Boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba ho kopanela liphate: Bo-prefrontal le limbic volume le likamano (2016)

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LITABA: Ha thuto e ntse e sebelisa poleloana "Boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba thobalano (CSB)," bafo e ne e le makhoba a litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (bona tokollo ea boralitaba). Ha ho bapisoa le taolo e phetseng hantle ea lithuto tsa CSB e ne e eketsehile bophahamo ba li-amygdala le ho fokotsa ts'ebelisano nakong ea phomolo pakeng tsa amygdala le bilaraal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC. Bangoli ba phethela ka ho re:

Liphumano tsa rona tsa hajoale li totobatsa likarolo tse phahameng seterekeng se sebetsanang le boiketlo ba boiketlo le khokahano e tlase ea mmuso ea marang-rang a taolo ea taolo ea taolo ea pele. Ho sitisoa ha marang-rang a joalo ho ka 'na ha hlalosa mekhoa e tloahelehileng ea boits'oaro ho moputso o ikhethang oa tikoloho kapa ho ntlafatsa mesebetsi e metle ho lithahasello tse ikhethileng. Leha liphumano tsa rona tsa volumetric li fapane le tsa ba nang le mathata a ts'ebeliso ea lithethefatsi (SUD), liphumano tsena li ka bonts'a phapang e le ts'ebetso ea litlamorao tsa neurotoxic tsa ho pepeseha lithethefatsi ho sa feleng.

Ho fumana phetolelo #1): "Khokahano e fokolang ea ts'ebetso lipakeng tsa amygdala & dorsolateral prefrontal cortex." Amygdala e bapala karolo ea bohlokoa ho sebetsaneng le maikutlo, ho kenyelletsa le karabelo ea rona khatello ea maikutlo. Amygdala e amehile ka matla lintlheng tse ngata tsa bokhoba bo kang litakatso, boikoetliso le matšoao a ho tlohela. Khokahano e fokotsehileng ea ts'ebetso lipakeng tsa amygdala le prefrontal cortex e tsamaellanang le lithethefatsi. Ho nahanoa hore khokahano e futsanehileng e fokotsa taolo ea "prefrontal" ea "cortex" holima tšusumetso ea mosebelisi ea ho kenella boitšoarong bo hlephileng.

Ho fumana phetolelo #2): "Ho eketsa molumo oa amygdala" (e bolelang taba e bohlooho ho feta). Boholo ba lithuto tsa bokhoba ba lithethefatsi li tlaleha amygdalae e nyane ho batho ba lemaletseng (taba e nyane haholo). Phuputso ena e fana ka maikutlo a hore chefo ea lithethefatsi e ka lebisa ho taba e se nang bohlooho mme ka hona ea fokotsa bophahamo ba amygdala ho makhoba a lithethefatsi. Ha ho pelaelo hore sena se phetha karolo. Re tlameha ho hlokomela hore amygdala e lula e le mafolofolo nakong ea ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​haholoholo nakong ea ho pepesehela thobalano. Mohlala, ho tobetsa ho tloha ho tab ho ea ho tabo kapa ho batla video kapa setšoantšo ho ka bonesa amygdala. Mohlomong khafetsa thobalano boqapi le ho batla le ho batla li lebisa ho phello e ikhethang ho amygdala ho basebelisi ba porno ba phehellang.

Tlhaloso e 'ngoe bakeng sa bophahamo bo boholo ba amygdala ho lithethefatsi tsa bootsoa: Lilemo tse ngata tsa tšebeliso e mpe ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e ka ba khatello ea maikutlo. Ho feta moo, lihlooho tsena tsa CSB e ne e se feela makhoba a bootsoa; ba bile le litlamorao tse mpe ka lebaka la ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (tahlehelo ea mosebetsi, mathata a likamano, nts'etsopele ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tse bakiloeng ke ED). Ntlha ea bohlokoa ke ena: Matšoenyeho a sa feleng a sechaba a amana le molumo o eketsehileng oa amygdala:

Leha mekhoa e hlakileng ea polasetiki e ntse e sa utloisisoe ka botlalo, tekatekano ho isa ho khatello e matla e bonahala e eketsa kholo ea likarolo tse 'maloa tsa amygdala, athe litlamorao ho hippocampus le preortal cortex li atisa ho fapana.

Re nahana ka ho fumana kaholimo molemong oa sena Phuputso ea 2015 e fumaneng hore "batho ba lemaletseng ho kopanela liphate" ba na le axis e matla ea HPA (tsamaiso e sithabetsang ea khatello ea maikutlo). Na khatello ea maikutlo e sa feleng e amanang le bokhoba ba porno / botona le botšehali, hammoho le lintlha tse etsang hore thobalano e ikhethang, e ka lebisa molumo o moholo oa amygdala? Kamora nako e itseng, bophahamo bo tlase ba amygdala e ka ba boemo bo teng pele ho lino tse tahang, joalo ka bana malapeng a nang le kotsi e kholo ea joala ba na le amygdalae e nyane.


LINKA HO ETSA TLHOTSO TSE FELENG

Casper Schmidt,1,2,3 Laurel S. Morris,1,4 Timo L. Kvamme,1,2,3 Paula Hall,Thaddeus Birchard,5 le Valerie Bona1,4,6 *

Mapping a Bongoli ba Motho

Bangoli ba phatlalatsa hore ha ba na likhohlano tsa lithahasello tse lokelang ho phatlalatsoa.

inahaneloang

Background

Boitšoaro bo qobelloang ba thobalano (CSB) bo atile haholo mme bo amana le ho hloka taolo ha motho ka mong le sechaba. Bokoali ba methapo ea kutlo bo ntse bo sa utloisisehe hantle. Boithuto ba hona joale bo lekola boholo ba boko le kgokahanyo e sebetsang ea mmuso ho CSB ha e bapisoa le baithaopi ba phetseng hantle (HV).

mekhoa

Lintlha tsa Structural MRI (MPRAGE) li ile tsa bokelloa lithutong tsa 92 (banna ba 23 CSB le banna ba 69 ba nang le lilemo li 68) mme ba e lekola ba sebelisa voxel-based morphometry. Phumano ea data ea ts'ebetso ea MRI e sebelisang mmuso e sebelisang tatellano ea polane ea li-multi-echo le likarolo tse ikemetseng (ME-ICA) e ile ea bokelloa lithutong tsa 23 (lithuto tsa 45 CSB le XNUMX ea lilemo li lekanang le HV).

Results

Lithuto tsa CSB li bonts'itse litheko tse kholo tsa "amygdala grey" tse ngata tse ntlafalitsoeng, Bonferroni e hlophisitsoe P <0.01) le phokotso ea khokahano ea ts'ebetso ea ho phomola ea mmuso lipakeng tsa peo ea amygdala le lehare le kopaneng la dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (bokong kaofela, sehlopha se lokisitse FWE P <0.05) ha e bapisoa le HV.

Nahanisisa

CSB e hokahane le lipalo tse phahameng libakeng tse nang le maoto a amanang le ts'ebetso ea maikutlo le ts'ebetso ea maikutlo, le khokahano e sebetsang ea pakeng tsa taolo ea taolo ea pele le ea maoto. Boithuto ba nako e tlang bo lokela ho ikemisetsa ho lekola mehato ea ho nka nako e telele ho etsa lipatlisiso hore na liphetho tsena ke lintho tse ka 'nang tsa baka tšimoloho ea boitšoaro kapa litlamorao tsa boitšoaro.

khutsufalitsoeng

  • ACC e ka ntle ea cingrate ea cortex
  • CSB boitšoaro bo qobelloang ba thobalano
  • CSF mokelikeli oa kokoana-hloko
  • DLPFC dorsolateral preortal preortal cortex
  • GM taba e putsoa
  • Moetso oa kakaretso oa GLM
  • Baithaopi ba phetseng hantle ba HV
  • MPRAGE matla a khoheli a lokisitse gradient-echo
  • OFC orbitofrontal cortex
  • ROI tikoloho ea lithahasello
  • SPM Statistical Parametric Mapa
  • Nako ea ho pheta-pheta
  • TE echo nako
  • VBM voxel-based morphometry
  • Taba e tšoeu ea WM.

SELELEKELA

Boitšoaro bo qobellang ba thobalano (CSB), e tsejoang hape ka hore ke hypersexual disc kapa tlhekefetso ea thobalano, e atile haholo (e hakantsoe ho 3% –6%) [Kraus et al., 2016] hape e amana le khatello ea maikutlo le ho senyeheloa ke kelello le ts'oaetso ea kelello, ho kenyelletsa ho khetholloa ka ho lakatsa, ho hloka matla, le ho senyeha ha sechaba le mosebetsi [Kraus et al., 2016]. Boithuto ba morao-rao bo tsepamisitse maikutlo ho utloisisa lintho tse ka tlas'a methapo ea kutlo ea neurobiological [Kraus et al. 2016] Le ha ho le thata ho boithuto bo sa lekanye kutlwisiso ea rona ea lisosa tsa monahano le hore na re ka li utloisisa joang mathata ana. CSB e hlalositsoe e le bothata ba taolo ea tšusumetso kapa tlhekefetso ea boitšoaro [Kraus et al., 2016]. Leha ho le joalo, leha mekhoa ea phepo ea hypersexual e ananetsoe DSM-5 mme ea netefatsoa tekong ea tšimo [Reid et al., 2012], bokuli bona hammoho le ts'ebeliso ea ts'ebetso ea marang-rang kapa lipapali tsa video, li ne li sa kenyellelitsoe karolong e ka sehloohong ea DSM-5, ka karolo e itseng ka lebaka la datha e lekantsoeng maemong. Kahoo, lithuto tse ling tsa CSB li hlokahala ho theha kutlwisiso ea mafu ana. Leha CSB e ka ba le mekhoa e mengata ea boits'oaro, mona re tsepamisa maikutlo ho sehlopha se tlalehang mathata a mangata ka tšebeliso e litšila ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Re sebelisitse poleloana ea CSB mohopolo oa hore "ho qobella" ho hlalosa phetoho e makatsang ebile ha e reretsoe ho fana ka maikutlo a mofuta ofe kapa ofe oa mohopolo.

Re ile ra etsa tlhahlobo ea lingoliloeng ka litheko tsa boits'ebetso re sebelisa li-voxel-based morphometry (VBM) kapa botenya ba cortical. Re sebelisitse mantsoe a latelang a patlo ho PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed): '[("Voxel-based morphometry" kapa "cortical thickness") le],' e lateloa ke "[pathological gambling]," "[internet addiction]," "[internet disorder]," "," kapa " [bokhoba ba lipapali]. ” Ka kakaretso, lithuto tsa 13 li fumanoe kahare ho litlolo tsa boitšoaro tse amanang le papali ea chelete, ts'ebeliso ea inthanete, kapa papali ea video e hlahlobang VBM kapa botenya ba cortical. Tekolo ea lingoliloeng e hlahisoa Lethathamong 1 mme e tšohloa ka tlase.

Tafole ea 1. Tekolo ea lingoliloeng tsa lithuto tsa volumetric le cortical botenya lithutong tsa boitšoaro

Title

Ho lemalla boitšoaro

Lihlooho (P / HV)

Hlakola

Melao ea ameha

  1. Selelekela: HV, baithaopi ba phetseng hantle; P, bakuli; r, ho lokile; l, ka ho le letšehali; bl, tse peli; GM, taba e putsoa; WM, taba e tšoeu; ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; CB, cerebellum; CG, cingrate gyrus; CN, motsoako oa caudate; DLPFC, dorsolateral preortal cortex; HIPP, hippocampus; IC, insort cortex; IFG, gyrus e ka tlase e tlase; IPC, portetal cortex e tlaase; ITG, gyrus ea nakoana ea nakoana; LING, lingual gyrus; LOFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex; MFC, cortex e bohareng e bohareng; MOFC, medial orbitofrontal cortex; MTG, gyrus ea nakoana ea nakoana; OFC, cortex ea orbitofrontal; PCC, posterior cingulate cortex; PCG, gyrus ea morao-rao; PCUN, precuneus; PrCG, gyrus ea pele-bohareng; PFC, cortex ea pele; PHG, gorus ea parahippocampal; RACC, rostral anterior cingrate cortex; RMFC, rostral e bohareng e ka pele ea cortex; SFC, mofuta o ka pele oa cortex; SMA, sebaka sa makoloi se tlatsetsang; SPC, portetal cortex e phahameng; VS, litla-morao tsa moea.
[Grant et al., 2015]Boloetse ba ho becha16 / 17Botebo bo boholoBolepi bo fokolisitsoeng ba cortical ho R-SFC, RMFC, MOFC, PCG le bl-IPC
[Joutsa et al., 2011]Papali ea papali ea chelete12 / 12Vocel-based morphometryHa ho na phapang ea volumetric ho GM kapa WM pakeng tsa HV le bakuli
[Koehler et al., 2013]Papali ea papali ea chelete20 / 21Vocel-based morphometryHo eketsa molumo oa GM ho bl-VS le r-PFC
[van Holst et al., 2012]Mathata a papali ea chelete40 / 54Vocel-based morphometryHa ho na phapang e ngata ea GM kapa WM lipakeng tsa papali ea chelete le HV
[Hong et al., 2013]Inthaneteng e lemalla15 / 15Botebo bo boholoFuru ea cortical e fokotsehile ho R-LOFC
[Yuan et al., 2011]Inthaneteng e lemalla18 / 18Vocel-based morphometryPhokotso ea bophahamo ba GM ho DLPFC, SMA, OFC, CB, RACC
[Zhou et al., 2011]Inthaneteng e lemalla15 / 18Vocel-based morphometryLe fokotsa letsoalo la GM ho l-ACC, PCC, IC, LING
[Lin et al., 2014]Tlatsetso ea lipapali tsa inthanete35 / 36Vocel-based morphometryMathata a fokotsehileng a GM a fokotsehile IFG, l-CG, IC, le r-HIPP                  

Le fokotsa letsoalo la WM ho IFG, IC, IPC, ACC

[Letsatsi et al., 2014]Tlatsetso ea lipapali tsa inthanete18 / 21Vocel-based morphometryHo eketsa molumo oa GM ho r-ITG, MTG, PHG                  

Phokotso ea GM e theohileng ka l-PrCG

[Wang et al., 2015]Bothata ba ho bapala Inthanete28 / 28Vocel-based morphometryBonyane molumo oa GM o theohile ho ACC, PCUN, SMA, SPC, le l-DLPFC, IC, CB
[Cai et al., 2015]Bothata ba ho bapala Inthanete27 / 30Bolelele ba subcortical, FreeSurferMaemo a eketsehang a CN le VS
[Weng et al., 2013]Papatso ea papali ea inthanete17 / 17Vocel-based morphometryBoholo bo theohile bophahamo ba GM ho r-OFC, SMA le bl-IC
[Yuan et al., 2013]Papatso ea papali ea inthanete18 / 18Botebo bo boholoHo eketseha ha boima ba cortical ho l-PrCG, PCUN, MFC, ITG, MTG                  

Bolepi bo fokotseng cortical ho l-LOFC, IC, r-PCG, IPC

Ho kena-kenana le ho kena-kenana ka marang-rang litlamong ho tsoa lithutong tsa mathata a tšebeliso ea lithethefatsi (SUD). Batho ka bomong ba nang le SUD ba bonts'a ho fokotseha ha palo ea boko ba cortical le botenya haholo libakeng tsa pele tsa cortical tse fanang ka taolo ea boitšoaro e fetolehang. Tlhatlhobo ea morao-rao ea lithuto tsa 9 le batho ba ts'ehetsoeng joala ba 296 ba fumane lintlha tse fokolisitsoeng haholo tsa li-printsal greyex (GM), ho kenyelletsa le anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) [Xiao et al., 2015], e nang le bophahamo ba kotloloho ea cortical GM e tsamaeang hampe le ts'ebeliso e mpe ea joala [Taki et al., 2006]. Likarolo tsa pele tsa GM li ile tsa fokotsoa ka mokhoa o ts'oanang ho batho ba itšetlehileng ka koae, ho kenyeletsoa ho orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) [Rando et al., 2013; Tanabe et al., 2009], cortex ea pele ho pele [Rando et al., 2013] le ACC [Connolly et al., 2013], ea morao-rao e amanang le lilemo tsa ts'ebeliso ea lithethefatsi [Connolly et al., 2013].

Phapang pakeng tsa lihlopha tsa li-cortical le boholo ba tsona ha li hlake haholo litekanyetsong tsa boitšoaro (tse hlahlojoang ho Lethathamo 1). Lithuto tse tharo tse nyane tsa bothateng ba papali ea chelete li bonts'itse liphetho tse sa lumellaneng le botenya ba cortical ka bongata libakeng tse tlang pele le tsa parietal [Grant et al., 2015], likhahla tse ngata holima pele cortex e nepahetseng ea pele [Koehler et al., 2013] kapa ha ho na phapang ea lihlopha [Joutsa et al., 2011]. Phuputsong e kholo ea barekisi ba thata ba bothateng, ha ho khethollo ea lihlopha e ileng ea bonoa likhatisong tsa boko [van Holst et al., 2012]. Phuputso e le 'ngoe e nyane mabapi le ts'ebeliso ea lithethefatsi tsa inthanete e bonts'a botenya bo tlase ba cortical ho OFC [Hong et al., 2013], e nang le lethathamo le leng la ho tlaleha ka tlase ho dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) [Yuan et al., 2011] le lithuto tse peli tse fanang ka maikutlo a ACC a tlase [Yuan et al., 2011; Zhou et al., 2011]. Lithuto tse peli tse nyane bothateng ba lipapali tsa inthanete tse tlalehiloeng li fokotsehile ho OFC [Weng et al., 2013; Yuan et al., 2013], 'me lithuto tse peli tse kholo li tlaleha boholo ba cingrate cortex [Lin et al., 2014;; Wang et al., 2015] ka lithuto tse le 'ngoe tse tlalehiloeng li fokotsehile ho DLPFC [Wang et al., 2015], leqephe le tlase [Lin et al., 2014], parietal e phahameng [Wang et al., 2015] le parietal e tlase [Yuan et al., 2013] cortices. Mabapi le meaho e meng e tlase, phuputso e le 'ngoe e nyane e tlalehile litheko tse phahameng tsa "ventro striatal" (VS) bothateng ba papali ea chelete [Koehler et al., 2013] e se nang liphapang tse tlalehiloeng lithutong tse ling. Mathateng a lipapali tsa inthanete, liphumano li ne li sa lumellane ka tsela e tšoanang le parahippocampal e kholoanyane [Sun et al., 2014], hippocampal e tlase [Lin et al., 2014] kapa ha ho na phapang [Wang et al., 2015; Weng et al., 2013]. Phuputso e le 'ngoe e nang le saese e bonolo ea sampole e shebaneng le livolume tsa subcortical tse tlalehiloeng ka boholo ba li-caudate le VS tse amanang le bofokoli ba taolo ea kelello [Cai et al. 2015]. Ha ho kopanngoa hammoho, liphumano tsa tlhekefetso ea cortical kapa subcortical bothateng ba papali ea chelete ea ho becha ha li lumellane haholo. Ho fapana le hoo, litlaleho tsa tlhekefetso ea cortical ts'ebeliso ea marang-rang kapa lipapali tsa marang-rang li tlaleha hangata li fokotsehile ka palo e fokotsehileng ea ACC le bonyane ba OFC lithutong tse peli.

Ho fihla joale, ho na le bopaki bo fokolang ba liphetoho tsa sebopeho tsa neural ho batho ba nang le CSB. Boithuto ba batho ba phetseng hantle ba nang le ts'ebeliso e feteletseng ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ntle le tlhahlobo ea CSB e bonts'a litheko tse tlase tsa GM ka har'a caudate e loketseng [Kühn le Gallinat, 2014]. Phuputso e nyane ea MRI ea batho ba nang le CSB (N = 8 ka sehlopha) e bontšitse phokotso e bolelang phokotso ea lipampitšana tse tšoeu tse ka pele tse tšoeu (WM) ha e bapisoa le HV [Miner et al., 2009]. Mabapi le ts'ebetso e sebetsang, HV ea banna e bonts'a mekhoa e ntlafalitsoeng ea bolulo ka ts'ebetso e tlase ea letsoho le letšehali BOLD ho litšoantšo tse tsosang takatso [Kühn le Gallinat, 2014] le ho fokotsa menyetla e hlakileng ea litšoantšo tse hlakileng [Prause et al., 2015]. Ho fapana le hoo, thutong ea fMRI e thehiloeng mosebetsing e bapisang CSB le HV, livideo tse hlakileng tsa thobalano li ile tsa hlahisa likarabo tse phahameng tsa VS, amygdala le dorsal ACC BOLD likarabo ho CSB [Voon et al., 2014]. Tšebelisano e sebetsang lipakeng tsa libaka tsena tse ikopantseng le index ea takatso ea thobalano kapa "ho batla" empa e seng "ho rata" lithutong tsa CSB tse fanang ka maikutlo a karolo ea tšusumetso ea ts'usumetso, ho bapisa lithethefatsi. Ka mokhoa o tšoanang, boithuto bo bong bo mabapi le ts'ebeliso ea lits'oants'o tsa bootsoa tsa inthanete, setšoantšo se ratoang sa thobalano se ne se amana le ts'ebetso e kholo ea litho tsa moea mme se ikamahanya feela le matšoao a ipolelang a temallo ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa inthaneteng eseng ka mehato e meng ea boitšoaro ba thobalano kapa khatello ea maikutlo [Brand et al., 2016]. Phuputso e 'ngoe ea morao-rao e boetse e bonts'a hore batho ba nang le bothata ba boitšoaro bo bobe ba ho kopanela liphate ba ile ba fumana khafetsa le ho ntlafatsa takatso ea thobalano nakong ea ho pepesetsoa takatso ea thobalano, le hore ts'ebetso e kholo e ile ea bonoa ho caudate, parietal lobe e tlase, dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, le DLPFC sehlopheng sena [Seok le Sohn, 2015]. Batho ba CSB ba tsoela pele ho bontša kameho e hlakileng ea pele ea thobalano e susumetsang ea thobalano [Mechelmans et al., 2014] e amanang le likhetho tsa khetho bakeng sa litekanyetso tse maemong a litšoantšo tsa thobalano [Banca et al., 2016]. Ha re arabela khafetsa ho pepesetsoa hoa litšoantšo tse litšila, lithuto tsa CSB li bonts'itse ho lula ho ACC ea dorsal liphellong tsa thobalano, tse amanang le likhetho tsa litšoantšo tsa lipale tsa thobalano tse ncha [Banca et al., 2016], phello e ka hlalosoang ke ho lula leha e le hofe empa e kanna ea tsamaellana le mohopolo oa mamello ho litlolo.

Boithuto ba hajoale bo hlahloba volumetric GM ho CSB le ho hlahloba lingoliloeng tsa hajoale ka lithuto tsa volumetric le cortical thickness bothateng ba papali ea chelete le inthaneteng le lits'ebeliso tsa ts'ebeliso ea lipapali. Re boetse re hlahloba boikhathollo ba ts'ebetso ba mmuso ba batho ba nang le CSB mme re tsamaisane le HV le tlhaiso-leseling e mengata ea li-echo tse ngata le tlhahlobo ea likarolo tse ikemetseng (ME-ICA) moo matšoao a BOLD a khetholloang e le likarolo tse ikemetseng tse nang le linear echo time (TE) -dependent change change athe matšoao ao e seng a BONNA a khetholloa e le likarolo tse ikemetseng tsa TE [Kundu et al., 2012]. Re lebelletse marang-rang a senyehileng a litsamaiso le litsamaiso tse amanang le moputso tse fanoang ke amygdala, VS le dorsal ACC.

METHODA

barupeluoa ba

Lithuto tsa CSB li ile tsa hapuoa ka lipapatso tse thehiloeng marang-rang le ho tsoa ho litsebi tsa bongaka. HV ea banna e neng e tšoane le ea lilemo li ile tsa hapuoa lipapatsong tse thehiloeng sechabeng sebakeng sa East Anglia. Lintlha tsohle tsa CSB li ile tsa botsoa ke ngaka ea mafu a kelello ho netefatsa hore li phethetse mekhoa ea tlhahlobo ea CSB (e kopane le litekanyetso tsa tlhahlobo ea mafu bakeng sa lefu la hypersexual [Kafka, 2010;; Reid et al., 2012] le ho lemalla ho kopanela liphate [Carnes et al., 2007], ho shebana le ts'ebeliso e qobelloang ea lisebelisoa tsa thobalano tse fumanehang marang-rang. Sena se ile sa hlahlojoa ho sebelisoa mofuta o fetotsoeng oa Arizona Sex Experience Scale (ASES) [Mcgahuey et al., 2011], moo lipotso li ileng tsa arajoa ka tekanyo ea 1-8, e nang le litekanyetso tse phahameng tse emelang ho holofala ho hoholo. Ka lebaka la hore na litlhaku tsa mofuta ona ke eng, lihlooho tsohle tsa CSB le HV li ne li le bashanyana ebile li kopanela liphate. Bohle ba HV ba ne ba lekana le lilemo (± 5) ba nang le lihlooho tsa CSB. Lihlooho li ile tsa boela tsa hlahlojoa hore li lumellane le tikoloho ea MRI joalokaha re entse nakong e fetileng [Banca et al., 2016;; Mechelmans et al., 2014;; Voon et al., 2014]. Mekhoa ea ho qoba ho kenyelletsoa e kenyeletsa ho ba tlas'a lilemo tsa 18, ho ba le histori ea SUD, ho ba motho ea tloaelehileng oa ho sebelisa lintho tse seng molaong (ho akarelletsa le kannabis), le ho ba le boloetse bo tebileng ba kelello, ho akarelletsa le ho tepella maikutlo ho tebileng ho tebileng kapa ho khathatseha ho feteletseng, kapa histori ea lefu la ho ferekana kelellong kapa schizophrenia (e hlahlobisitsoeng ho sebelisa Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory) [Sheehan et al., 1998]. Mekhoa e meng ea ho lemalla kapa ea boitšoaro e ne e boetse e le ea bohlokoa. Lihlooho li ile tsa hlahlojoa ke setsebi sa mafu a kelello mabapi le ho sebelisa lipapali tsa lipapali Inthaneteng kapa litabeng tsa sechaba, papali ea papali ea papali ea chelete kapa ho reka lintho tsa boikhathollo, bongoana kapa batho ba baholo ba hlokomolohang bothata ba ho kula, le ho tšoaroa ke lefu la ho itima lijo. Baithuti ba ile ba qeta PPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale [Whiteside le Lynam, 2001] ho hlahloba ho se tsotelle, le Beck Depression Inventory [Beck et al., 1961] ho hlahloba ho tepella maikutlong. Lihlooho tse peli tsa 23 CSB li ne li e-na le ho loantšana le mafu kapa li na le boloetse bo bakoang ke ho tšoenyeha ka ho tloaelehileng ha motho a le mong le boipheliso (N = 2) kapa phobia ea sechaba (N = 1) kapa nalane ea bongoana ea ADHD (N = 1). Ho ile ha fumanoa tumello e ngotsoeng e nang le tsebo, 'me thuto ea amoheloa ke Komiti ea Boitšoaro ea Patlisiso ea Univesithi ea Cambridge. Lihlooho li ne li lefelloa ka ho nka karolo ha tsona.

Ho se nahane

Ho fumana lintlha le ho sebetsa

Mokhabiso.

Litšoantšo tsa sebopeho li ile tsa bokelloa ho kenyelletsoa matla a felletseng a lokisitsoeng gradient-echo (MPRAGE) a sebelisa sesebelisoa sa Motorola Tim Trio 3T-se nang le lenane la lihlooho tsa 32-channel a sebelisa siling ea T1 e boima ba MPRAGE (176 sagittal scans, 9 skans metsotso; TR rep = 2,500 ms; echo time (TE) = 4.77 ms; inversion time = 1,100 ms; buy matrix = 256 × 256 × 176; flip angle = 7 °; size voxel 1 × 1 × 1 mm). Ho qala ho etsahetse ho The Wolfson Brain Imaging Center Univesithing ea Cambridge.

Lintlha tsa moralo li ile tsa sebetsoa ka Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8; http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm) (Setsi sa Wellcome Trust sa Neuroimaging, London, UK). Litšoantšo tsa Anatomical li ne li etselitsoe motho ka letsoho, li beha tšimolohong khomong ea kantle. Litšoantšo li ne li arotsoe karolo (ho sebelisoa karolo e ncha ea SPM) ho GM, WM le fluid fluid (CSF) ho latela limmapa tse ka etsahalang tsa mofuta o mong le o mong oa lithane. Likarolo tse tharo tsa sehlopha sa lisele li ile tsa bitsetsoa ho hlahisa palo e lekantsoeng ea intracranial. Ho ile ha etsoa template ea tloaelo u sebelisa DARTEL [Ashburner, 2007], e hlalosang mekhahlelo e hlokahalang ho lekanya setšoantšo sa motho ka mong sa GM sebakeng se le seng, ka mokhoa oa ho pheta-pheta. Template ena ea DARTEL e ile ea ngolisoa 'mapeng oa monyetla oa lisele tse nang le liphetoho tsa affine, ea tlisa litšoantšo sebakeng sa MNI. Litšoantšo li ntlafalitsoe ka bophara le bophara bo felletseng ka halofo ea kernel ea 8 mm3.

Sebaka sa phomolo.

Lintlha tsa phomolo tsa fMRI tsa mmuso li ile tsa fumanoa bakeng sa metsotso ea 10 ka mahlo a bulehileng ka sehatisi sa Motorola 3T Tim Trio se nang le coil ea hlooho ea 32-Channel ho Wolfson Brain Imaging Center, Univesithing ea Cambridge. Mokhoa o kopantsoeng oa li-echo echo planar imaging o ile oa sebelisoa ka ho nchafatsoa ka marang-rang (nako ea ho pheta-pheta, 2.47 s; Flip angle, 78 °; matrix size 64 × 64; resolution in-plane, 3.75 mm; FOV, 240 mm; 32 oblique llices, alternating bophara ba lisebelisoa tsa "slice"

Tlhahlobo ea karolo e ikemetseng ea likarolo (ME-ICAv2.5 beta6; http://afni.nimh.nih.gov) e sebelisitsoe bakeng sa ho hlahlobisisa le ho hlakola data ea fMRI ea maemo a mangata a phomolo. ME-ICA e bolaya data ea ecM fMRI ea likarolo tse ngata e le likarolo tse ikemetseng le FastICA. Phetho ea pontšo ea BOLD ea liperesente e itšetlehileng ka tatellano ho TE, tšobotsi ea ho bola ea T2 *. Ho itšetleha ka TE hona ho lekantsoe ho sebelisoa sebopeho sa lerato.F-statistic, kappa, e nang le likarolo tse sekhahla haholo ka TE tse nang le lintlha tse phahameng tsa kappa [Kundu et al., 2012]. Likarolo tse senang BONSE li khetholloa ke boipuso ba TE bo lekantsoeng ke pseudo-F.natat, rho. Li-complication li arotsoe joalo ka BOLD kapa eseng-BOLD ho latela boleng ba bona ba kappa le boleng ba rho, ka ho latellana [Kundu et al., 2012]. Lintho tse seng tsa BOLD li tlosoa ka projeke, tlhaiso-leseling e tsamaeang le li-artifact tsa 'mele le skena ka mokhoa o matla o ipapisitse le melaoana ea' mele. Litšoantšo tsa moralo o mong le o mong oa de-noised echo planar li ne li ngolisitsoe ho MPRAGE ea tsona mme li hlophisitsoe ka mokhoa o tloaelehileng ho template ea Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI). Ho boreleli ha sebaka ho ne ho etsoa ka kernel ea Gaussian (bophara bo felletseng halofo e phahameng = 6 mm). Nako ea voxel ka 'ngoe e ne e tlhotliloeng ka nakoana (0.008 f <0.09 Hz). Sekena sa motho ka mong sa anatomical se ile sa aroloa ho GM, WM le CSF. Likarolo tsa bohlokoa tsa matšoao a tsoang ho WM le CSF li ile tsa tlosoa.

Tlhahlobo ea ts'ebetso ea ho hokahanya e sebetsang e entsoe ho sebelisoa tikoloho ea lithahasello (ROI) -driven mokhoa oa lebokose la lisebelisoa la CONN-fMRI Functional Connecaction [Whitfield-Gabrieli le Nieto-Castanon, 2012bakeng sa SPM (http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/software/spm8/).

Tlhahlobo ea Litekanyetso

Litšobotsi tsa lihlooho le lintlha tsa lipotso li ile tsa bapisoa lipakeng tsa lihlopha tse nang le mehatla e 'meli tLiteko ntle le ho nka phapang e lekanang. Litlhahlobo tsohle tsa lipalo li entsoe ho sebelisoa mofuta oa R (3.2.0) [Sehlopha sa RC, 2014].

Mehaho

Bakeng sa papiso ea sehlopha, li-volum tsa GM tsa lithuto tsa CSB le HV li kentsoe ka har'a mofuta o akaretsang oa linear (GLM). Lintlha li ile tsa lokisoa bakeng sa molumo oa litho tsa sehlopha o sa sebetseng ka ho lekanya ka mokhoa o lekanang le mask o hlakileng ho SPM. Papiso ea sehlopha e ile ea fetoloa bakeng sa lilemo tse peli le maemo a khatello ea maikutlo joalo ka li-covariate. Re tsepamisitse maikutlo ho a priori libaka tse khahlisang tse khahliloeng tse fumanoeng thutong ea rona e fetileng [Voon et al., 2014] le litlhahlobisong tsa meta tsa lithuto tsa ho boela molemong oa lithethefatsi [Kühn le Gallinat, 2011], e leng VS ea ho le letšehali le ka ho le letona, amygdala ea leqele le le letona, le dorsal ACC e sebelisang molumo o fokolang o ntlafalitsoeng (SVC) o hlophisitsoeng ka bohlale ka malapeng (FWE) P <0.01 (Bonferroni e lokisitsoe bakeng sa papiso e mengata). Bakeng sa litlhahlobo tsena tsa SVC, re sebelisitse VS anatomical ROI, e neng e hlalositsoe pejana [Murray et al., 2008] e ileng ea ts'oaroa ka letsoho e sebelisa MRIcro ho latela tlhaloso ea VS ke Martinez et al. [2003]. Amygdala ROI e fumanoe ho sephutheloana sa automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL). Dorsal ACC e ile ea fetoloa ka letsoho e sebelisa lisebelisoa tsa lisebelisoa tsa MarsBaR ROI [Brett et al., 2002] hape e ipapisitse le cingrate cortex ROI e tsoang ho atlas ea AAL. E ile ea fetoloa hore moeli oa ka ntle e ne e le ntlha ea genu ea corpus callosum [Cox et al., 2014; Desikan et al., 2006] mme bokapele e ne e le pheletso e kamorao ea genu ea corpus callosum [Desikan et al., 2006]. Ho ile ha etsoa tlhahlobo e eketsehileng ea tlhaiso ea lintlha tsa BDI.

Sebaka sa phomolo

Ho bapisa khokahano lipakeng tsa lithuto tsa CSB le HV, limmapa tsa ROI-to-voxel tsa khokahano ea bokong kaofela li ile tsa etsetsoa sebaka sa peo ea amygdala ea peo e khahlisang e ipapisitseng le liphetho tsa phapang ea sehlopha. Limmapa tsa khokahano tse hlahisitsoeng li kentsoe ho li-GLM tse felletseng ho bapisa khokahano ea boko bo felletseng lipakeng tsa lihlopha tse ikamahanyang le lilemo le tlhahlobo e latelang ea tlhahlobo ea lilemo le khatello ea maikutlo. Sehlopha sohle sa boko se ile sa lokisa FWE P <0.05 e ne e nkuoa e le bohlokoa bakeng sa liphapang tsa sehlopha.

LIPOTSO

litsobotsi

Banna ba mashome a mabeli a metso e meraro ba nang le monna oa CSB (a lilemo tsa 26.9; lilemo tsa SD 6.22) le 69 ea lilemo li (lilemo tsa 25.6; lilemo tsa SD 6.55) monna oa monna oa monna ea neng a nkile karolo ho ithuteng (Lethathamo 2), eo lithuto tsa 19 CSB le 55 HV li tlatsitseng lipotso tsa boits'oaro. Lihlooho tsa CSB li ne li na le BDI e phahameng (P = 0.006) le UPPS-P (P <0.001) lipalo ha li bapisoa le HV. Likarolo tse ling tsa boitšoaro tse kenyeletsang mohlala le ho tiea ha litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro le ts'ebeliso ea inthanete li tlalehiloe libakeng tse ling [Mechelmans et al., 2014;; Voon et al., 2014].

Tafole ea 2. Boitsebiso ba palo ea batho le boits'oaro bakeng sa litaba tse qobelloang tsa thobalano le baithaopi ba phetseng hantle

Group

Age

BDI

UPPS-P

  1. Litlaleho mabapi le ho kheloha ho tloaelehileng le PLitekanyetso tsa mefuta e 'meli tLiteko li ka har'a mabili.
  2. a

Barupeluoa ba 4 ba lahlehileng ka ntle ho 23.

  1. b

Barupeluoa ba 14 ba lahlehileng ka ntle ho 69.

  1. Palo ea BDI ea 0-13 e bonts'a khatello e fokolang ea maikutlo, khatello ea maikutlo ea 14-19, khatello ea maikutlo e tebileng ea 20-28, le khatello ea maikutlo e tebileng ea 29-63.
  2. Lipalo tsa UPPS-P li pakeng tsa 59 le 236 joalo ka mehato ea ho susumetsoa (59 = ha ho na letho le potlakileng; 236 = e sa ts'oaneng haholo) e baloa ho tsoa linthong tsa 59, e 'ngoe le e' ngoe e lekantsoe pakeng tsa 1 le 4 mme e emela likarolo tse fapaneng tsa ho qobelloa.
  3. Likhetho: HV, baithaopi ba phetseng hantle; CSB, boitšoaro bo qobelloang ba thobalano; BDI, Beck's Depression Inventory; UPPS-P, UPPS-P Sekhahla sa Boitšoaro bo Ts'oarellang.
CSB (N = 23)26.9 (6.22)14.82 (11.85)a152.21 (16.50)a
HV (N = 69)25.6 (6.55)6.03 (7.20)b124.87 (20.73)b
T-valueP-sotho)0.88 (P = 0.380)3.04 (P = 0.006)5.81 (P <0.001)

Mehaho

Hlahloba ea ROI ea li-amygdala tse ka ho le letšehali le ka ho le letona, le letšehali le le letona le li-ACC e senotse hore molumo oa litaba oa lehlohlo le letšehali o eketsehile ho CSB ha o bapisoa le oa HV (SVC FWE-e lokisitsoeng, P = 0.0096, Z = 3.37, xyz = -28, −4, -15) (Bonferroni e lokisitsoe bakeng sa SVC FWE-e lokisitsoe P <0.01) (sa feiga. 1). Litlhahlobo tse ling tsohle tsa ROI li ne li se bohlokoa. Ho fetolela khatello ea maikutlo ho ne ho sa fetole liphetho tsa sehlopha.

Setšoantšo sa 1.

Setšoantšo sa 1.

Morphometry e thehiloeng ho Voxel ka boits'oaro bo matla ba thobalano. Bophahamo bo boholo ba lehloa le letšehali la amygdala le bontšoa ka boitšoaro bo qobelloang ba ho kopanela liphate bo amanang le baithaopi ba phetseng hantle. Setšoantšo se thibetsoe ho P <0.005 e sa nepahala bakeng sa papiso. [Setšoantšo sa 'mala se ka bonoa ho wileyonlinelibrary.com]

Naha e phomolang

Ho latela sephetho sa sebopeho, re ile ra hlahloba boikhathollo ba ts'ebetso ea mmuso le peo ho amygdala e setseng. Re fumane khokahano e theotsoeng le DLPFC e kopaneng (Right DLPFC: P = 0.012, Z = 4.11, xyz = 31 42 16; DLPFC ea leqele: P = 0.003, Z = 3.96, xyz = -27 52 23) (Setšoantšo sa feiga. 2). Ho fetolela BDI ha hoa ka ha fetola bohlokoa ba liphetho (Right DLPFC: P = 0.001, Z = 4.54, xyz = 31 61 23; DLPFC ea leqele: P = 0.003, Z = 4.26, xyz = 29 49).

Setšoantšo sa 2.

Setšoantšo sa 2.

Ho khutlisetsa khokahano ea tšebetsong ea naha ea amygdala e setseng. Boitšoaro bo qobelloang ba thobalano bo amahanngoa le ho hokahanngoa hoa boemo ba tšebetso ba mmuso oa amygdala (peō, ka ho le letšehali) le li-dorsolateral pre mbeleal cortex (bohareng le ba ka lehlakoreng le letona), tse amanang le baithaopi ba phetseng hantle. Setšoantšo se thibetsoe ho P <0.005 e sa nepahala bakeng sa papiso. [Setšoantšo sa 'mala se ka bonoa ho wileyonlinelibrary.com]

TŠOHLOA

Re fuputse liphapang tsa neural le sebopeho ka har'a batho ba nang le CSB ha re bapisoa le HV e lumellanang. Lithuto tsa CSB li ne li eketsehile bophahamo ba li-amygdala le ho fokotsa khokahanyo ea tšebetso nakong ea ho phomola pakeng tsa amygdala le DLPFC ea letsoho le letšehali.

Amygdala e ameha ts'ebetsong ea masapo ea tikoloho e tataisang boitšoaro. Nete ​​ea amygdala e hokahanya nakong e fetileng e sa nke lehlakore tikoloho kapa tšusumetso ea kahare le boemeli bo kopanyang ba boleng bo amohelehang, bo jala boikaketsi bo susumetsang ba cue-susumetsang bo susumetsang [Everitt et al., 2003], le ts'ebetso ea taolo ea maikutlo [Cardinal et al., 2002; Gottfried et al., 2003]. Ho fumanoa ha bophahamo ba modumo oa amygdala ho hanana le lithuto tse 'maloa mabapi le mathata a tšebeliso ea joala [Makris et al., 2008; Hlakola et al., 2008], ha liphuputso ho pholletsa le mofuta ona oa tlaleho ea tlatsetso li fokotsehile palo ea li-amygdala, moo ho fumanoeng mehato ea volumetric. Tlhaloso e ka bang teng mabapi le phapang ena ke hore tšebeliso ea lithethefatsi ea nako e telele e baka phetoho ea neuroplastic ea nako e telele le bokhopo [Kovacic, 2005; Reissner le Kalivas, 2010] e ka bakang tiisetso ea boitšoaro bo batlang lithethefatsi [Gass le Olive, 2008]. Ka sebele, neurotoxicity e joalo e ka tlatsetsa ho atrophy e pharalletseng e bonoang ke bokhoba ba lithethefatsi [Bartzokis et al., 2000; Carlen et al., 1978; Mechtcheriakov et al., 2007]. Ho joalo ka neurotoxicity e amanang le lithethefatsi e ka ba bothata bo tebileng ho SUD empa e le taba e fokolang litabeng tsa bokhoba ba boitšoaro. Phuputsong ea morao-rao ea CSB e sebelisang fMRI, ho pepesetsoa likotsi tsa thobalano ho CSB ha ho bapisoa le lithuto tseo e seng tsa CSB ho ne ho amana le ts'ebetso ea amygdala [Voon et al., 2014]. Hore na phapang ea bophahamo ba modumo oa amygdala ke tšobotsi e teng pele bathong ba CSB kapa e amanang le ho pepeseha ho feteletseng e sa ntse e lokela ho theoa.

Ts'ebetso ea DLPFC e tsejoa haholo hore e amana le likarolo tse pharaletseng tsa taolo ea kelello [MacDonald et al., 2000& memori ea ho sebetsa [Petrides, 2000]. Ho fumana ha rona tumellano e fokotsehileng pakeng tsa amygdala le DLPFC hoa fetoha le lingoliloeng tse teng mabapi le khokahano libakeng tsena. Khokahano ena e sebetsang e bohlokoa bakeng sa taolo ea maikutlo, e kileng ea tlalehoa nakong e fetileng hore khokahano e fokotsang pakeng tsa amygdala le DLPFC ho batho ba nang le bothata ba lipapali tsa marang-rang bo amahanngoa le maemo a phahameng a ho hloka matla [Ko et al., 2015]. Phuputso e 'ngoe e lekanyang bokhoni ba ho fetola likarabo tse mpe tsa maikutlo ka ts'ebeliso ea maano a kelello e bonts'itse ts'ebetso libakeng tse ikhethang tsa cortex ea pele, ho kenyeletsoa DLPFC, e sebetsanang le mosebetsi oa amygdala, le hore kgokahanyo e sebetsang lipakeng tsa libaka tsena e ne e its'etleha ka ho sebelisa maano a ho lemoha ho taolo ea maikutlo a fosahetseng [Banks et al., 2007]. Khokahano ea Amygdala le DLPFC ka mokhoa o ts'oanang li amahanngoa le khatello ea maikutlo e sa ratoang [Siegle et al., 2007]. CSB e amahantsoe le matšoao a sithabetsang le matšoenyeho mme khatello ea maikutlo e ka baka mesebetsi e joalo; leha ho le joalo, seo re se fumaneng se ne se sa tsamaisane le lintlha tsa khatello ea maikutlo. DLPFC e boetse ea ameha thutong ea HV ea banna moo ts'ebeliso e mpe ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e amanang le ts'ebetso e tlase pakeng tsa DLPFC le striatum ha ba sheba litšoantšo tse hlakileng [Kühn le Gallinat, 2014].

Re hlokomelisa hore liphumano tsena ke tsa pele tse fuoeng sampole e nyane ea lithuto tsa CSB leha ho le joalo re bapisa sehlopha sena le boholo bo boholo ba sampole ea HV. Ntho e 'ngoe e ka re thusang ho ithuta ke hore batho ba bangata haholo. Kaha ha re kenyelelitse litaba tse nang le mafu a kelello a kelello a ka 'nang a bapala karolo ea bohlasoa, liphetho tsena li lokela ho eketsoa ka hloko ho lithuto tsa CSB ka li-comorbidities tse ling. Ntle le moo, tlhekefetso e bonts'itsoeng ea ts'ebetso le e sebetsang har'a lithuto tsa CSB e kanna ea amana le litšobotsi tsa pele kapa e ka ba sephetho sa litlamorao tsa CSB, mme ka lebaka leo thuto ena e ke ke ea etsa infusions mabapi le litlamorao tsa CSB. Lithuto tsa nako e tlang li lokela ho nka sepheo sa ho lekola mehato ea nako e telele ho bona phapang lipakeng tsa maemo le mekhoa ea boits'oaro le litla-morao tsa pele tsa boitšoaro bo bobe bo ka pele ho mehlala e meholo le sampole le banna ba kopaneng.

Liphumano tsa rona tsa hajoale li totobatsa likarolo tse phahameng seterekeng se sebetsanang le boiketlo ba boiketlo le khokahano e tlase ea mmuso ea marang-rang a taolo ea taolo ea taolo ea pele. Ho sitisoa ha marang-rang a joalo ho ka 'na ha hlalosa mekhoa e tloahelehileng ea boits'oaro ho moputso o ikhethang oa tikoloho kapa ho ntlafatsa mesebetsi e metle ho lithahasello tse ikhethileng. Le ha lipatlisiso tsa rona tsa volumetric li fapane le tsa SUD, liphumano tsena li ka bonts'a phapang e le ts'ebetso ea litlamorao tsa neurooxic tsa ho pepeseha hoa lithethefatsi tse sa feleng. Bopaki bo hlahang bo fana ka maikutlo a mangata a ka ekehang ka ts'ebetso ea bokhoba ba ts'ehetsang likhopolo tsa ts'usumetso e matla haholo. Re bonts'itse hore ts'ebetso marang-rang ana a marang-rang e ntlafatsoa kamora ho pepesetsoa litheko tse ikhethileng tsa thobalano [Brand et al., 2016;; Seok le Sohn, 2015;; Voon et al., 2014] hammoho le ho ba le mekhoa e metle ea ho ela hloko [Mechelmans et al., 2014] 'me u lakatse ka ho khetheha ka thobalano empa e se takatso ea ho kopanela liphate ka botlalo [Brand et al., 2016;; Voon et al., 2014]. Tlhokomelo e ntlafetseng litabeng tsa ho kopanela liphate e amahanngoa haholo le khetho ea liketso tsa thobalano, e leng se tiisang kamano pakeng tsa boemo ba ho kopanela liphate le ho ba le boiketlo [Banca et al., 2016]. Liphuputso tsena tsa mosebetsi o ntlafetseng tse amanang le likamano tsa ho kopanela liphate li fapane le tsa phello (kapa ts'ebetso e sa lumellaneng) eo ho eona mokhoa o ntlafetseng, mohlomong o lumellanang le khopolo ea ho mamella, ho eketsa khetho ea likhang tsa thobalano [Banca et al., 2016]. Hammoho tsena li fumanoa li thusa ho utloisisa hore na ho na le phekolo ea mofuta ofe ea motheo ea boloetse ba boloetse ba kokoana-hloko ea CSB e lebisang kutloisisong e kholo ea boloetse le ho tsebahatsa mekhoa ea phekolo ea meriana.

LINTLHA TSA LITLHAHO

Re rata ho leboha basebeletsi ba WBIC ka boiphihlelo ba bona le thuso ea bona ea ho bokella lintlha tsa monahano, le barupeluoa ba rona ka nako le boitlamo ba bona. Hape, re ka rata ho leboha Thaddeus Birchard le Paula Hall bakeng sa ho fetisetsa bakuli bakeng sa thuto ena. Institute of Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute (BCNI) e tšehetsoa ke Lekhotla la Wellcome Trust le Medical Research Council.

LITLHAHISO