Dopamine Mediates Of Testosterone-E Nang le Moputso oa Boiketlo ba Sechaba ka Hamsters ea Basyria ea Siriya (2013)

Eya ho:

inahaneloang

Nako ea bokhachane ea ho arabela likarolong tse khothatsang sechabeng e bohlokoa bakeng sa boitšoaro ba batho ba bong bo fapaneng. Liphetoho tsa kholo tsa tlhaho tsa tsoalo ea banna ea Syria ea hamster ho sekhobo se ikhethileng sechabeng, li-hamster secretions tsa basali, li fana ka mohlala o motle oa ho etsa lipatlisiso mekhoa ea phetoho ea bongoaneng moputsong oa sechaba. Ka thobalano batho ba baholo ka thobalano, empa eseng bana, banna ba bonts'a sebaka se khethiloeng (CPP) ho VS, se bonts'a hore VS ha e putse pele ho kena bohlankaneng. Letotong lena la liteko, bangoli ba ile ba hlahloba likarolo tsa testosterone le ts'ebetso ea dopamine ho kenella molemong oa phaello ea mocha lilemong tse ntle tsa VS. Teko ea 1 e bonts'itse hore testosterone ea testosterone e hlokahala bakeng sa li-hamsters tsa batho ba baholo ba gonadectomised ho theha CPP ho VS. Teko ea 2 e bontšitse hore kalafo ea testosterone e lekane bakeng sa hamsters ea bana ho theha CPP ho VS, le hore dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol e thibela ho etsoa ha CPP ho VS liphoofolong tsena. Teko ea 3 le ea 4 e bonts'itse hore tšitiso ea VS CPP e nang le litekanyetso tse tlase tsa haloperidol ke litholoana tsa phokotso ea thepa e ntle ea VS mme ha e hlahisoe ke thepa e sa bonahaleng ea haloperidol. Ka bobeli, lithuto tsena li bonts'a hore thepa e sa lefelloeng ea moputso oa sechaba ka sechaba e hlokahalang bakeng sa ts'ebelisano e atlehileng ea likamano tsa botona le botšehali e bile teng ka lebaka la keketseho ea lipapatso tsa testosterone tse potolohang ho li hamsters tsa banna. Ho feta moo, moputso ona oa sechaba o ka thibeloa ke dopamine receptor antagonism, e bonts'a hore lipotoloho tsa hypothalamic le / kapa mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic ke liphofu tsa ts'ebetso ea lihormone ea moputso oa sechaba.

Ha ho fanoa ka tlhoko ea ho toloka ka nepo tšusumetso ea sechaba litšebelisanong tse atlehileng tsa bophelo ba batho ba baholo le boikoetliso, bothata bo bohlokoa bakeng sa nts'etsopele ea psychobiology ke ho tsebahatsoa hoa mekhoa ea neuroendocrine e tlasa ts'ebetso ea bocha ea ts'ebetso ea tlhahisoleseling ea sechaba. Li-hamsters tsa banna li fana ka mohlala o sebetsang oa ho ithuta phetoho ea nts'etsopele ea maikutlo le likarabelo ho litloaelo tsa maemo a bophelo hobane boitšoaro ba bona ba thobalano bo its'etleha ho ts'ebetsong ea neural ts'ebetso ea basali ea li-hamster vagions (VS) (1, 2), le likarabo tsa tsona tsa endocrine, neural, le boits'oaro ho VS e holileng khoeling ea bobeli ea bophelo ba kamora ho pepa, e tsamaellanang le ho kena bohlankaneng le boroetsaneng mofuteng ona (3, 4). Li-hamsters tsa banna ha li bontše ho hoheleha ho tloaelehileng ho VS (5). Ntle le moo, VS ke moputso o sa lefelloeng feela ka mor'a ho kena bohlankaneng hobane motho e moholo ka thobalano, empa e se ngoana, li-hamsters tse tona li tla ba etsetsa mofuta oa boikhethelo ba sebaka (CPP) bakeng sa bona (6, 7). Ho hohela VS, joalo ka ts'ebetso ea boitšoaro ba monna ba thobalano, e its'etleha ho litlamorao tsa testosterone ho batho ba baholo (8, 9), 'me ho hohela VS ho ka susumetsoa ke kalafo ea testosterone ea banna ba banyenyane (5). Leha ho le joalo, ha ho tsejoe hore na boleng bo matlafatsang ba VS bo itšetlehile ka testosterone ka mokhoa o ts'oanang ho li-hamsters tsa batho ba baholo kapa ba banyenyane.

Karabo ea bohlokoa ea neural ho susumetso ea chemosensory le ho kopitsoa ka litoeba ke tokollo ea dopamine sebakeng sa medial preoptic (MPOA) le nucleus accumbens (Acb) (10-20). Ka ho khetheha, dopamine e kentsoe likarolong tse ngata tsa moputso oa thobalano. Mohlala, tsamaiso ea systemic ea haloperidol, e leng D2 dopamine receptor antagonist (NIMH Psychoactive Drug Screening Programme, http://pdsp.med.unc.edu), e fokotsa ts'usumetso e senang maikutlo bakeng sa basali ba mantlha ba bonono, boqhekanyetsi, le lik'hemik'hale tsa kemosensory likotlong tsa banna ba thobalano le boemo bo susumetsoang bakeng sa lithahasello tse mpe tse amanang le boitšoaro ba thobalano pele (21, 22). Ntle le moo, ho etsoa ha CPP bakeng sa boitšoaro ba thobalano ho li-hamsters tsa basali ho thibetsoe ke tsamaiso ea mohanyetsi oa D2 receptor antagonist (23). Leha ho le joalo, lithuto tse ling li fumane hore dopamine receptor activation ha e hlokehe bakeng sa CPP bakeng sa meputso ea thobalano ho litoeba tsa banna le litoeba (24-26). E ntse e tlameha ho tsejoa hore na ts'ebetso ea dopamine receptor e ea hlokahala bakeng sa CPP ho VS ka li-hamsters tsa banna. Leha ho le joalo, rea tseba hore phapang ea boitšoaro lipakeng tsa bana ba banyenyane ba gonad-intact le hamsters ea baholo e bontšoa ke likarabo tsa bona tsa dopaminergic ho VS. Batho ba baholo, empa eseng bana, hamsters e bonts'a keketseho ea tokollo ea dopamine le metabolism ha li arabela VS ho MPOA (18). Ka mokhoa o ts'oanang, batho ba baholo, empa eseng bana, hamsters e bua ka Fos ha a arabela VS sebakeng sa Acb, sebaka sa likarolo tse sa bonahaleng le "cortex" ea medial prefrontal cortex (7). Kahoo, ho fumana tšebetso ea dopaminergic nakong ea bocha ho ka hlokahala bakeng sa moputso oa VS le ho hohela.

Ho kenya letsoho ha Dopaminergic ho moputso oa thobalano ho laoloa ke testosterone lipolaong. Ho fallisoa ho baka ho fokotseha ha boitšoaro ba thobalano kamora 2 ho isa ho 8 wk, e tsamaellanang le ho fokotseha maemong a basal dopamine le ho fetoha hoa Acb le MPOA (27). Ho ba sieo kapa boteng ba karabelo ea "dopaminergic" ea MPP ho mosali ea tsosang takatso ke ponelopele ea ho timela kapa ho hlaphoheloa, ka ho latellana, boits'oarong ba ho kopitsa kamora ho fufuleloa gonadectomy le testosterone ea morao-rao (11, 28). Ntle le moo, boitšoaro ba thobalano bo ka khutlisetsoa ka likhoto tse tšehali tsa nako e telele ka mananeo a apomorphine, a dopamine agonist (a dopamine agonist)29). Kamora nako, liteko tsa testosterone le phetoho ea potoloho ea dopamine nakong ea bongoaneng (30, 31). Ka hona, lenaneong lena la lithuto le ile la leka tšibollo ea maikutlo ea hore testosterone e hlahisa moputso oa sechaba ka tšusumetso ho dopaminergic moputso circry, e sebelisa ho theha CPP ho VS ho batho ba baholo le ba banyenyane hamsters e le sistimi ea mohlala.

Lisebelisoa le mekhoa

Animals

Li-hamsters tsa SyriaMesocricetus auratus) li fumanoe Harlan Laboratories (Madison, Wisconsin) 'me tsa lula ka vivaria e laoloang ke mocheso le mongobo ka khanya: lefifi la leseli la 14 hr: 10 hr lefifi le ad libitum phihlello ea lijo (Teklad Rodent diet 8640; Harlan Laboratories) le metsi. Ha ba fihla (bona liteko tse khethehileng bakeng sa lilemo tse ngata), banna ba batona ba ile ba lula le banna ba bona ba batlileng le litala ho fihlela ba khoesa P18. Banna ba khoesitsoeng le banna ba baholo ba ne ba lula ka bonngoe ka masakeng a hlakileng a polycarbonate (30.5 × 10.2 × 20.3 cm). Banna bohle ba ne ba le nave ea thobalano ka nako ea thuto mme ba ne ba sebelisoa tekong e le 'ngoe feela. Li-hamsters tse mashome a tšeletseng tsa basali ba baholo, tse ka bang 12 mo ea khale, li ile tsa lula tlasa maemo a tšoanang ho vivaria ka thoko 'me tsa sebelisoa e le mohloli oa VS Li-hamster tsa basali li ile tsa fuoa ovariectomized libeke tse 'maloa pele ho tsamaiso ea lihormone bakeng sa taolo ea liteko ea letsatsi la estrus e susumetsoang ke li-hormone, ha VS secretion e le kholo haholo. Ba ile ba entoa ka tlase le 10 μg estradiol benzoate le 500 μg progesterone ka oli ea sesame, lihora tsa 52 le 4, ka ho latellana, pele ho pokello ea VS ka bonolo ba botšehali ba botšehali. Liteko tsohle li entsoe tlasa <4 lux red light 1 ho isa lihora tsa 5 mokhatlong o lefifi. Hamsters li ile tsa phekoloa ho latela Mekhatlo ea Naha ea Bophelo Tataiso bakeng sa tlhokomelo le tšebeliso ea liphoofolo tsa liphoofolo, le liprotheine li amohetsoe ke Komiti ea Tlhokomelo ea Liphoofolo le Tikoloho ea Michigan State.

Ho buuoa le ho kenngoa ha lihormone

Li-hamsters tse sebelisang liteko tsa gonadectomized (GDX) li ile tsa etsoa opereishene ka anesthesia ea isoflurane. Litekanyetso tse kholo tsa nako e telele tsa bratal li ile tsa etsoa, ​​'me liteko tsa tlosoa ka setlama se sehiloeng ho ligature (baholo) kapa cauterization (bacha). Lihlopha tsa GDX + 0 le GDX + T le tsona li kentsoe ka mokhoa o pharalletseng ka li-capsulete tse peli tse se nang letho kapa testosterone tse nang le silika, ka tatellano (e le 'ngoe 2 mm le e ngoe 5 mm ea testosterone [Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, Missouri], e tiisitsoeng pheletsong ka' ngoe ka Li-adhesive tse 13 mm; bophara ba kahare 4 limilimetara tse kantle 1.98. bophara ba 3.18 limilimithara. Li-capsules tsena li hlahisa maemo a batho ba baholo ba 'mele ea testosterone e potolohang (∼2-7 ng / ml, Lethathamo 1). Bafetsi ba ile ba fumana ente ea subcutaneous ea ketoprofen analgesic ka nako ea ts'ebetso ea bongaka hape hape lihora tse 24 kamora moo.

Tafole 1. 

Boholo ba Sehlopha sa hoqetela, Boima ba 'mele, le Tlhatlhobo ea Plasma ka nako ea boitelo

Mehato ea testosterone ea Plasma

Ka hora e le 'ngoe kamora ho qeta tlhahlobo ea CPP kapa tlhahlobo ea ho qetela e entsoeng ka boomo, li-hamsters li ile tsa khothatsoa ka ts'ebeliso e feteletseng ea sodium pentobarbital (150 mg / kg, intraperitoneal), mme sampole ea mali e ile ea bokelloa ka kotlollo ea pelo bakeng sa radioimmunoassay ea potoloho ea testosterone ea potoloho. Li-samples tse 50-μl tse entsoeng ka testosterone ea plasma li ile tsa hlahlojoa ka har'a assay e le 'ngoe ba sebelisa Coat-A-Count Total Testosterone Kit (Lihlahisoa tsa Boholo, Los Angeles, California). Tekanyo e tlase e ka bonoang le kopanyo ea li-intra-assay ea phapang e ne e le 0.08 ng / ml le 7.9% ho liteko tsa 1 le 2, le 0.12 ng / ml le 5.8% litekong tsa 3 le 4, ka ho latellana. Li-hamsters tse hlano (liteko tsa 2) le tsa 2 (liteko 3) li tlositse li-testosterone tsa li-testosterone tsa li-midexperiment mme li ile tsa behelloa ka thoko tlhahlobisong ea boitšoaro kapa testosterone. Ho fanoa ka boholo ba sehlopha sa ho qetela Lethathamo 1.

Liteko tsa CPP

Boemo ba khethollo ea sebaka bo etsahetse joalo ka ha ho hlalositsoe pele (6, 7) ka har'a lisebelisoa tse nang le kamore e le 'ngoe e bohareng le likarolo tse peli tsa kantle (Med Associates, St. Albans, Vermont). Likarolo tsena tsa kantle li ne li reretsoe ho lumella mekhatlo e ikhethileng ka har'a kampo, e nang le litšobotsi tse ikhethang tsa pono, tse khahlang le tse mpe. Liphoofolo li ile tsa rorisoa ka ho sebetsana le likamore tse ncha tsa 1 d pele mofuta oa CPP o qala. Regimen ea CPP e ne e kenyelletsa kemiso e ntle ka ho fetisisa, linako tse 2 tsa tlhahlobo le tlhahlobo, tseo kaofela li etsahetseng ka nako e ts'oanang ea letsatsi (± 2 h) ho Hamster e 'ngoe le e' ngoe. Ho fokotsa palo ea linokoane tse hlokahalang le ho thibela liphoofolo tse laolang ho utloa monko oa lisosa, liphoofolo tse laoloang li ne li lula ka phapusing e 'ngoe moo karolo e lefifi e qalileng ka 10:1 hoseng le ho hlahloba ka 8:00 hoseng. Liphoofolo tsa liteko li ne li kenngoa ka likamoreng moo karolo e lefifi e qalileng ka 9:00 bosiu le ho lekoa ka 2:00 bosiu.

Ho sebelisitsoe pele (2 min ka kamoreng e bohareng e lateloang ke phihlello ea metsotso e 15 ho liphaposi tsohle) ho khetholla khetho ea lekareche ka leng la hamster ntle le tšusumetso e teng. Kamore e kantle eo hamster e qetileng nako e eketsehileng e hlalosoa e le karolo e khethiloeng qalong. Lintlha tse khethiloeng, tse hlalosoang e le [nako ea lekareche la pele leo ho sa buuoang ka lona / Karolo e sa boleloang] e baliloe phoofolo ka ngoe (6). Ho netefatsa hore hamster e 'ngoe le e' ngoe e na le monyetla oa ho khetha ka hloko, li-hamsters tse sa keneng kahare ea komporo e le ngoe bonyane makhetlo a 5 li ne li sa kenyelletsoe thupelong e eketsehileng. Liphoofolo li ile tsa abeloa ho leka liteko le ho laola lihlopha e le ho lekanya lihlopha bakeng sa likhetho tsa kamore tsa pele le lintlha tsa ho khetha le moemeli oa litter ka lihlopha tse fapaneng.

Kamora ho bonts'a pele, li-hamsters li amohetse kakaretso ea metsotso e 10 ea metsotso e 30 likarolong tse ka lehlakoreng, karolo e le 1 ka letsatsi ka matsatsi a latellanang, mefuta e 5 e sa khothalletsang le ea 5 e khothatsang. Nakong ea maemo a sa ntlafatse maikutlo, li-hamsters ka har'a liteko le lihlopha tsa taolo li ile tsa beoa litsing tseo ba neng ba li rata pele, moo ba ileng ba lula ba le bang. Nakong ea maemo a susumetsang a haoloang ka matla, li-hamsters sehlopheng sa liteko li ile tsa kenngoa ka har'a likarolo tsa pele tse neng li sa sebetse ka khothalletso. Li-hamsters tse ka har'a lihlopha tsa taolo li ne li boetse li behiloe libakeng tsa bona tsa pele tse sa khethoang empa li sa fuoe khothalletso. Sehlopha sena se sebelisitse ho hlakola liphetoho lipakeng tsa litlhahlobo kapa likhetho tsa phapanyetsano litekong tse bonngoeng ka mokhoa oa ho lula nakong ea maemo. Lisebelisoa tsa CPP li ile tsa hloekisoa hantle ka 25% ethanol pakeng tsa phoofolo ka 'ngoe, le 75% ethanol qetellong ea letsatsi le leng le le leng la boemo.

Litekong tsa 1 le 2, VS e sebelisitsoe e le tšusumetso lithutong tsa maemo. Hora pele ho ts'ebeliso, hoo e ka bang 500 μl VS e ile ea bokelloa ho tsoa ho basali ba 30 mme e tsoakiloe hammoho ho netefatsa hore e mong le e mong e motona o pepesetsoa ts'usumetso e tšoanang. Hoo e ka bang 15 μl VS e ile ea tšeloa ka oli e kolobisitsoeng ka metsi e kolobisitsoeng ka 2-ml ea Eppendorf ea 1 ml, tube e le ngoe bakeng sa monna e mong le e mong. Hang-hang pele ho ho hlahlojoa, tube e ile ea beoa hore e se ke ea fihleloa ho tloha ho e tona e ka holim'a lerako le ka morao kamoreng eo ho neng ho sa sebetsanoe le eona ea VS nakong ea maemo a sehlopha sa VS. Ho ile ha sebelisoa liphupu tsa lefeela la Eppendorf bakeng sa sehlopha se laolang maemong 'ohle a maemo le bakeng sa sehlopha sa VS ka linako tse sa hlasimollang. Ho etsa bonnete ba ponaletso ea likarolo tse senang VS, VS tse setseng tsa ∼l Sl li ne li kopantsoe le 200 ml ea oli ea liminerale, 'me hoo e ka bang 1.5 μl ea motsoako ona e kentsoe le spatula ea tšepe ka kotloloho nko ea hamsters sehlopheng sa VS hang pele li-hamsters li kentsoe kamoreng ea VS-paired. Ho ile ha tlotsoa oli e hloekileng nko ea hamsters sehlopheng sa taolo bakeng sa linako tsohle tsa maemo le tse leng sehlopheng sa VS bakeng sa linako tse sa hlasimollang.

Lihora tse mashome a mabeli a metso e mene ka mor'a seboka sa maemo a ho qetela, li-hamsters li ile tsa lekoa bakeng sa boikhethelo ba sebaka sa tsona ho latela ts'ebetso e ts'oanang e sebelisitsoeng bakeng sa setlolo. Joalo ka pele-pele, ho ne ho se na tšusumetso e teng, 'me liphoofolo li ne li khethiloe le ho khetholoha.

Teko ea 1: Na li-hormone tsa testicular lia hlokahala bakeng sa ho theha CPP ho VS ka li-hamsters tse kholo?

Teko ena e ile ea leka hore na ho na le lihormone tse potolohang tse hlokahalang ho bonahatsa CPP ho VS ka li-hamsters tsa batho ba baholo. Boithuto ba pilot ka laboratoring ena bo bonts'a hore li-hamsters tsa banna li thehile CPP ho VS ha boemo bo qala 1 wk kamora ho gonadectomy (32), ho fana ka maikutlo a hore litlamorao tse matla tsa tšebetso ea li-hormone tsa testicular ha li hlakohe hantle, ho ts'oana le ho theoha butle butle hoa boitsoaro ba thobalano bo hlahang libeke tse ngata kamora ho gonadectomy litonong tsa banna.33). Ka hona, boitekong bona, re ithutile hamsters e neng e le GDX 10 wk pele ho boemo ba maemo. Batho bohle ba baholo ba fihlile ka laboratoring ka letsatsi la ho beleha ka P56-63, empa ba fihlang ba ne ba tsitsitse hore lihlopha li ka lekoa ka nako e le 'ngoe. Ha ho liphoofolo tse laoloang ntle le matlafatso li tlohetse li-gonad-tse ling hape li entsoe ka P64-71. Hamsters sehlopheng sa GDX + 0 e ne e le GDX ho P57-64, e lutse e sa laoloe bakeng sa 10 wk, ebe e kenngoa ka likhakete tse se nang letho ho P127–134, 1 wk pele ho preest ho P134–141. Sehlopha sa GDX + T e ne e le GDX mme se fuoe li-capsule tsa testosterone ho P57-64, 1 wk pele ho litekanyetso ho P64-71, ho sebetsa e le li-control tse ntle ho bonts'a CPP ea bohlokoa. Tlhophiso ena e ne e hloka maemo le liteko tsa liphoofolo lilemong tse fapaneng tsa batho ba baholo, empa ha re e-so bone liphapang tse amanang le lilemo ka karabelo ea boits'oaro kapa ea tlhaho ho testosterone litekong tse fetileng tse neng li laola phapang ena ho batho ba baholo ba banyenyane (34). Ntle le moo, li-hamsters tsa banna tsa GDX / testosterone tse tšoeroeng tsa lilemo tse ts'oanang le tse sehlopheng sa GDX + 0 ka tšeptjoang li theha CPP ho VS (35). Ka hona, re ne re nahana hore ho boloka li-control-no-activus control le lihlopha tsa GDX + T bakeng sa libeke tse 10 ka hara laboratori ho ne ho sa hlokahale ebile ho ne ho se na lebaka la ho lefella litšenyehelo tsa ho etsa joalo.

Teko ea Bobeli: Na ts'ebetso ea testosterone le dopamine receptor lia hlokahala bakeng sa CPP ho VS ka li-hamsters tsa bana?

Teko ena e ile ea leka ho kenella ha dopamine ho testosterone e tataisang CPP ho VS ho li-hamsters tsa banna. Liphoofolo tsohle li fihlile P12, li ile tsa etsoa ka likhoka ho P20, 'me tsa matha ka lihlopha tse tharo. Li-hamsters tse nang le matla a Gonad -actact li ne li sebelisoa e le taolo e senang tšusumetso, athe lihlopha tse ling li ne li le GDX mme li fuoe li-capsules tse se nang letho kapa testosterone ho P3, beke ea 13 pele ho liteko. Sehlopha sa GDX + 1 se kenyellelitsoe ho tiisa hore bana ba banyenyane ba nang le litekanyetso tse tlase tsa testosterone (joalo ka liphoofolo tse gonad-intact) ha e bontše CPP ho VS. Sehlopha sa GDX + T se kenyelelitsoe ho bona hore na kalafo ea testosterone e ka kenya CPP ho VS. Lihlopheng tse setseng e ne e le GDX + T kaofela 'me ba fuoe liente tse kenang ka hare tsa haloperidol (0, 0.05, le 0.15 mg / kg) kapa koloi ea propylene glycol metsotso e 0.45 pele ho li-VS le li-no-activus conditioning. Haloperidol ke mohanyetsi ea nang le matla oa D30 empa hape e ka tlama li-D2, adrenergic, le sigma receptors ha li sebetse hantle (NIMH Psychoactive Drug Screening Programme, http://pdsp.med.unc.edu/). Li-no-activus, GDX + 0 le GDX + T lihlopha tse laolang li fumane li-ente tsa koloi tsa propylene glycol metsotso e 30 pele ho linako tsohle tsa maemo.

Teko ea 3: Na dopamine receptor antagonism ke eona feela e fetolang khetho ea eona lithabeng tsa bana?

Teko ena e ne e etselitsoe ho tseba hore na litekanyetso tsa haloperidol tse sebelisitsoeng teko ea 2 li na le litšobotsi leha e le life tse makatsang ka li-hamsters tse tšoaroang ka testosterone, e le hore li ka etsa hore ho be le mokhoa oa ho hloea (CPA). Haeba ba entse, thibelo ea CPP ea VS tekong ea 2 e ka hlahisoa ke ho qoba tikoloho e halofoidol. Liphoofolo tsohle li fihlile P11 kapa P12, li ne li le GDX + T ho P13, li ne li etsoa pele ka P20, 'me li matha ka makhetlo a 2 a emisitseng ka letsatsi la 1. Paradigm ea boemo bo tšoanang e sebelisitsoe joalo ka ha e hlalositsoe, empa haloperidol e ile ea fanoa ka phapusing e neng e ratoa pele ho leka ho fokotsa litakatso tsa pele, mme ha ho sebelisoe VS. Ho tsamaisoa ha locomotor (palo ea liphetoho liphulong tsa boriti ba infrared) le tlhahiso ea fecal boli nakong ea maemo a maemo le tsona li ile tsa hlalosoa e le lipontšo tsa litlamorao tsa 'mele tsa haloperidol.

Teko ea ho khahloa e se nang moeli

Boiteko ba 4: Na ho hlohlontša dopamine receptor ho ama ho hohela VS ka hamsters ea bacha?

Teko ena e fumane hore na haloperidol e fokotsa thepa e ntle ea VS. Liphoofolo tse ileng tsa behelloa ka thoko tlhahlobong ea 3 kamora ho bonts'a (le pele ho pepesoa ha haloperidol) ka lebaka la tlhahlobo e sa lekanang li sebelisitsoe mona; ka hona, banna bana ba fihlile P11–12, ba ile ba tšoaroa ke GDX le testosterone-P13, 'me ba lekoa ka matsatsi a fetang a 5 ka P28–32. Li-VS li ile tsa bokelloa ho tsoa ho basali ba khothalletso letsatsi la 1 pele ho letsatsi la pele la liteko, joalo ka ha ho hlalositsoe; Li-VS tse tsoang ho ∼14 tse tšehali li ne li kopantsoe hammoho le oli ea liminerale ea 100 intol ho li-tub tsa 1 tsa 5 Eppendorf. Li-tubers li ne li bolokiloe ka 4 ° C ho fihlela tube e le ngoe e thijoa metsotso e 1 pele ho liteko letsatsi le leng le le leng. Ho ile ha sebelisoa spatula ea tšepe ho qhekella oli e nyane ea μl e le 30 Sl kapa motsoako oa VS holima khalase, 15 e ngoe ka hamster, kapele pele ho teko. Letlapa le hloekileng le le bululetsoeng la VS le ile la phuthoa leboteng ka bolelele ba 1 cm ka mahlakoreng a mabeli a galase ea metsi a khalase (5 × 51 x 26 cm) ka mokhoa o ikhethileng ho tloha (36, 37). Sebaka sa monko se ne se hokahanngoa ka lihlopha le ka har'a phoofolo.

Ka matsatsi a 1 le a 5, liphoofolo li ne li kenngoa ka koloing ea intraperitoneal propylene glycol metsotso e 30 pele ho tlhahlobo. Ka matsatsi a 2 ho isa ho a 4, liphoofolo li ne li kenngoa ka 0.05, 0.15, kapa 0.45 mg / kg haloperidol, ka tatellano e hanyetsanang. Liphoofolo li ile tsa lula kamoreng ea tsona ea kolone ho fihlela hang-hang pele ho hlahlojoa. Ho qala ho etsa liteko, li-hamsters li ile tsa beoa bohareng ba aquarium le boits'oaro ba bona bo filoe lintlha le video e tlalehiloeng metsotso e 5. Kamora ho qeta tlhahlobo, li-hamsters li ile tsa khutlisetsoa kamoreng ea tsona ea kolone, li-slide li tlositsoe, 'me metsi a hloekisitsoe ka ethanol ea 75%. Bolelele ba nako eo Hamster a e qetileng ho etsa lipatlisiso bakeng sa slide e ngoe le e ngoe, ka nko e ka tlase ho 0.5 cm ho slide, e ne e hlakotsoe ho tsoa ho lirekoto tsa video ke sefofu sa VS. Letšoao la ho hohela (nako le VS slide - nako e nang le slide ea oli) e ne e baloa phoofolo ka 'ngoe.

Tlhahlobo ea statistical

Ho netefatsa hore lihlopha tsohle tsa taolo le liteko li na le likhetho tsa pele tse tšoanang le likhetho tsa phapang, ho ile ha sebelisoa ANOVA e le 'ngoe. Ho lekola hore na tsusumetso e hlohlelletsa CPP kapa CPA boitekong ba 1 ho isa ho ba 3, ho ile ha hlahlojoa liphetoho likhethong le lipakeng tsa phapang, joalo ka ha ho tlalehiloe pejana (7). Liphetoho likhethong tsa khetho le phapang li ile tsa khethoa ka ho tlosa mehato ea pele ho mehato ea liteko bakeng sa hamster ka 'ngoe. Liphoofolong tse laolang, mehato ea phetoho e tloaelehileng bakeng sa lintlha tsa khetho le lintlha tsa phapang li ne li ikemiselitse ho fana ka maemo a phetoho e se nang maemo. Mehato ea taolo ea liphetoho likhethong tsa khetho le phapang e ile ea tlosoa lipalo tsa phoofolo e 'ngoe le e' ngoe ea teko ho lokisa phetoho efe kapa efe e sa hlokahaleng. Ka hona, mehato ea taolo ha e bontšoe lipalo. Liphetoho tse lokisitsoeng likhethong tsa khetho le phapang li ile tsa sebelisoa ka sampole e le 'ngoe t Liteko hara sehlopha ka seng, ho bapisa boleng le zero ho lekola phapang e kholo ho tloha ho khethoeng. Ts'ebetso tsena tsa lipalopalo li ts'oana le lithuto tsa pejana tse neng li sebelisa lipara t liteko tsa ho fumana liphetoho lipakeng tsa ho khetha le likhetho tsa phapang sehlopheng (6, 38-43). Ntle le moo, ho lokisa liphetoho tse sa laoloang tse laoloang ho liphoofolo ho fokotsa menyetla ea litlamorao tse seng ntle, hobane litakatso leha e le life tsa pele bakeng sa kamore e kantle ka linako tse ling li ka fokotsoa kamora ho hlakoloa ho tšoanang ka likamoreng tseo (6, 7). Ho ile ha hlokahala hore ho etsoe liphetoho tse kholo mathateng a mabeli a khethiloeng le a phapang ho etsa qeto ea hore CPP e thehiloe. Ho hlahloba litlamorao tsa haloperidol litheko tsa 'mele litekong tsa 3, mehlala ea lipara t Liteko li ile tsa sebelisoa ho bapisa tlhahiso ea ho tsamaea le fecal boli ka likamoreng tsa haloperidol- le tse pakiloeng ka makoloi, hara sehlopha se seng le se seng sa haloperidol.

Ho lekola hore na dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol e amme ho hohela ntle ho tumello ho VS tekong ea 4, ho ile ha sebelisoa mehato e phetoang ANOVA ho leka phello ea tekanyo ea haloperidol palong ea ho hohela, ka t Liteko tsa tlhahlobo le likhatiso tsa Bonferroni. Ntle le moo, sampole e le 'ngoe t liteko li sebelisitsoe ho fumana hore na khetho ea sehlopha se seng le se seng le likhetho tsa phapang li ne li fapane hōle le monyetla, halofo kapa zero, ka ho latellana. Mehato ea liente tsa koloi ka letsatsi la pele le la ho qetela la liteko ha ea ka ea fapana mme ea lekantsoe phoofolo ka 'ngoe. Mehato e phetoang ea ANOVA e sebelisitsoe ho fumana litlamorao tsa lithethefatsi palong ea ho tšela mohala, ho bonts'a litlamorao tsa lithethefatsi ts'ebetsong ea locomotor. Litlhahlobong tsohle, P <.05 e ne e nkuoa e le ea bohlokoa, mme litlhahlobo tsohle tsa lipalo li entsoe ka software ea SPSS (PASW Statistics 20; SPSS, An IBM Company, Chicago, Illinois).

Results

Teko ea 1: Na li-hormone tsa testicular lia hlokahala bakeng sa ho theha CPP ho VS ka li-hamsters tse kholo?

Li-hamsters tsa GDX tsa nako e telele li ile tsa hloleha ho theha CPP bakeng sa VS (Setšoantšo sa 1). Ha ho liphetoho lipakeng tsa tlhaiso kapa phapang ea sehlopha sa GDX + 0 e boneng ka lebaka la boemo ba VS, joalo ka mohlala t Liteko li bonts'a hore ha ho na phetoho e nepahetseng boikhethong (t(9) = −1.98, NS) kapa phapang (t(9) = 1.19, NS) lintlha li ne li fapane haholo le zero. Ho fapana le hoo, sehlopha sa GDX + T se bontšitse CPP ho VS, joalo ka tsela e le 'ngoe t Liteko li bontšitse hore phetoho e nepahetseng ho latela khetho (t(9) = 4.06, P <.01) le phapang (t(9) = -4.23, P <.01) lintlha li ne li fapane haholo le zero. Lihlopha ha lia ka tsa fapana ho latela likhetho tsa tsona tsa pele (F(2,29) = 2.17, NS) kapa lintlha tsa phapang (F(2,29) = 1.95, NS). Ka hona, ho pepesetsoa ha li-hormone tsa testicular hoa hlokahala bakeng sa CPP e khothalletsoang ke VS.

Setšoantšo sa 1. 

Sebaka se khethiloeng sa sebaka (CPP) ho li-secretions tsa botšehali (VS) ho li-hamsters tsa batho ba baholo tse fetotsoeng. Ho bontšitsoe liphetoho tse ntlafalitsoeng molemong oa ho khetha le lintlha tse fapaneng. * E supa phapang ho se fetohe (zero), P <.05. Nako e telele ...

Teko ea Bobeli: Na ts'ebetso ea testosterone le dopamine receptor lia hlokahala bakeng sa CPP ho VS ka li-hamsters tsa bana?

Testosterone e ne e lekane ho nts'etsapele CPP ea VS ka li-hamsters tsa bana (Setšoantšo sa 2). Sehlopha sa GDX + T VS se fumaneng ente ea koloi se bonts'itse CPP ho VS, joalo ka tsela ea 1 t liteko li fumane hore phetoho e nepahetseng ho khethoa (t(5) = 3.11, P <.05) le phapang (t(5) = -2.77, P <.05) lipalo li ne li fapane haholo le zero. Sehlopha sa GDX + 0 VS ha sea ka sa bontša phetoho e kholo e lokisitsoeng ho khethollo kapa lintlha tsa phapang ka lebaka la maemo (t(6) = 0.09 [NS] le t(6) = −1.74 [NS], ka ho latellana), lits'ebetso tse pheta-phetoang tse bonoang ho bana ba gonad-intact ba nang le lintlha tse ts'oanang tsa li-hormone tse potolohang (7). Ntle le moo, antoponism ea dopamine receptor e thibetse CPP ea VS ho li-hamsters tsa bana ba mofuta oa T (Setšoantšo sa 2). CPP e ne e thibetsoe ke haloperidol ho isa tekanyetso e 3 kaofela: lihlopha tsa 0.05-, 0.15-, le 0.45-mg / kg GDX + T VS ha li a ka tsa bontša liphetoho tse nepahetseng lihlopheng tsa likhetho (t(7) = 0.35 [NS] t(6) = 0.52 [NS], le t(7) = −0.10 [NS], ka ho latellana) kapa lintlha tse fapaneng (t(7) = -0.44 [NS], t(6) = −0.18 [NS], le t(7) = 0.31 [NS], ka ho latellana) tse neng li fapane haholo le zero ka lebaka la maemo. Lihlopheng ha lia ka tsa fapana molemong oa khetho ea tsona ea pele (F(5,47) = 0.27, NS) kapa lintlha tsa phapang (F(5,47) = 0.26, NS).

Setšoantšo sa 2. 

Sebaka se khethiloeng sa sebaka sa marang-rang (CPP) ho li-secretions tsa vaginal (VS) ho li-hormone- le li-dopamine-manipured hamsters tsa bana. Ho bontšitsoe liphetoho tse ntlafalitsoeng molemong oa ho khetha le lintlha tse fapaneng. * E supa phapang ho se fetohe (zero), P < ...

Teko ea 3: Na dopamine receptor antagonism ke eona feela e fetolang khetho ea eona lithabeng tsa bana?

Litekanyetso tse peli tse tlase tsa haloperidol li ne li sa fetohe (2)Setšoantšo sa 3). Ha ho sehlopha sa 0.05 kapa 0.15 mg / kg se bonts'eng CPA ho haloperidol, joalo ka tsela e le 'ngoe t Liteko li bonts'a hore ha ho na phetoho e nepahetseng boikhethong (t(7) = −0.23 [NS] le t(8) = 0.55 [NS], ka ho latellana) kapa phapang (t(7) = −0.02 [NS] le t(9) = −0.54 [NS], ka ho latellana) lintlha li ne li fapane haholo le zero. CPA e tsoang ho lethal dose e phahameng ka ho fetisisa ea haloperidol e fumanoe. Tsela e le 'ngoe t Litlhahlobo li bonts'a hore phetoho e nepahetseng ea lintlha tsa khetho e ne e fapane haholo le zero (t(7) = 2.55, P <.05), empa phetoho e lokisitsoeng ea phapang ea phapang e ne e se (t(7) = −1.88, NS). Lihlopheng ha lia ka tsa fapana molemong oa khetho ea tsona ea pele (F(3,32) = 0.01, NS) kapa lintlha tsa phapang (F(3,32) = 0.14, NS). Haloperidol e bile le phello e nyane tšebetsong ea popomotor le palo ea bolo ea fecal (Setšoantšo sa 4). Mehlala ea lipara t Liteko li bontšitse hore motsamao ha o anngoe ke haloperidol ho litekanyetso tsa 0.00-, 0.05-, 0.15-, kapa 0.45-mg / kg (t(8) = -0.26 [NS], t(8) = 0.28, [NS], t(8) = 0.26 [NS], le t(8) = 1.21 [NS], ka ho latellana). Ho hlahisoa ha fecal boli ho ile ha eketsoa ka tekanyetso ea 0.45-mg / kg (t(8) = -2.67, P <.05), empa eseng litekanyong tsa 0.00-, 0.05-, kapa 0.15-mg / kg (t(8) = -1.10 [NS], t(8) = −0.59 [NS], le t(8) = −1.74 [NS], ka ho latellana).

Setšoantšo sa 3. 

CPA ho isa ho 0.45 mg / kg haloperidol ho li-hamsters tsa bana tsa testosterone. Ho bontšoa liphetoho tse hlophisitsoeng molemong oa ho khetha le lintlha tse fapaneng; bolela ± SE. * E supa phapang ho se fetohe (zero), P <.05. Mekhahlelo e 2 e tlase ea dopamine ...
Setšoantšo sa 4. 

Motsamao (holimo) le fecal boli tlhahiso (ka tlase) ea li-hamsters ka likamoreng tsa makoloi le tse haloperidol, ho bolela ± SE. * E supa phapang lipakeng tsa likamore kahare ho phoofolo, P <.05. Haloperidol ha ea ka ea ama motsamao empa ea eketseha ...

Boiteko ba 4: Na ho hlohlontša dopamine receptor ho ama ho hohela VS ka hamsters ea bacha?

Dopamine receptor antagonism e amme ho hohela ho VS ka mokhoa o itšetlehileng ka litekanyetso (Setšoantšo sa 5). Bohlohlelong ba mehato e pheta-phetoang, phello e kholo ea lethalamo e ile ea bonoa ho lintlha tse hohelang ka khalemelo ea Greenhouse-Geisser, F(1.42,11.38) = 9.802, P <.01, joalo ka ha ho latela t Liteko, lintlha tsa makoloi li ne li fapane haholo le lintlha tsa lethalinyana tsa 0.05-, 0.15-, le 0.45-mg / kg (XNUMX)t(8) = −4.74, −3.46, le −3.80, kaofela P <.01, ka ho latellana). Leha ho le joalo, 1-sampole t liteko, ha li bapisoa le lintlha tsa phapang le khetho ea monyetla pakeng tsa li-slide (zero), li bonts'a hore ho hohela VS ho ne ho ntse ho le joalo sehlopheng sa 0.15-mg / kg, joalo ka sehlopheng sa makoloi: 0.00- le 0.15- Likhahla tse khahlang tsa mg / kg li ne li fapane hōle le monyetla (t(8) = 4.22, P <.01 le t(8) = 2.81, P <.05, ka ho latellana), athe lintlha tsa 0.05- le 0.45-mg / kg li ne li sa fapane le monyetla (t(8) = 1.72 le −0.11, ka bobeli NS, ka ho latellana). Ha ho litla-morao tsa tekanyetso li fumanoeng palo ea ho tšela meeli ka mehato e phetoang ANOVA (F(3,24) = 0.11, NS), datha ha e bontšoe. Kahoo, haloperidol e fokotsehile ho hohela VS ka tekanyetso e itseng.

Setšoantšo sa 5. 

Tšoaetso ea ho hohela ho li-secretions tsa vaginal (VS) ka li-hamsters tse tšoaroang ke haloperidol, ho bolela ± SE. # E supa phapang ho tloha koloing. * E supa phapang ho se khethoe (zero), P <.05. Haloperidol e fokolitse khahleho ho VS ka litekanyetso tsohle empa ...

Mehato ea 'mele

Mehato ea 'mele e bontšoa ho Lethathamo 1 le ho netefatsa ho sebetsa ha li-capsule tsa testosterone ho eketsa testosterone e potolohang matsatsing ana ka bobeli. Lihlopha tsa lilemo tse tšoanang li ne li sa fapana ka boima ba 'mele.

Puisano

Lithuto tsena li bonts'a hore maikutlo a mofuta oa mofuta o itseng oa ts'usumetso ea chemosensory joalo ka moputso o ts'epahalitsoe ke testosterone mme o kenyelletsa ts'ebetso ea li-receptor tsa dopamine. Ka ho khetheha, re fumane hore li-hamsters tsa banna ba baholo ba GDX ba nako e telele ha ba thehe CPP ho VS, athe kalafo ea testosterone ea bana e lekane ho ba nolofalletsa ho theha CPP ho VS. Ntle le moo, karolo e ka sehloohong ea D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol e thibetse polelo ea CPP ho VS ho li-hamsters tsa mofuta oa manyane tsa testosterone. Re tsoa ho liphumano tsena tsa hore bokhachane ba ts'ebetso ea tlhahisoleseling ea bocha ke sephetho sa keketseho ea lipampiri tsa testosterone tseo, ka tšusumetso e sa tsejoeng lithutong tsa dopaminergic, li hlahisang pono ea litekanyetso tsa basali tsa chemosensory le tikoloho tse amanang le tse susumetsang.

Testosterone le moputso oa sechaba

Ha re fuoa tlhoko ea testosterone molemong oa moputso oa VS ha re se re le batho ba baholo le bokhoni ba testosterone ea ho phahamisa moputso oa VS liphoofolong tsa bana, re nahana hore 1) likarabo tse ntle joalo ka batho ba baholo ba VS li tla ka tsela e tloaelehileng ka lebaka la keketseho ea testosterone e potolohang testosterone, le 2 ) ha ho na lits'ebetso tse ling tsa ts'ebetso ea ntlafatso ea bongoana tse itšetlehang kapa tse itšetlehileng ka mocha tse hlokahalang bakeng sa moputso oa VS. Ho joalo, litlamorao tsa tlhophiso ea testosterone nakong ea ho kena bohlankaneng ha li hloke moputso oa VS, joalo ka ha liphoofolo li haelloa ke li-hormone tsa gonadal nakong ea bongoaneng le ho alafshoa ka testosterone ho ba moholo li bontša CPP e matla ho VS (35). Litlamorao tsa testosterone ho VS CPP seipone se bonoa lithutong tsa ho hohela VS ho bacha le ho batho ba baholo le boits'oaro ba karabelo ea thobalano bo atisang ho eketseha nakong ea bocha.5, 9, 44). Leha mochine oo testosterone e tsamaisang likarabo tsa moputso ho VS o sa ka oa bonoa ka ho khetheha, re fana ka maikutlo a hore e khothalletsa molumo oa dopaminergic ka ts'ebetso ea D2 receptor.

Dopamine le moputso oa sechaba

Boithuto ba rona bo bonts'a karolo ea ts'ebetso ea D2 receptor ho mofetoleli oa moputso oa VS, hobane halofoidol ea mantlha ea D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol e thibetse CPP ho VS. 'Mila ona o koetsoe ke phokotseho ea thepa ea VS e hohelang le e ruisang, joalo ka ha ho bonts'itsoe tlhahlobo e sa utloahaleng ea ho hohela. Leha litlamorao tsena li ka hlahisoa ka lebaka la phokotso e tlisitsoeng ke haloperidol45), Ts'ebetso ea li-receptor tsa D2 pejana e kile ea bontšoa hore e fokotse kutloelo-bohloko le khethollo (46-48). Ntle le moo, lithutong tsa lifofane, li-hamsters tse pepesitsoeng tekanyetso e phahameng ka ho fetisisa ea haloperidol li ne li ntse li khona ho bona mekhoa ea lijo e fumanehang habonolo (49). Ntle le moo, blockade ea CPP ha e ea ka ea hlahisoa ke thepa ea haloperidol e ileng ea etsa hore phoofolo e qojoe ka komporo e amanang le haloperidol e amanang le CPP hobane liteko tsa 3 li bonts'itse hore litekanyetso tse 2 tse tlase tsa haloperidol, 0.05 le 0.15 mg / kg, e ne e se tse fetohelang. Ho feta moo, haloperidol ha ea ka ea ama ho sisinyeha mme ea ama tlhahiso ea fecal boli feela ka tekanyo e phahameng ka ho fetisisa. Hobane li-fecal boli tlhahiso ka mokhoa oa mantlha e sebelisitsoe e le sesupo sa ho tšoenyeha le ho nyenyefatsa (50), liphumano tsena li tsamaellana le ho thehoa ha CPA ho ea lethal dose e phahameng ka ho fetisisa ea haloperidol, leha e le 'ngoe ea bakoang ke hore ts'ebetso ea D2 receptor inhibits motility ea gut tsamaisong ea methapo ea kutlo (51). Ha e kopantsoe hammoho, ha ho na monyetla oa hore haloperidol e kena-kenane le ho bonoa ha sensor ea VS kapa hore e inamele ka boeona ho litekanyetso tse tlase tse sebelisitsoeng thutong ena; ka hona, re fihlela qeto ea hore ts'ebetso ea D2 receptor e hlokahala hore VS e nkoe e le e ruisang.

Dopamine pejana e bile le tšusumetso likarolong tse ngata tsa boitšoaro ba thobalano, ho kenyelletsa boitšoaro bo lebelletsoeng kapa bo khahlisang (52), boits'oaro bo kopanetsoeng kapa bo kopanyang (53), le likarabo tse matlafatsang tsa likamano tsa thobalano (23). Ntle le moo, ts'ebetso ea dopaminergic ho li-receptor tsa D2 mohlomong e bohlokoa bakeng sa ho hokahanya ho susumetsoa ke batho ba bong bo fapaneng le maemo a tikoloho kapa a mang. Litekanyetso tse tlase tsa "monocontact dopamine antagonist block" tse khethiloeng ke molekane litlamong tsa basali (54), mme motho ea tloaetseng ho tsofala oa D2 nakong ea ho tloaelana le motho ea nyarosang ea ratanang le eena o khahloa ke batho ba bong bo tšoanang le ba batona ba nang le monko o joalo litlamong tsa banna.55). Sebetsa libakeng tse tumellano ea litlatsetso tse tšehetsang molemong oa tšebetso ea D2 receptor ho hokahanya moputso oa thobalano le batho ba susumetsang kapa batho ka bomong, joalo ka li-injection tsa D2, empa eseng D1, agonist le antagonist ba tsamaisa le ho ferekanya khetho ea molekane ho li-voles tsa banna, ka ho latellana (56). Boithuto ba hajoale bo ts'ehetsa karolo ea ts'ebetso ea D2 receptor ho matlafatsa likarabo ho likamano tse sa reroang tsa bophelo bo botle liphoofolong tsa nareve le ho ts'oana le litlamorao tsa haloperidol ho fokotsa ts'usumetso ea mantlha a pono ea basali, mantsoe a molumo le mekhoa ea Chemosensory litulong tsa banna tsa thobalano.57).

Hobane re fumane hore likarolo tse ngata tsa boko tse nang le bothata ba dopamine, ho kenyeletsa amygdala, MPOA, le Acb, li kenya letsoho likarabo tsa boitšoaro ho VS (7, 18), ho kenella ka mokhoa o hlophisehileng ho sebelisitsoe ho hanyetsa li-receptor tsa dopamine libakeng tsa ts'ebetso tse ngata tse behiloeng. Leha sebaka sa tšebetso ea dopamine se ke ke sa tsejoa ho tsoa thutong ena, ho na le batho ba 'maloa ba ka bang likhetho. Dopamine agonists le antagonists ho MPOA e nolofatsa le ho fokotsa ts'ebetso ea boitšoaro ba thobalano, ka ho latellana, litekong tsa banna le basali (58-61). Ntle le moo, MPOA e ts'oaroa ke boitšoaro bo lebelletseng ba boitšoaro ba thobalano le litakatso tsa basali (62, 63). Sisteme ea mesolimbic ha e bonahale e kentse letsoho ts'ebetsong ea boits'oaro bo kopanetsoeng, ntle le bokhoni ba kakaretso ba makoloi (63, 64). Leha ho le joalo, ketso ea dopaminergic ho Acb e kanna ea kenya letsoho liketsong tse lebelletsoeng tsa thobalano, joalo ka ts'ebetso ea locomotor le li-erections ho arabela likamore tsa basali, tse ikemetseng tsa litlamorao tsa koloi.62, 65). Ntle le moo, Acb e bohlokoa molemong oa ho momahanya likamano tsa batho ba babeli le balekane ba bona, joalo ka ha ho bonahala ke mosebetsi ka li-voles (66, 67). Kahoo, ts'ebetso ea dopamine ho MPOA, Acb, kapa libaka ka bobeli e kanna ea ba tsa bohlokoa bakeng sa CPP ho VS.

Testosterone modumo ea litsamaiso tsa dopaminergic

Patlisiso e fetileng e bonts'a liphetoho tse amanang le bongoana ho dopamine, bafalli, li-receptors, le likarabo tsa synaptic ho Acb (68-73). Hore na liphetoho tsena li its'etleha holima kholo ea testosterone ha e e-so ithutoe, ntle le tšusumetso ea hore mokhoa oa bongoana oa ho hlahisa haholo le ho pruning tse latelang tsa D1 le D2 receptors ho rat Acb e etsahala ntle le ho ba teng kapa ho ba sieo ha li-hormone tsa gonadal (74). Leha liphetoho tsa nts'etsopele ho MPOA dopamine li ithutile hantle lithutong tsa basali (75), hanyane ha ho tsejoe ka liphetoho tsa bongoaneng molatong oa dopaminergic ho MPOA ea monna. Leha ho le joalo, kutloisiso ea li-hormone ea MPOA ea motho e moholo e tsitsitse hantle. Boithuto bo 'maloa bo bontšitse hore gonadectomy ea nako e telele (2-8 wk) e baka keketseho ea mehato e mengata ea molumo oa dopaminergic ho MPOA, ho kenyelletsa le litaba tsa tishu le amphetamine-induction dopamine, empa ho fokotseha ha dopamine ea extracellular ho litoeba phomolong (27, 76-79). Habohlokoa le ho feta, likarabo tsa dopaminergic tsa MPOA lithutong tsa basali ho likhoto tsa banna ba baholo le tsona li fetotsoe ka mokhoa o tšoanang ke testosterone (11, 28). Leha litlamorao tsa ho tebisoa hoa "ventral striatum" li sa fetohe hofeta tse ho MPOA, 28 d gonadectomy ka kakaretso e fokotsa ho teba ha dopamine le DOPAC liseleng tsa Acb (27, 80, 81). Kahoo, ho a utloahala hore keketseho e tloaelehileng ea ho potoloha testosterone nakong ea bocha e khothaletsa tokollo ea dopaminergic ho arabela VS, ho MPOA, Acb, kapa ka bobeli, ka ho etsa joalo ba phahamisa moputso oa VS. Leha ho le joalo, boholo ba lithuto tsena li ile tsa etsoa liphoofolong tsa batho ba baholo, 'me ho hlokahala mosebetsi o mongata ho netefatsa tšebeliso ena ea kelello ho nts'etsopele methapo hobane litlamorao tsa tlhaiso ea testosterone liphoofolong tsa bana e ka ba tse fapaneng le tsa batho ba baholo.34).

Ho nkuoa hammoho, lithuto tsena li bonts'a bohlokoa ba testosterone le dopamine ho likarabo tse khotsofatsang mofusong o sa reroang sechabeng. Ka bobeli li-system tsa testosterone le dopamine lia holisa nakong ea bocha, ha boleng bo monate ba VS hangata bo fumanoa. Re lokela ho tseba hore potoloho ea dopaminergic e ka sebetsa liphoofolong tsa masea ho buella CPP ho VS, empa ts'ebetso e itšetlehileng ka testosterone ea li-circular tse ling tsa neural le eona e bohlokoa bakeng sa moputso oa VS. Leha ho le joalo, litlhaloso tse matla ka ho fetesisa, tse fuoang bopaki bo tšehetsang, ke hore kalafo ea testosterone ho liphoofolo tse sa le banyenyane e etsisa boemo bo phahameng ba tlhaiso ea testosterone, eo ka lehlakoreng le leng e amang dopaminergic system ho lumella moputso oa VS.

lumela hore baa fokola

Bangoli ba leboha Jane Venier, Andrew Kneynsberg, Elaine Sinclair, Susie Sonnenschein, Joshua Paasewe, Jennifer Lampen le Shannon O'Connell ka lihora tse ngata ba thusa CPP. Ntle le moo, bangoli ba ananela maikutlo a thusang ka boqapi ba liteko le ho ngola ho tsoa ho Kayla De Lorme le Maggie Mohr.

Mosebetsi ona o tšehelitsoe ke Likolo tsa Naha tsa Litšebeletso tsa Bophelo R01-MH068764 (ho CS), T32-MH070343 (ho MB), le T32-NS44928 (ho MB).

Kakaretso ea Phatlalatso: Bangoli ha ba na letho leo ba ka le senolang.

Mongolo o botlaaseng ba leqephe

Likhaloso:

  • Akb
  • nucleus accumbens
  • CPA
  • tikoloho e nang le maemo
  • CPP
  • sebaka seo ho khetholloang sebaka ka sona
  • GDX
  • gonadectomized
  • MPOA
  • sebaka sa medial preoptic
  • VS
  • sephiri sa bosali.

References

1. Murphy MR, Schneider GE. Ho tlosoa ha tleloubu ea litlolo ho felisa boitšoaro ba mating ho Hamster ea monna. Mahlale. 1970; 167: 302-304 [E fetotsoe]
2. Petrulis A. Mekgwa e ikhethileng ea ho khetholla motho a le mong le thobalano ho li-hamsters tsa Syria (Mesocricetus auratus). Behav Brain Res 2009; 200: 260-267 [Tlhahiso ea mahala ea PMC] [E fetotsoe]
3. Meek LR, Romeo RD, Novak CM, Sisk CL. Ketso ea testosterone ho li-hamsters tsa pele ho tsa pele le tsa morao-rao: ho arohana le litlamorao ho boits'oaro ba ho ikatisa le boiketsetso ba androgen receptor. Horm Behav. 1997; 31: 75-88 [E fetotsoe]
4. Romeo RD, Parfitt DB, Richardson HN, Sisk CL. Pheromones e phahamisa litekanyo tse lekanang tsa Fos-immunoreactivity ho li-hammog tsa banna le ba baholo ba banna ba Syria. Horm Behav. 1998; 34: 48-55 [E fetotsoe]
5. Johnston RE, Coplin B. Nts'etsopele ea likarabo ho secretion ea botšehali le lintho tse ling ho hamsters ea khauta. Behav Neural Biol. 1979; 25: 473-489 [E fetotsoe]
6. Bell MR, Meert SH, Sisk CL. Li-hamsters tsa banna tsa Syria li bonts'a sebaka se ikhethileng bakeng sa boitšoaro ba thobalano le takatso ea chemosensory ea basali. Horm Behav. 2010; 58: 410–414 [Tlhahiso ea mahala ea PMC] [E fetotsoe]
7. Bell MR, De Lorme KC, Figueira RJ, Kashy DA, Sisk CL. Keketseho ea 2012 ea bocha e tlisa botle bo botle ba khothatso e mabapi le boiketlo ba sechaba: ho kenya letsoho tšebetsong ea meputso ea mesocorticolimbic. Eur J Neurosci. 2012. Doi: 10.1111 / ejn12058 [E fetotsoe]
8. Gregory EH, Mobishopo A. Ntlafatso ea boitsoaro bo tataisoang ke boiketsetso ka hamster ea khauta. Physiol Behav. 1975; 15: 373–376 [E fetotsoe]
9. Whalen RE, DeBold JF. Ts'ebetso e bapisang ea testosterone, androstenedione le dihydrotestosterone ho boloka boits'oaro ba ho tsofala ho hamster e tona ea monna. Endocrinology. 1974; 95: 1674-1679 [E fetotsoe]
10. Malmnas CO. Bohlokoa ba dopamine, ha bo bapisoa le li-catecholamine tse ling, hobane L-dopa e kenyellelitse ts'ebetso ea boitšoaro ba thobalano le ka hara rat e kholo ea banna. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1976; 4: 521-526 [E fetotsoe]
11. Hull EM, Du J, Lorrain DS, Matuszewich L. Extracellular dopamine tikolohong ea medial preoptic: litlamorao tsa tlhotlheletso ea thobalano le taolo ea li-hormone tsa phallo. J Neurosci. 1995; 15: 7465-7471 [E fetotsoe]
12. Pfaus JG, Damsma G, Nomikos GG, et al. Boitšoaro ba thobalano bo ntlafatsa phetiso ea dopamine e bohareng ka hara thipa ea monna. Brain Res. 1990; 530: 345–348 [E fetotsoe]
13. Damsma G, Pfaus JG, Wenkstern D, Phillips AG, Fibiger HC. Boitšoaro ba thobalano bo eketsa phetiso ea dopamine ka har'a li-nucleus tse bokellaneng le striatum ea litoeba tse tona: bapisoa le bocha le boitšisinyo. Behav Neurosci. 1992; 106: 181–191 [E fetotsoe]
14. Mas M, Gonzalez-Mora JL, Louilot A, Solé C, Guadalupe T. Ho eketsa tlhahiso ea dopamine ka har'a li-nucleus bokellaneng ba ho kopitsa likhoto tsa banna joalo ka ha ho netefalitsoe ke vivo voltammetry. Neurosci Lett. 1990; 110: 303-308 [E fetotsoe]
15. Meisel RL, Camp DM, Robinson TE. Tlhahlobo ea Microbalal ea dopamine ea "cyral striatal dopamine" nakong ea boitšoaro ba thobalano ho li-hamsters tsa basali tsa Syria. Behav Brain Res 1993; 55: 151–157 [E fetotsoe]
16. Mitchell JB, Gratton A. Mesolimbic dopamine lokolloe ka ts'ebetso ea sistimi e fumanehang: thuto e potlakileng ea chronoamperometric. Neurosci Lett. 1992; 140: 81-84 [E fetotsoe]
17. Louilot A, Gonzalez-Mora JL, Guadalupe T, Mas M. E amanang le thobalano e amanang le thobalano e etsa hore ho be le keketseho e khethehileng ea tokollo ea dopamine ka har'a li-ratus tsa banna. Boithuto ba voltammetric. Brain Res. 1991; 553: 313–317 [E fetotsoe]
18. Schulz KM, Richardson HN, Romeo RD, Morris JA, Lookland KJ, Sisk CL. Karabelo ea "dopaminergic" ea sebakeng seo e fumanehang ho sona nakong ea bokhachane, e fetoha nakong ea bokhachane ho Hamster ea monna. Brain Res. 2003; 988: 139–145 [E fetotsoe]
19. Wenkstern D, Pfaus JG, Fibiger HC. Ho fetisoa ha dopamine ho eketseha ka har'a li-ruru tsa banna nakong ea ha li qala ho pepesoa ke likhoto tsa basali tse amohelang thobalano. Brain Res. 1993; 618: 41–46 [E fetotsoe]
20. Triemstra JL, Nagatani S, Wood RI. Lik'hemik'hale tsa Chemosensory li bohlokoa bakeng sa tokollo ea dopamine ea mating ho MPOA ea hamsters ea banna ba Syria. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005; 30: 1436-1442 [E fetotsoe]
21. López HH, Ettenberg A. phephetso nakong ea ho qopitsa e thibela keketseho e latelang ea takatso ea thobalano ea monna. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000; 67: 387–393 [E fetotsoe]
22. López HH, Ettenberg A. Litšusumetso tse nang le thobalano: ho bonts'a tšusumetso ea matla nakong ea litheko tsa dopamine receptor. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002; 72: 65-72 [E fetotsoe]
23. Meisel RL, Joppa MA, Rowe RK. Dopamine receptor antagonists e latellisa maemo a ratang ho latela boitšoaro ba thobalano ho li-hamsters tsa basali tsa Syria. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996; 309: 21–24 [E fetotsoe]
24. Ismail N, Girard-Bériault F, Nakanishi S, Pfaus JG. Naloxone, empa eseng flupenthixol, e sitisa nts'etsopele ea maemo a pele a ratang pele ho kemiso ea setho sa monna. Behav Neurosci. 2009; 123: 992-999 [E fetotsoe]
25. Agustín-Pavón C, Martínez-Ricós J, Martínez-García F, Lanuza E. Liphello tsa lithethefatsi tsa dopaminergic ho moputso oa kahare oa pheromone-mediated ka litoeba tsa basali: Nyeoe e ncha ea dopamine-e ikemetseng ea 'ho rata.' Behav Neurosci. 2007; 121: 920-932 [E fetotsoe]
26. Agmo A, Berenfeld R. Ho khothaletsa thepa ea kemiso mothong oa banna: karolo ea li-opioids le dopamine. Behav Neurosci. 1990; 104: 177–182 [E fetotsoe]
27. Mitchell JB, Stewart J. Liphello tsa ho fallisoa, ho khutlisoa ha steroid, le boiphihlelo ba thobalano ho mesolimbic dopamine le boits'oaro ba thobalano ho rat la monna. Brain Res. 1989; 491: 116–127 [E fetotsoe]
28. Putnam SK, Du J, Sato S, Hull EM. Tsosoloso ea testosterone ea boitšoaro bo kopantsoeng e lumellana le tokollo ea dopamine ea medial preoptic. Horm Behav. 2001; 39: 216–224 [E fetotsoe]
29. Scaletta LL, Hull EM. Systemom kapa intracranial apomorphine e eketsa ho kopitsa lipapatsong tsa banna tse telele tse fetotsoeng. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1990; 37: 471-475 [E fetotsoe]
30. Ernst M, Romeo RD, Andersen SL. Neurobiology ea nts'etsopele ea boits'oaro bo susumetsang bocheng: fensetere ho ea mehlala ea mekhoa ea neural. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009; 93: 199–211 [E fetotsoe]
31. Miller LL, Whitsett JM, Vandenbergh JG, Colby DR. Karolo ea 'mele le boits'oaro ba ho ikatisa ka thobalano ho li-hamsters tse tona tsa banna. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1977; 91: 245–259 [E fetotsoe]
32. Bell MR, De Lorme KC, Meert SH, Sisk CL. Mefuta e meng ea basali ba Basyria ba phekotsoeng ka testosterone e bonts'a sebaka se ikhethileng bakeng sa tumello ea litho tsa botšehali. Nomoro ea lenaneo 819.02. Lenaneo la Kopano ea Neuroscience la Washington Washington, DC: Mokhatlo oa Neuroscience, 2011
33. Hull EM, Dominguez JM. Boitšoaro ba thobalano ho litoeba tsa banna. Horm Behav. 2007; 52: 45-55 [Tlhahiso ea mahala ea PMC] [E fetotsoe]
34. Schulz KM, Zehr JL, Salas-Ramirez KY, Sisk CL. Testosterone e hlophisa boits'oaro ba batho ba baholo sechabeng pele le ka nako, empa eseng kamora ho ba bocha. Endocrinology. 2009; 150: 3690-3698 [Tlhahiso ea mahala ea PMC] [E fetotsoe]
35. De Lorme KC, Bell MR, Sisk CL. Nako ea moputso oa sechaba ho batho ba baholo ba banna ba Syria ha e itšetlehe ka litlamorao tsa mokhatlo. Horm Behav. 2012; 62: 180–185 [Tlhahiso ea mahala ea PMC] [E fetotsoe]
36. Johnston RE, Peng M. Setho sa hlatsoang se kenella khethollong ea batho ka bomong empa eseng ke basali ka likatiba tsa khauta. Physiol Behav. 2000; 70: 537-549 [E fetotsoe]
37. Powers JB, Bergondy ML. Taolo ea Androgenic ea boits'oaro ba "chemoinarcher" ho li-hamsters tsa banna le tsa basali. Horm Behav. 1983; 17: 28–44 [E fetotsoe]
38. Martínez I, Paredes RG. Ke feela tloaelo ea ho iphelisa e ruisang litheko tsa banna le basali. Horm Behav. 2001; 40: 510-517 [E fetotsoe]
39. Meisel RL, Joppa MA. Sebaka se khethiloeng sebakeng sa li-hamsters tsa basali kamora ho tobana le mabifi kapa ho kopanela liphate. Physiol Behav. 1994; 56: 1115–1118 [E fetotsoe]
40. Kohlert JG, Olexa N. Karolo ea ts'usumetso ea botšehali bakeng sa ho fumana lithahasello tsa sebaka se nang le maemo ho li-hamsters tsa basali tsa Syria. Physiol Behav. 2005; 84: 135–139 [E fetotsoe]
41. Meerts SH, Clark AS. Rats ea basali e bonts'a sebaka se ratang boemo ba ho ikatisa ntle le pele. Horm Behav. 2007; 51: 89-94 [E fetotsoe]
42. Parada M, Chamas L, Censi S, Coria-Avila G, Pfaus JG. Ts'usumetso ea moea oa boeletsi e etsa hore maemo a sebaka a khetholloe le ts'ebetso ea Fos ho rat. Horm Behav. 2010; 57: 112–118 [E fetotsoe]
43. Tenk CM, Wilson H, Zhang Q, Pitchers KK, Coolen LM. Moputso oa thobalano ho litoeba tsa banna: Liphello tsa boiphihlelo ba thobalano ho likhetho tsa sebaka se ikamahantseng le kemiso le ho kenella. Horm Behav. 2009; 55: 93-97 [Tlhahiso ea mahala ea PMC] [E fetotsoe]
44. Gregory E, Engel K, Pfaff D. Malebela a hamster bakeng sa monko oa litlolo tsa basali tsa hamster: lithuto tsa boiphihlelo ba boiphihlelo le li-hormone. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1975; 89: 442-446 [E fetotsoe]
45. Lits'ebetso tsa Cave JW, Baker H. Dopamine li-forebrain. Adv Exp Bi Biol. 2009; 651: 15–35 [Tlhahiso ea mahala ea PMC] [E fetotsoe]
46. ​​Doty RL, Risser JM. Tšusumetso ea D-2 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole mabapi le ts'ebetso ea ho bona monko oa litoeba pele le ka morao ho tsamaiso ea spiperone. Psychopharmacology. 1989; 98: 310–315 [E fetotsoe]
47. Serguera C, Triaca V, Kelly-Barrett J, Banchaabouchi MA, Minichiello L. Ho eketseha ha dopamine ka mor'a ho emolisa ho senya olfaction le ho thibela ho kena-kenana le monko ho ima. Nat Neurosci. 2008; 11: 949-956 [E fetotsoe]
48. Wei CJ, Linster C, Cleland TA. Dopamine D2 receptor activation modulates tse lemohuoang monko o matla. Behav Neurosci. 2006; 120: 393–400 [E fetotsoe]
49. Bell MR, Sisk CL. Moputso oa batho ba itšetlehileng ka dopamine ho li-hamsters tsa banna ba Syria. Nomoro ea Lenaneo P1.48. Buka ea Lenaneo la SBN 2012. Schaumburg, IL: Mokhatlo oa Behavioural Neuroendocrinology, 2012
50. Sanberg PR. Neuroleptic-induction defecation ea maikutlo: litlamorao tsa pimozide le apomorphine. Physiol Behav. 1989; 46: 199–202 [E fetotsoe]
51. Li ZS, Schmauss C, Cuenca A, Ratcliffe E, Gershon MD. Phetoho ea 'mele ea ho sebetsa ka mpeng ea "intestinal dopaminergic neurons" le "D2 receptor" "" "" "" Dopamine receptor expression " J Neurosci. 2006; 26: 2798–2807 [E fetotsoe]
52. Pfaus JG, Phillips AG. Litlamorao tse fapaneng tsa bahanyetsi ba dopamine receptor mabapi le boitšoaro ba thobalano ba likhoto tsa banna. Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 1989; 98: 363–368 [E fetotsoe]
53. Arteaga M, Motte-Lara J, Velázquez-Moctezuma J. Liphello tsa yohimbine le apomorphine ka semelo sa monna sa thobalano sa Hamster ea khauta (Mesocricetus auratus). Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2002; 12: 39–45 [E fetotsoe]
54. Coria-Avila GA, Gavrila AM, Boulard B, Charron N, Stanley G, Pfaus JG. Motheo oa neurochemical oa likhetho tsa molekane tse nang le maemo ho rat la basali: II. Tšilafalo ka flupenthixol. Behav Neurosci. 2008; 122: 396–406 [E fetotsoe]
55. Triana-Del Rio R, Montero-Domínguez F, Cibrian-Llanderal T, et al. Ho khahlisoa ha batho ba bong bo tšoanang tlasa litlamorao tsa quinpirole ho etsa hore batho ba rate ho ratana le ba batona, empa eseng litekong tsa basali. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011; 99: 604-613 [E fetotsoe]
56. Wang Z, Yu G, Cascio C, Liu Y, Gingrich B, Insel TR. Dopamine D2 regeptor-mediated regulation ea likhetho tsa molekane ho li-voes tsa basali tsa prairie (Microtus ochrogaster): Mokhoa oa ho li-bonding? Behav Neurosci. 1999; 113: 602-611 [E fetotsoe]
57. López HH, Ettenberg A. Dopamine antagonism e bontša boleng bo sa lekanyetsoang ba litheko tsa basali ba makatsang. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001; 68: 411–416 [E fetotsoe]
58. Hull EM, Bitran D, Pehek EA, Warner RK, Band LC, Holmes GM. Dopaminergic taolo ea boitšoaro ba botona ba botšehali ho litoeba: Litlamorao tsa agonist e kenang kahare ea intracerebrally. Brain Res. 1986; 370: 73–81 [E fetotsoe]
59. Pehek EA, Warner RK, Bazzett TJ, et al. Microinjection ea cis-flupenthixol, mohanyetsi oa dopamine, ea sebakeng sa medial preoptic e senya boitšoaro ba thobalano ba likhoto tsa banna. Brain Res. 1988; 443: 70-76 [E fetotsoe]
60. Bitran D, Hull EM, Holmes GM, Lookland KJ. Taolo ea tloaelo ea ho kopitsa litekanyetso tsa banna ka ho sebelisa li-neurone tsa preoptic incertohypothalamic dopamine. Brain Res Bull. 1988; 20: 323–331 [E fetotsoe]
61. Graham MD, Pfaus JG. Tekanyetso e fapaneng ea boitšoaro ba basali ba thobalano ke dopamine agonists tikolohong ea medial preoptic. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010; 97: 284–292 [E fetotsoe]
62. Pfaus JG, Phillips AG. Karolo ea dopamine likarolong tse lebelletsoeng le tse matlafatsang tsa boitšoaro ba thobalano ho setho sa monna. Behav Neurosci. 1991; 105: 727-743 [E fetotsoe]
63. Moses J, Loucks JA, Watson HL, Matuszewich L, Hull EM. Lithethefatsi tsa Dopaminergic tse sebakeng sa medial preoptic le li-nucleus bokellwang: litlamorao ho ts'ebetso ea makoloi, tšusumetso ea thobalano le ts'ebetso ea thobalano. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1995; 51: 681-686 [E fetotsoe]
64. Hull EM, Weber MS, Eaton RC, et al. Li-receptor tsa dopamine sebakeng se potolohileng ka hare li ama motor, empa eseng lintho tse susumetsang kapa tse bonoang, likarolo tsa ho kopitsa ho likhoto tsa banna. Brain Res. 1991; 554: 72-76 [E fetotsoe]
65. Liu YC, Sachs BD, Salamone JD. Boitšoaro ba thobalano ho likhoto tsa banna ka mor'a ho ruruha ha radiofrequency kapa dopamine-depleting lesions ho li-nucleus accumbens. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998; 60: 585-592 [E fetotsoe]
66. Aragona BJ, Liu Y, Yu YJ, et al. Li-nyuklia li bokella dopamine ka mokhoa o fapaneng li hlophisa ho theha le ho boloka litlamo tsa monogamous pair. Nat Neurosci. 2006; 9: 133–139 [E fetotsoe]
67. Gingrich B, Liu Y, Cascio C, Wang Z, Insel TR. Li-receptor tsa Dopamine D2 tse bokellaneng tsa li-nucleus li bohlokoa bakeng sa khokahano ea sechaba ho li-voes tsa basali tsa prairie (Microtus ochrogaster). Behav Neurosci. 2000; 114: 173–183 [E fetotsoe]
68. Philpot R, Kirstein C. Liphapang tse bang teng karabong ea dopaminergic e tlisoang ke ho pepesetsoa hoa ethanol khafetsa. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004; 1021: 422–426 [E fetotsoe]
69. Badanich KA, Adler KJ, Kirstein CL. Bacha ba fapana le batho ba baholo ka ho rata maemo a "cocaine" kapa "copineine" kapa "copineine" e hlahisang karolo ea cocaine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006; 550: 95–106 [E fetotsoe]
70. Philpot RM, Wecker L, Kirstein CL. Ho pepesetsoa hoa ethanol khafetsa nakong ea bocha ho fetola maemo a nts'etsopele a tlhahiso ea dopaminergic ho tsoa kholumong e bokellanang. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2009; 27: 805-815 [E fetotsoe]
71. Coulter CL, Happye HK, Murrin LC. Nts'etsopele ea kamora nako ea ho fetisoa ha dopamine: boithuto bo bongata ba patoradiographic. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1996; 92: 172-181 [E fetotsoe]
72. Andersen SL, Rutstein M, Benzo JM, Hostetter JC, Teicher MH. Phapang pakeng tsa thobalano ho dopamine receptor e ngata le ho felisoa. Neuroreport. 1997; 8: 1495–1498 [E fetotsoe]
73. Tseng KY, O'Donnell P. D2 dopamine receptors ba hira karolo ea GABA bakeng sa ho thibela phetisetso ea motsamao oa synaptic ka har'a rat rat prefrontal cortex. Synapse. 2007; 61: 843-850 [Tlhahiso ea mahala ea PMC] [E fetotsoe]
74. Andersen SL, Thompson AP, Krenzel E, Teicher MH. Liphetoho tsa Pubertal ka har'a lihormone tsa gonadal ha li tlatse tlhahiso e kholo ea dopamine receptor. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2002; 27: 683-691 [E fetotsoe]
75. Becú-Villalobos D, Lacau-Mengido IM, Díaz-Torga GS, Libertun C. lithuto tsa Ontogenic tsa taolo ea neural ea li-hormone tsa adenohypophyseal ka hara rat. II. Prolactin. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1992; 12: 1 - 19E fetotsoe]
76. Engel J, Ahlenius S, Almgren O, Carlsson A, Larsson K, Södersten P. Liphetoho tsa phetisetso ea gonadectomy le li-hormone ho synthet ea bongo monoamine ho likhoto tsa banna. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1979; 10: 149–154 [E fetotsoe]
77. Simpkins JW, Kalra SP, Kalra PS. Litlamorao tse fapaneng tsa testosterone mosebetsing oa dopamine libakeng tse 'maloa tse microdissected sebakeng sa preoptic le medial basal hypothalamus. Endocrinology. 1983; 112: 665-669 [E fetotsoe]
78. Gunnet JW, Lookland KJ, Moore KE. Ho bapisoa le litlamorao tsa ho fallisoa le ho khutlisoa ha steroid ho li-neurons tsa "incertohypothalamic dopaminergic" ho litšoelesa tsa banna le tsa basali. Neuroendocrinology. 1986; 44: 269–275 [E fetotsoe]
79. Du J, Lorrain DS, Hull EM. Ho fallisoa ho fokotseha ha lintho tse ling, empa ho eketsa maqhubu, dopamine sebakeng sa litoeba tse tšehali. Brain Res. 1998; 782: 11–17 [E fetotsoe]
80. Alderson LM, Baum MJ. Litlamorao tse sa tšoaneng tsa gonadal steroids ho metabolite ea dopamine ho mesolimbic le nigro-striatal pathways ea boko ba rat ea banna. Brain Res. 1981; 218: 189-206 [E fetotsoe]
81. Baum MJ, Melamed E, Globalbus M. Ho arohana ha litlamorao tsa ho lahlisoa le ho khutlisoa ha testosterone setšoantšong sa thobalano le metabolism ea dopamine ho dopamine ho rat la monna. Brain Res Bull. 1986; 16: 145–148 [E fetotsoe]