPUI-9 (Grubbs et al., 2015a; Grubbs et al., 2015c), empa hangata litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso li sebelisa se le seng ha li lekane ho etsa hore ho be le boikemelo (Kor le al., 2014). Thuto ea hona joale e bontša hore batho ba bang ba ka 'na ba talima IP khafetsa, empa ba se ke ba leka ka matla ho qoba IP. Ka lebaka leo, ba ka be ba sa ka ba nahana hore tšebeliso ea bona e ne e le ea qobelloang ka tsela leha e le efe, hobane ho ne ho se na boikemisetso ba ho ila. Ka hona, tlhahiso ea hona joale ea boithaopo e le phetoho e ncha ke monehelo oa bohlokoa. Joalokaha ho boletse esale pele, ha batho ba ne ba leka ka matla ho itlosa litšoantšong tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro (ke hore, boiteko bo phahameng ba ho ithiba) empa ba e-na le mefokolo e mengata (ke hore, ho leka ho itokolla ho phahameng), sena se tsamaellane le lintlha tse ngata ka ho qobelloa ho qobelloa.

SUMMARY: Ntlha ea pele, khafetsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e ne e amana haholo le lipotso tsa CPUI-9 tsa "ho lemoha ho qobelloa" le sebele ho qobella ("ho hlōleha boiteko ba ho itokolla X boiteko ba ho ithiba").

Taba ea bobeli, basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba lekileng ka thata ho emisa, empa ba hloleha khafetsa, ba bile le lintlha tse phahameng ka ho fetisisa lipotsong tsa CPUI-9 "Perceived Compulsivity". Ka mantsoe a bonolo, CPUI-9 lipotso 1-3 li hlahloba sebele ho qobelloa (litakatso le ho se khone ho laola tšebeliso) ho fapana le "ho lumela ho lemalla." Seo se bolela hore ha ba tšehetse khopolo ea "ho lemalla ho lemalla".

Taba ea boraro, "Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo" lipotso (ho lekola molato le lihlong) ha li na thuso ho lekoleng ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa, ​​'me li sebetsa feela ho skew Kakaretso ea CPUI-9 e phahameng bakeng sa batho ba bolumeli le ba sa lumellaneng le ts'ebeliso ea thobalano.

Ha re etse lipalo. Litlhahiso tse latelang ke tsena bakeng sa ho utloisisa lintlha ka litafole le litšoantšo tse latelang: Zero ha e bolele hore ho na le kamano pakeng tsa mefuta e 'meli; 1.00 e bolela ho lumellana ho feletseng pakeng tsa mefuta e 'meli. E kholoanyane palo e matla ka ho fetisisa pakeng tsa mefuta ea 2. Haeba palo e na le tloswa lets'oao, ho bolela hore ho na le kamano e mpe lipakeng tsa lintho tse peli. (Mohlala, ho na le kamano e fosahetseng lipakeng tsa boikoetliso le lefu la pelo. Kahoo, ka puo e tloaelehileng, ikoetlise e fokotsa monyetla oa lefu la pelo. Ka lehlakoreng le leng, botenya bo na le Correlation positive, ka lefu la pelo.)

Re qala ka tafole ea likamano Fernandez le al., 2017. Nomoro ea 1 ke "khafetsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng", E hokahanyang ka matla lipotso tsa CPUI-9 "Perceived Compulsivity" lipotso (0.47), Boiteko ba ho ithiba (0.28), le Boiteko ba ho Ila Thibelo bo Hletseng (0.47). Khafetsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e ne e le e sa amaneng lipotso tsa "Mahlomola a Maikutlo" (0.05) le hampe e amanang le "boitšoaro bo sa amoheleheng" (-0.14).

Liphetho ntle le lipotso tse 3 tsa "Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo" lipotso tse ferekanyang liphetho: "Khafetsa tšebeliso ea ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" ke eona ponelopele e matla ka ho fetesisa ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa - eseng bolumeli! Joalokaha Fernandez le al. o bonts'itse hore likamano tse kaholimo li ts'oana le lithuto tsohle tsa CPUI-9 tse entsoeng ke lihlopha tsa Grubbs.

Morero oa mantlha oa lithuto tsa "ho lemalla ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" o ipapisitse le polelo e se nang motheo hore Kakaretso ea li-CPUI-9 e lokela ho hokahana hantle le "lihora tsa hajoale tsa ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa". Bafuputsi ba nahana hore - haeba lintlha tsa CPUI-9 tsa motho li le holimo haholo, leha ho le joalo "lihora tsa bona tsa ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" li phahame ka mokhoa o itekanetseng - motho eo ka leshano "o lumela" hore ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Pontšo e hlakileng ea polelo ena:

Leha ho le joalo, joalo Fernandez le al. le lithuto tse ling tse ngata bontša hore boemo ba hona joale ba tšebeliso ea bootsoa ke tekanyo e sa tšepahaleng ea ho lemala. Habohlokoa le ho feta, lipotso tsa 3 "Emotional Disress" li fokolisa haholo ho lumellana pakeng tsa khafetsa ea tšebeliso le lintlha tsa kakaretso tsa CPUI-9.

Ntlha ea bohlokoa: Ha ho na ntho e kang "ho nahana hore o qobelloa" kapa "ho lemalla ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate." Haeba mosebelisi oa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa a phahame haholo tekong ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa, ​​ho bolela hore o na le matšoao a ho lemalla joala. Ho phaella moo, ho sa utloahaleng saense ho nahana hore litekanyetso tsa hona joale tsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li ka sebelisoa e le moemeli oa sebele ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate (joalokaha ho entsoe lithuto tse ngata).


Tlhaloso ea bobeli ea bohlokoa: Ho hloka boiteko bo matla ba ho qoba ho tsamaellana le lipotso tsa CPUI-9 tsa "Perceived Compulsivity"

Fernandez le al., 2017 e supa hore ho hloka boiteko bo matla ba ho qoba ho hokahana ka matla le lipotso tsa CPUI-9 tsa "ho lemoha ho qobelloa" le makhetlo a ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​empa eseng ka lipotso tsa "Khatello ea Maikutlo":

Ho khahlisang, boiteko ba boithaopo e le boipelaetso ba motho ka boeena bo boetse bo bonts'a kamano e ntle le ea ho qobella ho qeta nako e ngata (empa e se khatello ea Maikutlo le maikutlo a CPUI-9 e feletseng), ho laola bakeng sa boiteko bo hlōlehileng ba ho ithiba le ho hana ho itšoara hantle, le hoja kamano ena e ne e sa fetisetsoe maikutlo. Re boletse esale pele lenaneong la hona joale hore ke batho feela ba neng ba e-na le phihlelo ea ho ikhutsa ba ka 'na ba qobella ho qobella boitšoaro ba bona, ho lebisa tlhokomelong ea ho qobelloa. Leha ho le joalo, re fumane hore boiteko bo feteletseng ba boithaopo bo bolela esale pele hore ho na le lintho tse ngata tse holimo tseo ho nahanoang hore ho qobelloa ho qobella batho ba bang, le hore kamano ena e bonoe esita le ho itšireletsa ka boiteko ba ho itokolla. Tlhaloso ena e na le moelelo oa bohlokoa o lekang ho ila litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ka boeona o amana le maikutlo a ho qobelloa ke batho ba bang.

SUMMARY: Joalo ka ha ho fumanoe pele, lintlha tse phahameng lipotsong tsa CPUI-9 "Perceived Compulsivity" lipotso tse amanang haholo le likarolo tsa sebele ho qobelloa (ho hloka boiteko bo phahameng ba ho qoba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa). Ka mantsoe a bonolo, lipotso tsa CPUI-9 tsa "Perceived Compulsivity" li hlahloba sebele qobello. Leha ho le joalo, ho hloka boiteko bo matla ba ho qoba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho ne ho sa amane le ho ba molato, ho hlajoa ke lihlong kapa ho ikoahlaea (lipotso tsa "Khatello ea Maikutlo"). Ho ba molato le lihlong mabapi le ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ha ho moo e amanang teng sebele ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa, ​​ho sa thoe letho ka "tumelo" ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa.

Ntlha ea bohlokoa: Ha ho na ntho e kang "ho nahana hore o qobelloa" kapa "ho lemalla ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate." Lipotso tsa "khatello ea maikutlo" ha li na sebaka ho CPUI-9, ntle le ho skew lintlha tse phahameng bakeng sa basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le ho etsa liqeto le lihlooho tse sa tšehetsoeng.


Tlhaloso ea bohlokoa ea boraro: Ho se amohele boitšoaro ho ne ho amana le lipotso tsa "Khatello ea Maikutlo", empa eseng ho sebele ho hloka boikemelo kapa lipotso tsa ho lemala ka CPUI-9 (1-6)

Hopola hore "boitšoaro bo nyatsang litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro" ke kakaretso ea lipotso tse 4 tseo e seng tsa CPUI-9, ha lipotso tse 3 tsa "khatello ea maikutlo" tsa CPUI-9 li lekola molato le lihlong. Fernandez le al., 2017 (le lithuto tse ling tsa CPUI-9) li fumane hore "boitšoaro bo nyatsang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" ha bo amane hakaalo le sebele ho lemalla bokhoba. Tlhaloso:

Re fumane hore ha CPUI-9 e nkoa ka kakaretso, ho amoheloa ke boitšoaro e ne e le eona feela ea bohlokoa. Leha ho le joalo, ha e senyehile, boitšoaro bo hlephileng bo boletse feela sebaka se itseng sa CPUI-9, khatello ea maikutlo (e le, "Ke hlajoa ke lihlong ka mor'a ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro inthaneteng") 'me ha ke na tšusumetso ho qobelloang ke ho qobelloa ha maikutlo. Sena se lumellana le lipatlisiso tse fetileng tse bontšang boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro hore li amane feela le khatello ea maikutlo le ho se ke ha e-ba le ho qobelloa ke ho qobelloa kapa ho etsa boiteko ba ho fumana boiteko (Wilt et al., 2016). sena se e boetse e fana ka ts'ehetso ho Wilt le basebetsi-'moho ba fumana hore litlaleho tsa boitšoaro bo khahlanong le boitšoaro bakeng sa karolo e ikhethang ea CPUI-9, e leng tšobotsi ea maikutlo (Khatello ea Maikutlo), ho e-na le tšobotsi ea maikutlo (Ho lemoha ho qobelloa). Ka hona, le hoja ho tsieleha maikutlong le ho lemoha ho qobelloa ho qobelloa ho amana ho amana, liphuputso tsa rona li fana ka maikutlo a hore ba hloka ho phekoloa ka thoko ha li bonahala li thehoa ka mekhoa e sa tšoaneng ea kelello.

SUMMARY: Ho se amoheloe ke boits'oaro ho ne ho amana haholo le lipotso tse 3 tsa "Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo", empa e ne e amana hanyane feela le lipotso tsa CPUI-9 tsa "Ho Bonoa ho Qobelloa". Sena se bolela hore "ho se amohele boitšoaro" ha ho amane le ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa, ​​empa feela ho molato le lihlong. Ka tlase ke likamano tse tsoang boithutong tse boletsoeng qotsong (Wilt et al., 2016). Likamano lipakeng tsa "kheso ea boitšoaro" le likarolo tse tharo tsa CPUI-9 lia hlakisoa:

Joalo ka lithuto tse ling tsa CPUI-9, ho lumela litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho fosahetse kapa ke sebe se amanang haholo le karolo ea "Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo" a CPUI-9 (# 4). Leha ho le joalo ho na le kamano e nyane haholo (kapa e fosahetseng) lipakeng tsa "ho se amohele boitšoaro" le lipotso tse nepahetseng tsa CPUI-9 tsa lipotso tsa ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa ("Boiteko ba ho Finyella", "Ho Tšoenyeha ho Bonoang"). Fernandez le al. e re lihlong le molato (lipotso tsa 7-9) li hloka ho hlahlojoa ka thoko le ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa (lipotso 1-6). Ha ba lekole ho lemalla kapa ho "lemalla" bokhoba.

Ntlha ea bohlokoa: Lipotso tsa "khatello ea maikutlo" ha li na sebaka ho CPUI-9, ntle le ho skew lintlha tse phahameng ho basebelisi ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Bafuputsi ba sebelisitse kamano ea tlhaho lipakeng tsa "boitšoaro bo nyonyehang ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" le lipotso tsa "Khatello ea Maikutlo" ho re likhanyetso tsa boitšoaro li baka "tumelo ea bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" (Kakaretso ea lintlha tsa CPUI-9). E re ka batho ba bodumedi ba tseela kwa godimo “boitshwaro jo bo sa amogelweng” le “Go Tshwenyega mo Maikutlong,” babatlisisi ba bua maaka ka tsela e e phoso tumelo e baka lithethefatsi, empa liphetho tsa thuto ha li fane ka bopaki ba hore ho joalo.


Litlhaloso tsa khopolo-taba #1: Ho lemalla litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ke ntho e iqapetsoeng. Boitšoaro bo bobe ha bo na karolo ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa.

Fernandez le al., 2017 e fumane hore lipotso tsa CPUI-9 "Perceived Compulsivity" lipotso li lekola sebele ho hloka boikemelo, le ho se amohelehe boitšoarong ha ho na karolo ea ho lemalla bokhoba bo hlephisang boitšoaro.

Liphuputso tsa rona li na le litlhaloso tse tharo tsa bohlokoa. Taba ea pele, thuto ea hona joale e hlakisa kamano eo pele e neng e sa tsejoe pakeng tsa ho lemalloa ha IP, joalokaha e lekantsoe ke CPUI-9, le boikemisetso ba sebele. Ka mohlala oa rona, re fumane hore maikutlo a ho qobelloa ka molao a ne a hlile a bonahatsa 'nete. Iho bonahala eka ke mokhoa oa sebele oa ho qobella batho ba bang (ho hlōleha ho itokolla ho boithaopo) ho ikitlaetsa ka boinotšing, ho bolela esale pele hore maikemisetso a CPUI-9 a lemohiloeng a qobelloa. Re fumane hore kamano ena e tšoere esita le ka mor'a hore re lule re amoheloa ke boitšoaro kamehla. Ka hona, liphuputso tsa rona li bontša hore ho sa tsotellehe hore na motho ea itšoereng hampe ha a amohele litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro, matšoao a Phello ea ho qobelloa ke motho a ka 'na a bonahatsa ho qobelloa ha sebele, kapa phihlelo ea bothata ba ho itokolla IP. Re etsa tlhahiso ea hore le hoja ts'ebetsong ea sebele e ke ke ea lekanngoa le ho lemalla ho lemala, ho qobelloa ho qobelloa ke ntho e ka sehloohong ea ts'ebeliso ea lithethefatsi le ho ba teng ha eona ho mosebelisi oa IP e ka 'na ea e-ba pontšo ea ho lemala ho IP. Ka hona, liphuputso tsa morao-rao tsa lipatlisiso li phahamisa lipotso mabapi le hore na lipatlisiso tsa CPUI-9 ho fihlela joale li ka lekanyetsoa ke ho lemalla ho lemalla ho feta tekano ea ho lemala.

SUMMARY: Neng Fernandez le al. e re "maikutlo a ho qobella" e bolela lipotso tsa "CPUA-9" tse nahanoang tsa "Qobello". Lintlha tse mabapi le "Compulsised Compulsivity" tse tsamaellanang le sebele ho hloka boikemelo (ho hlōleha ho itokolla ho boithaopo x boithaopo). Ka bonolo, lipotso tsa CPUI-9 1-3 li hlahloba sebele ho qobelloa (litakatso le ho se khone ho laola tšebeliso ea tsona) ho fapana le "ho lumela bokhoba ba thobalano." Bangoli ba hlahisa lipelaelo tse tebileng mabapi le ho sebelisa poleloana "temallo e lemohuoang" ka mokhoa o ts'oanang le lintlha tsa tlhahlobo ea CPUI-9. Qetellong, ho hlahloba boitšoaro bo sa amoheleheng ha ho re bolelle letho ka ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa.

Ka mor'a moo re sebelisa lintlha tse tsoang pampiring e 'ngoe ea CPUI-9 e ngotsoeng ke Grubbs ("Ho tlōla ho lemalla: Tumelo le Boitšoaro bo sa amoheloe e le baqapi ba ho lemalla ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa").

Hlokomela hore lipotso tsa "Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo" li hlahisa likamano tse matla lipakeng tsa "kamohelo ea boitšoaro" le lintlha tsohle tsa CPUI-9. Tlhokomeliso: Lipotso tsa "Boiteko ba ho fihlella" lipotso tsa 4-6 li lekola boits'oaro ba mantlha (ho se khone ho laola ts'ebeliso le ha ho na le litlamorao tse mpe), empa ha li amane haholo le ho se amoheloe ke boitšoaro le tumelo.

Ntlha ea bohlokoa: Ha ho na ntho e kang “ho lemalla ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate”. Haeba mosebelisi oa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa a fumana lintlha tse holimo tekong e nepahetseng ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa, ​​ho bolela hore o na le matšoao a sebele ho lemalla. Haeba u lumela hore u lemaletse, u lemaletse. Tsela eo motho a ikutloang ka eona ka boitšoaro bo bobe ka litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ha e amane le ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Ho nepahala, lipolelo tse jereng maikutlo a kang "ho lemalla ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro" kapa "ho lumela bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" li lokela ho nkeloa sebaka ka nepo ke "ho lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa."


Litlhaloso tsa khopolo-taba #2: Lipotso tsa 3 "Mahlomola Maikutlong" li kenyelletsa Litho tsohle tsa CPUI-9 bakeng sa batho ba bolumeli ha li senya Palo e feletseng ea CPUI-9 bakeng sa batho ba hlekefetsang ba bang ba bootsoa.

Fernandez le al., 2017 e buisana ka hore na lipotso tsa 3 "Mahlomola Maikutlo" li senya liphello tsohle ho tsoa thupelong leha e le efe e sebelisang CPUI-9.

Ntlha ea bobeli, lipatlisiso tsa rona li belaella ho nepahala ha ho kenngoa ha khatello ea Maikutlo maikutlong e le karolo ea CPUI-9. Ha e ntse e fumanoa lithutong tse ngata (mohlala, Grubbs et al., 2015a, c), liphihlelo tsa rona li boetse li bontšitse hore palo ea tšebeliso ea IP ha e na kamano le Maikutlo a Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo. Habohlokoa le ho feta, ho qobelloa ho hlile ho le joalo ho na le maikutlo a fapaneng thutong ea hona joale (boiteko ba ho ikhutsa boits'oaro ba boiteko ba ho ithiba) ha ho na kamano le Maikutlo a Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo. Sena se fana ka maikutlo a hore batho ba nang le boikemisetso ba sebele ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ha ba sebelise ho tsieleha maikutlong ho amanang le litšoantšo tsa bona tsa bootsoa.

Ho e- Mahlomola a Maikutlo a mangata a ne a boleloa haholo ka ho se amohelehe boitšoarong, tumellanong le lithuto tsa pele e leng se ileng sa fumana hore lipakeng tsena tse peli (Grubbs et al., 2015a; Wilt et al., 2016) li teng haholo. Sena se bontša hore ho tsieleha maikutlong ho ea ka tekanyo ea CPUI-9 ho tlalehoa haholo ka ho se ts'oanehe ha maikutlo ka lebaka la ho itšoara ka boitšoaro boo boitšoaro bo bong bo sa amoheleng, ebile ha bo amane le ho qobelloa ka molao. Ka hona, ho kenngoa ha Mahlomola a Maikutlo ho ba karolo ea CPUI-9 e ka fokotsa liphello ka tsela e fokolang palo eohle ea bokhoba ba basebelisi ba IP ba sa amoheleng litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro, 'me e senya palo e lekaneng ea ho lemalla palo ea IP basebedisi ba phahameng ba lemohiloeng Boikarabello bo bongata, empa ho se amohele boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.

Te ka 'na ea e-ba hobane ho tsieleha maikutlong ho ne ho itšetlehile ka tekanyo ea pele ea "Boipiletso" e ileng ea etsoa bakeng sa tšebeliso e khethehileng le batho ba bolumeli (Grubbs et al., 2010), le tšebeliso ea eona le batho bao e seng litho tsa bolumeli e ntse e sa tsitsa ka lebaka la lipatlisiso tse latelang tse amanang le tekanyo ena. "Matšoenyeho a bohlokoa" ke karolo ea bohlokoa mekhoeng ea ho hlahloba e hlalositsoeng bakeng sa Hypersexual Disorder ea DSM-5, moo moelelo oa ho hlahloba B o bolelang hore "ho na le mathata a mangata a botho ... a amanang le lebelo le matla a litakatso tsena tsa ho kopanela liphate, kapa boitšoaro "(Kafka 2010, p. 379). KeHa ho pelaelo hore ho tsieleha hoa maikutlo ho tlisa mahlomola a bohlokoa lefapheng lena. Tsela eo lintho li hlalositsoeng ka eona (e leng, "Ke hlajoa ke lihlong / ke tepeletseng / ke kula ka mor'a ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng") ho fana ka maikutlo a hore mahlomola ha aa lokela ho amahanngoa le makhetlo a mangata le matla a litakatso tsa thobalano, litakatso, kapa boitšoaro, empa a ka tlisoa ho tloha feela ho kopanela boitšoarong esita le ka tsela e sa lokelang.

SUMMARY: sena ke ea Tlhaloso ea motheo: Lipotso tsa "Khatello ea Maikutlo" ea 3 ha u na sebaka ho CPUI-9, kapa lipotso tsa lipotso tse mabapi le lithethefatsi. Lipotso tsena tsa molato le lihlong lia li etsa eseng lekola khatello ea maikutlo e amanang le ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa kapa "maikutlo a ho lemalla." Lipotso tsena tse 3 li kenyelletsa palo ea li-CPUI-9 ka boomo bakeng sa batho ba bolumeli ha li ntse li nyenyefatsa palo ea li-CPUI-9 bakeng sa batho bao e seng balumeli.

Ho bohlokoa ho hlokomela hore lipotso tsa tlhahlobo ea mefuta e meng ea tahi ha li na lipotso mabapi le molato le lihlong. Ka sebele, ha ho letho etsa karolo ea boraro ea lipotso tsa bona mabapi le molato le lihlong. Ka mohlala, litekanyetso tsa DSM-5 tse tsoang Alcohol Use Disorder na le lipotso tsa 11. Leha ho le joalo ha ho le lipotso tse ling tse hlahlobang ho ikoahlaea kapa molato ka mor'a ho noa joala. Kapa ha ho DSM-5 Papali ea chelete ea ho lemalla papali ea chelete na le potso e le 'ngoe mabapi le ho ikoahlaea, molato kapa lihlong.

Ntlha ea bohlokoa: Tlosa lipotso tse 3 tsa "Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo" le likopo tsohle le likamano tseo li neng li thehiloe holim'a tsona li nyamela. Ha re hlahlobeng hore na lipotso tse 3 tsa "Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo" li botsa lipotso tsa CPUI-9 joang.

Tlasa #1: Ntlha ea pele, ho 'nile ha boleloa khafetsa hore "lihora tse ngata tsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" li ne li sa amane le "ho lemalla lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa" (Kakaretso ea li-CPUI-9). Ho joalo hase 'nete e le likamano tse nkiloeng ho tsona Boithuto ba "Grgbs" ba Grubbs e senola:

Ha e le hantle, lihora tsa ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ke a matla selelekela sa ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa (Kakaretso ea CPUI-9) ho feta tumelo. Sena feela se hlahisa lihlooho tse ngata tse hlahisitsoeng ke lithuto tsa "ho lemalla ho lemalla" CPUI-9.

Le ha ho ntse ho na le kamano lipakeng tsa tumelo le lipalo tsa Kakaretso tsa CPUI-9, e hlahisoa haholo ke lipotso tse 3 tsa "Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo". Lintlha tsena (tse nkiloeng ho Boithuto ba "Grgbs" ba Grubbs # 2) e senola kamoo lipotso tse 3 tsa "Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo" li botsang likamano tse tlase haholo lipakeng tsa lihora tsa ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le lintlha tsa Kakaretso tsa CPUI-9:

Ha u ntse u ka bona ho lemalla lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa (joalokaha ho hlahlojoa ke lipotso 1-6) ho amana haholo le maemo a ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.

Kahoo, ho sebelisa ka kakaretso Total CPUI-9 e lebisa ho Tlasa #2: hore ho ba molateli oa bolumeli ho amana haholo le “ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro.” Tšebelisano ena e fetoleloa hape e le "batho ba bolumeli ba bua ka bohata hore ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.”Nether ke 'nete joalo ka ha ts'ebeliso ea lit soant so tsa bootsoa e hlile e amana haholo le maemo a ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​hape eseng e amanang le bolumeli. Bapisa litšebelisano pakeng tsa boitšoaro ba mantlha ba CPUI-9 ("Boiteko ba ho Fumana ') le Bolumeli kapa Lihora tsa ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li bontša hore bolumeli ha bo amane le ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa:

Kopano e boletsoeng ka holimo ke ea bohlokoa ka ho fetisisa ho tlosoa sehloohong sena kaofela: Bolumeli ha bo amane le ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa. Hape, lipotso tsa "Boiteko ba ho Fumana" 4-6 li lekola boits'oaro ba mantlha ba ho lemalla (ho se khone ho laola le ha ho na le litlamorao tse mpe). Karolong ena re fana ka mabaka a mabeli a ka etsang hore basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse ts'oanang le litšoantšo ba ts'oanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba ka ngolisa lipotso tse ngata tsa ts'oaetso ea CPUI-9 1-6.

Haeba bafo ba bolumeli ba ne ba na le monyetla oa ho "ikutloa ba lemaletse" litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​tumelo e lokela ho hokahana ka matla le litlolo tsa bootsoa tsa 'nete. Ha e joalo. Ho bua ka tsela e ngoe, lithuto tseo e leng makhoba a tsona haholo eseng lintlha li phahame ka bolumeling.


Litlhaloso tsa khopolo-taba #3: Ha e le hantle ho qobelloa (boiteko bo hlolehileng ba ho ithiba x boiteko ba ho ithiba) bo tsamaellana le se bitsoang "ho qobelloa ho lemoha"

Fernandez le al., 2017 e bua ka se hlakileng ho ba lemalloang ke lit soant so tsa bootsoa: ho leka ka matla ho tlohela, empa ho sa tsotellehe ho hlōleha kamehla, ho senola botebo ba qobello ea hau.

Ntlha ea boraro, thuto ena e ile ea hlahisa boiteko ba boithaopo e le phapang ea bohlokoa ho amanang le kutloisiso ea hore na ho na le maikutlo afe a ho qobelloa ho qobelloa. Ho boleloa hore libukeng, hangata ho sebelisoa ha IP ho phenyekolloa ntle le ho nahanisisa ka barupeluoa 'mekhoa e fapaneng ea boithaopo. Liphuputso tsa hona joale li bontša hore boiteko ba ho itokolla bo le bong, 'me ha ho sebelisana le mekhoa ea ho itokolla, ho bolela hore ho hloka mamello e kholo. Re buile ka phihlelo ea bothata ba ho ikhula kapa ho labalabela litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro e le moelelo oa kamoo boithaopo bo ka bolelang hore ho na le ntho e kholo eo motho ae bonang, hobane bothata boo a bo boneng bo ka 'na ba senolela motho hore ho ka ba le ho qobelloa ho sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. . Leha ho le joalo, hona joale, mokhoa o tobileng oo ka oona boiteko ba ho ithiba bo amanang le ho qobelloa ho tsitsa ho sa tsitsa ebile ke mokhoa oa ho etsa lipatlisiso tse eketsehileng.

SUMMARY: lintlha tse phahameng ho CPUI-9 "Perceived Compulsivity" li ne li amana haholo le likarolo tsa sebele ho qobelloa (ho hloka boiteko bo matla ba ho ila litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​empa o sa khone ho etsa joalo). Ka mantsoe a bonolo, seo ho thoeng ke "ho qobelloa ho lemohuoa" se lekana le sebele ho qobella.

Ntlha ea bohlokoa: Haeba u lumela hore u lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (hobane u li sebelisa ka qobello), u lemaletse. Lithuto tsohle tsa nako e tlang li lokela ho emisa ho sebelisa lipolelo tse sa nepahalang le tse potolohileng tse kang "ho lemalla ho lemalla ho sheba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa" kapa "ho lumela ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa" joalo ka moemeli oa lintlha tsa CPUI-9.

Ha re ikoetlisa ka nepo re tlosa mantsoe a laoloang ke lithuto tse 'maloa tsa "ho lemalla ho lemalla", kahoo' mali a ka utloisisa se fumanoeng ka nepo:

Leonhardt et al., Ho boletse 2017:

"Ho bonahala eka basebelisi ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ba na le matšoenyeho a kamano le tšebeliso ea bona ha feela ba lumela hore ba na le ts'ebeliso e tlamang le e sithabetsang."

Leonhardt et al., 2017 ka lentsoe le nepahetseng:

Litlamo tsa bootsoa li ikutloa li le maqakabetsing a amanang le tšebeliso ea bona ea litšoantšo.

Grubbs et al., 2015 itse:

"Liphuputso tsena li totobatsa ka matla taba ea hore batho ba bang ba nahana hore ba lemaletse ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro Inthaneteng."

Grubbs et al., 2015 ka mantsoe a nepahetseng:

Ho lemalla litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tsa Inthanete ho amana le khatello ea maikutlo.


Tlhaloso ea meriana #1:

Fernandez le al., 2017 e bontša hore lingaka li ka lumela bakuli ha li re li lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa.

Qetellong, liphuputso tsa rona li fana ka maikutlo a bohlokoa bakeng sa phekolo ea batho ba ipolelang hore ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tsa Inthaneteng. Ho 'nile ha e-ba le bopaki bo teng libukeng tse bontšang hore ho bile le palo e ntseng e eketseha ea batho ba tlaleha hore ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (Cavaglion, 2008, 2009; Kalman, 2008; Mitchell, Becker-Blease, & Finkelhor, 2005; Mitchell & Wells, 2007). Lingaka tsa basebetsi ba sebetsang le batho ba ipolelang hore ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li hloka ho nka boikutlo bona ka botebo, ho e-na le ho belaella ho nepahala ha maikutlo ana. Seo re se fumaneng se fana ka maikutlo a hore haeba motho a lemoha ho qobelloa ho sebelisoa ke IP, ho ka 'na ha etsahala hore maikutlo ana a ka' na a bonahatsa 'nete.

Ka tsela e ts'oanang, lingaka li lokela ho lemoha hore "ho qobelloa ho ba le boikemisetso" ho ka bonoa e le pono e molemo ea ho ba teng, haeba pono e bonahatsa 'nete. Batho ba nang le khatello ea kelello litabeng tsa bona tsa IP ba ka rua molemo ka ho lemoha hore ba qobella, mme ba ka sebelisa temohisiso ea bona boitšoarong ba bona ho etsa qeto ea hore na ba hloka ho nka mehato ea ho fetola boitšoaro ba bona. Batho ba sa tsebeng hore na basebetsi ba bona ba IP ke ba qobelloang kapa che, ba ka ipeha tlas'a boiteko ba boitšoaro bo kang bo sebelisitsoeng thuputsong ena, ka ho ithiba e le pakane (bakeng sa nako ea 14 kapa ho seng joalo). Liteko tse joalo tsa boitšoaro li ka 'na tsa fana ka tsela e molemo ea ho tiisa hore maikutlo a thehiloe' neteng, ka thuto ea boiphihlelo.

SUMMARY: Kaha seo ho thoeng ke "ho qobelloa ho lemohuoa" ho lekana le ho qobelloa hoa nnete ho Fernandez le al., 2017, bakuli ba ipolelang hore ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​ha e le hantle ba ka lemalla litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Haeba ho na le pelaelo leha e le efe mabapi le boteng ba ho lemala, lingaka li lokela ho ba le bareki ba leke ho itlosa litšoantšong tsa bootsoa ka nako e telele.

Ntlha ea bohlokoa: "Ho lemalla ho lemalla" ha ho eo 'me tšebeliso ea eona ha ea lokela ho mamelloa litsing tsa mahlale. Bakuli ba lokela ho lumeloa, ho sa tsotelloe leeme la ngaka kapa CPUI-9. Mekhatlo e kang AASECT, eo o phatlalalitse ka molao hore bokhoba ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ha bo eo, bo kanna ba bo baka ho lematsa bakuli 'me sechaba.


Tlhaloso ea meriana #2:

Ho tswa ho Fernandez le al., Puisano ea 2017:

Habohlokoa, lipatlisiso tsa rona li fana ka maikutlo a hore ho itlhahloba ho nahanisisa ka ho qobella motho ho etsa lintho ka tsela e nepahetseng le haeba motho a sa amohele litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Lingaka ha lia lokela ho potlakela ho tlohela ho itlhahloba ka maikutlo a batho ba sa amoheleng litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro e le litlhaloso tse feteletseng tsa patholoho ka lebaka la litumelo tsa bona tsa boitšoaro.

Ka lehlakoreng le leng, lingaka li lokela ho hopola hore ho tsieleha maikutlong ho amanang le litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho sebelisoang ke bareki, haholo-holo ba sa amoheleng litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​ho bonahala ho fapane le ho itlhahloba ka tsela e nahanang ea ho qobella batho ho etsa lintho tse itseng. Ho tsieleha maikutlong, bonyane ka tsela eo e lekantsoang ke CPUI-9, ha ho hlile ho bakoa ke ho qobella ho sebelisoa ha IP, 'me ho hlokahala hore e tšoaroe e le taba e fapaneng.

Ka lehlakoreng le leng, lingaka li hloka ho hlokomela hore motho a ka 'na a e-na le ho qobelloa ho sebelisoa ha IP ha ho hlokahale hore a utloe maikutlo a kang ho hlajoa ke lihlong kapa ho tepella maikutlo ho amanang le tšebeliso ea IP.

SUMMARY: Taba ea mantlha, baoki ba lokela ho hlompha litlhahlobo tsa bakuli (esita le ba bolumeli) ha ba ikutloa ba lemaletse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ntle le bopaki bo matla bo fapaneng. Lingaka ha lia lokela ho lumella litakatso tsa bona kapa maikutlo a mokuli hore a susumetse liteko tsa bona. Taba ea bobeli, "khatello ea maikutlo" e hlahlobiloeng ke lipotso tse tharo tsa molato tsa CPUI-9 le lipotso tse hlabisang lihlong ha li na kamano le bootsoa ba 'nete, kapa bo nkoang e le tahi. Lingaka li khothalletsoa hore li qobe ho fapanya litlolo tsa bootsoa tsa 'nete kapa tse nkoang li le molato le lihlong - joalo ka ha lithuto tsa CPUI-9 li entse.

Ntlha ea bohlokoa: Ho se amoheloe ke boitšoaro ha ho amane le ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa. Ba bolela hore boits'oaro bo na le seabo sa ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa ho tsoa ts'ebelisong ea CPUI-9 ea lipotso tse sa lokelang tsa lihlong le molato ("Matšoenyeho a Maikutlo") ho lekola bokhoba. Lingaka li lematsa bakuli ka ho fana ka maikutlo a hore mathata a bona a amanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa a bakoa ke ho se amoheloe ke boitšoaro, ho hlajoa ke lihlong kapa ho ba molato ha li hlile li hlaha ka lebaka la ho qobelloa.


KAROLO 4: Mehopolo ea ho qetela

Ke habohlokoa ho nahanisisa kamoo sesebelisoa se fosahetseng joaloka CPUI-9 se phahamiselitsoeng boemong bo joalo ba tšusumetso tšimong ea thobalano le lihlooho tse amanang le tsona. Joalokaha Fernandez et al. e bonts'a, sehlopha sa lipatlisiso sa CPUI-9 ha se saense e tiileng. Kapa ha ho na CPUI-9 e kileng ea tiisoa e le ho khona ho khetholla ntho ea sebele ho tloha "ho lemoha" ho lemalla. Leha ho le joalo litlaleho tse thehiloeng liphuputsong tsa CPUI-9 li fetisitsoe e le tse sa nepahaleng, linnete tse nang le tšusumetso meleng e meng (eo likhopolo tsa bona li hlahang li tšehetsa).

Ho hlile ho etsahala'ng? Joalokaha Fernandez et al. e bontša, CPUI-9 e bonahala e reretsoe ho hlahisa liqoso tse mabapi le batho ba bolumeli - haholo-holo, e reretsoeng ho khelosa "liphello tsa meriana" tse amanang le bolumeli le ho etsa liqeto tse fihletseng. Ho sa tsotellehe hore na lihlopha tse sebelisang CPUI-9 li re'ng kapa che, morero oa "ho lemalla ho lemalla meriana" o fihlile ka katleho qetellong, 'me ha ho makatse hore ba thabelang phello e joalo fumana liqeto tse ipiletsang le tse lokelang ho phatlalatsoa.

Moetsi oa CPUI-9 ke oa bolumeli, 'me ho ke ke ha khoneha hore o behile, ka hloko kapa ka ho se tsebe, ho tlisa tsoelo-pele e tsitsitseng ea bolumeli joaloka ea hae ka lipatlisiso tsa hae. Litlaleho tse ling tse ngata, ho mo qotsa ka ho pharaletseng, li fetetse pele, ho fana ka maikutlo a hore "ho lemalloa ha hae" ho fumanoa ke bopaki ba hore leha e le efe ho tšoenyeha ka tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho tlatsetsa (kapa hona ho hlahisa) tumelo ea ho lemalla lit soant so tsa bootsoa. Mantsoe ana a sa tšehetsoeng a etsa hore batho ba sebelisang litšoantšo tse hlephisang boitšoaro ba hlohlelletsoe ke litšoantšo tse litšila tse ts'oanang le bobe, le ho leka ho utloisisa liphello tsa bootsoa. Bongata ba basebelisi ba kajeno bao e seng balumeli ha ba na lihlong mabapi le tšebeliso ea bona ea litšoantšo, ntle le mahlomola a bona ka ho se khone ho laola tšebeliso ea bona ea litšoantšo ha ba leka ho etsa joalo.

Ka bomalimabe, ho bonahala eka bahlahlobisisi ba seng bakae ba ikemiselitse ho hlahloba mohaho oo lipatlisiso tsa CPUI-9 le litlhaloso tse tloaelehileng li thehiloe ho oona. Ho e-na le hoo, litsebi tse ngata tsa kelello le baqolotsi ba litaba ba nka lipolelo tsa boleng bo tebileng, e leng bopaki ba lihlong tse thehiloeng "ho lemalla ho lemala."Leha ho le joalo, esita le ha ho e-na le pono e fokolang haholo, ho hlakile hore ha ho na lintlha tse lekaneng ('me ka sebele ha li hlahise lipotso tse fapaneng haholo tse kang CPUI-9) tse ka senola phapang lipakeng tsa" ho lemoha "le ho lemalla, - ho ruta litlaleho tseo ho buuoang ka tsona.

Sena sohle se bolela hore mosebetsi o joalo Fernandez et al. ke ea bohlokoa. Lipolelo tse hlakileng haholo tse kang tsa litaba tsa CPUI-9 ha lia lokelahala ntle le hore ho hlahlojoe se nepahetseng sa sesebelisoa seo ba phomolang ho sona 'me liphello li hlahlojoa ka hloko bakeng sa litlhaloso tse ling tse hlakileng. Kea leboha Fernandez et al. hona joale ho hlakile hore, e le seletsa sa lipatlisiso, CPUI-9 e na le phoso le e sa tšepahaleng. Joaloka rasaense ea nang le boikarabelo le thuto, ha ho pelaelo hore 'mōpi oa eona o bona sena.