Ho laola ka mokhoa o fetelletseng Phuputsong ea Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa: E tlohele, e E tlohele… (2021) ea Paul J. Wright

Wright, PJ Khokahano ea ho kopanela liphate Behav 50, EA-387-392 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-020-01902-9

“E tlohele, e tlohele

Ha e sa khona ho e thibela

E tlohele, e tlohele

Furalla o roba lemati ”(Elsa - Disney's hoammeng)

Bohlale ba boikhothaletso ba Elsa ba ho tlohella boiteko ba hae ba ho laola haholo bo ile ba nkhahla e le thuto ea bohlokoa bophelong ha ke ne ke qala ho e shebella hoammeng le banab'eso. Ke ts'epa morali oa ka e monyane (ea fetang selemo feela, mme ke mo mamela ka lekhetlo la pele hoammeng lipina bekeng ena) le tsona li ka ithuta molao-motheo oa bohlokoa oa ho tlohela.

Kohut, Landripet, le Stulhofer's (2020) sengoloa sa morao-rao mabapi le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le tlhekefetso ea thobalano se nkhopotse hore ke batla ho fana ka maikutlo a tšoanang ho bafuputsi-'moho le 'na ba bang ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro bonyane lilemo tse' maloa joale mabapi le ts'ebeliso ea mefuta ea "taolo" (S. Perry, puisano ka seqo, Phuptjane 26, 2018). Haholo-holo, sepheo sa lengolo lena ke ho khothaletsa basebetsi-'moho le nna ho "tlohella" le "ho koala lemati" mokhoeng o atileng oa ho phekola mefuta ea boraro liphellong tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (ke hore, mohopolo o moholo oa likhakanyo tsa boraro e le likhohlano tse ka bang teng, ho fapana le ho ba bahlahlobi, babuelli, kapa batsamaisi).

Ke hlahisa mathata a 'maloa ka mokhoa oa hajoale. Ke qosa mosebetsi oa ka e le papiso e ikhethileng, ho fapana le ho qolla mabitso a ba bang ka mabitso, kaha le nna ke bile le molato oa taolo e fetang tekano. Hobane ke motsoalle, 'moho le' na Kinsey Institute, 'me ke sebelisana le Stulhofer (Milas, Wright, & Stulhofer, 2020; Wright & Stulhofer, 2019), le hobane sengoloa sa hae e bile sona sepheo sa hoqetela se ileng sa susumetsa lengolo lena, ke boetse ke sebelisa Kohut et al . (2020) joalo ka mohlala o ikhethang oa ho hlakisa lintlha tsa ka. Morero oa ka ke ho khothaletsa mekhoa ea ho etsa lipatlisiso e tla nolofalletsa kutloisiso ea rona ea litlamorao tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​eseng ho iphemela kapa ho hlohlelletsa. Ke lumela hore sena se finyelloa hamolemo ka ho itlhahloba ka mokhoa o hahang ka bo uena le metsoalle ea hau, ho fapana le ba bang ba sa tsejoeng.

Mokhoa oa hajoale le Mathata a ona

Litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ke lipatlisiso tsa litlamorao tsa mecha ea litaba, moo bo-rasaense ba kahisano ba sebelisa mekhoa e mengata ho fuputsa tšusumetso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa litumelong tsa bona, boikutlong le boits'oarong ba bona (Wright, 2020a). Ke tla ba thata ho khothaletsa mokhoa o sebetsang haholoanyane oa ho felloa ke matla (le ka ho khathala, ka kutloisiso ea 'mele le ea kelello) ke tloaelane le sehlopha sa lipatlisiso ho feta ho etsa litlhahlobo tse phetoang khafetsa (mohlala, Wright, 2019, 2020a; Wright & Bae, 2016) le litlhahlobo tsa meta (mohlala, Wright & Tokunaga, 2018; Wright, Tokunaga, & Kraus, 2016; Wright, Tokunaga, Kraus, & Klann, 2017). Ka li-syntheses tse joalo tsa lingoliloeng, ke hlokometse hore (1) boholo ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa bo etsa lipatlisiso ho tloha lilemong tsa bo-1990 ho ea pele ho 'nile ha etsoa ka mekhoa ea lipatlisiso' me (2) mokhoa o hlahelletseng oa tlhahlobo ea sehlopha sena sa lipatlisiso ke ho botsa hore na litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li sebelisa (X) e ntse e amana le tumelo e itseng, maikutlo kapa boitšoaro (Ykamora ho etsa lipalo-palo bakeng sa lethathamo le ntseng le eketseha le ho feta la "taolo" ea mefuta (Zboitsebiso bo fetisisang).

Mehlala ke ena feela ea mefuta-futa eo bafuputsi ba boneng e hlokahala ho e kenyelletsa e le taolo: boiphihlelo ba thobalano, boemo ba bohlankana, lilemo, boemo ba kamano, maikutlo a thobalano, bong, thuto, maemo a moruo, morabe, maikutlo a litemana tsa bolumeli, kamano ea maikutlo le mohlokomeli , ho pepesehela pefo ea molekane, tšebeliso ea lithethefatsi, boemo ba lenyalo, ho ba le kamano lipolotiking, ho sebetsa lihora tse ngata ka beke, boemo ba lenyalo la batsoali, ho kopanela liphate, khethollo ea morabe, ho se tsotelle sechaba, matšoao a khatello ea maikutlo, matšoao a PTSD, khotsofalo ea kamano, kamano ea lithaka, puo ea thobalano le lithaka, ho ikamahanya le batsoali, ho shebella thelevishene, taolo ea batsoali, boiphihlelo ba thobalano ba lithaka, ho batla maikutlo, ho batla thobalano, khotsofalo ea bophelo, semelo sa lelapa, boitšepo ba thobalano, boits'oaro ba thobalano, maikutlo mabapi le khatello ea thobalano, lilemo tsa metsoalle, kopanelo ea sechaba Ts'ebeliso ea inthanete, ho shebella video ea 'mino, kamano ea bolumeli, bolelele ba kamano, semelo sa bajaki, ba lulang ka har'a cit e kholo y, mosebetsi oa botsoali, ho tsuba, nalane ea bosholu, ho kena sekolo, ho ba le mathata sekolong, lilemo tsa ho qala ho etsa thobalano, ho ratana, ho bua leshano, ho qhekella litekong, ho bapisa sechabeng, sebaka sa bolulo, makhetlo a ho ipholla litho tsa botona kapa botšehali, ho ba teng litšebeletsong tsa bolumeli, thobalano khotsofalo, khotsofalo ka ho etsa liqeto, palo ea bana, ba kileng ba hlalana, boemo ba mosebetsi, palo ea metsoalle ea bolumeli, makhetlo a thobalano bekeng e fetileng, le ho ngolisoa sekolong sa kamora sekolo.

Hape-ena ke mehlala e 'maloa feela.

Maikutlo (a makatsang) a ipapisang le mokhoa oa hajoale ke hore litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e kanna ea se be mohloli oa tšusumetso ea sechaba; ho fapana, ho fetoha ha boraro ho ka baka hore batho ka bobeli ba je litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro le ho hlahisa / ho kenella tumelong, boikutlong kapa boits'oarong boo ho buuoang ka bona. Bangoli ba fokolang, leha ho le joalo, ba supa ka ho hlaka hore na mofuta o mong le o mong oo ba o khethileng e le taolo o ka baka ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa joang le sephetho se ithutoang. Ka linako tse ling, ho etsoa polelo e akaretsang (ka linako tse ling e qotsitsoe, ka linako tse ling e se na) hore lipatlisiso tsa pejana li supile mefuta-futa e le pherekano e ka bang teng ke ka hona e kenyellelitsoeng. Ka linako tse ling, ha ho hlalosoe ntle le ho thathamisa mefuta e fapaneng ea taolo. Ho thata haholo ho fumana lithuto tse khethollang mohopolo o itseng oa thuto e le ho ts'ehetsa khetho ea taolo (ho feta ntlheng ena hamorao). Ke ntho e sa tloaelehang ho fumana thuto e lumellanang le hore na hobaneng mefuta e ile ea etsisoa joalo ka litsamaiso ho fapana le tse tlang pele, babuelli kapa batsamaisi (ha ke kholoe hore nkile ka bona sena).

Joalokaha ke ts'episitse, kea ipolela hore le nna ke kentse betere ea taolo e se nang mabaka lithutong tse 'maloa. Joaloka mohlala o le mong, ho Wright and Funk (2014), ke kentse mefuta e supileng ea taolo e se nang lebaka le fetang la polelo ea hore "lipatlisiso tsa pele" li bonts'a "bohlokoa ba ho li laola" (leq. 211). E le mohlala o mong, ho Tokunaga, Wright, and McKinley (2015) Ke kentse mefuta e 10 ea taolo ka lebaka le le leng feela la hore e ne e le "lintho tse ka ferekanyang" tse hlahisitsoeng "lipatlisisong tse fetileng" (leq. 581). Ha ke itšireletsa, bonyane ke ile ka qotsa "lipatlisiso tsa pele / tse fetileng" tse neng li khothalelitse mefuta ena…

Ka kakaretso, ha litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li baka tšebetso ea lipatlisiso, ho latela maikutlo a ka, ho kenyelletsoa ha litsamaiso ke lintho tse fapaneng, tse sa lumellaneng, tse sa lumeleng boteng ba Molimo le tse fetotsoeng. Khopolo-taba ea ka e kholo ke hore bafuputsi ba kenyelletsa taolo hobane bafuputsi ba pele ba na le tumelo ea hore bahlophisi kapa bahlahlobi ba tla e lebella (Bernerth & Aguinis, 2016), kapa hobane ba oetse "leano la litoropo" la hore "likamano le mefuta e fapaneng ea taolo li haufi le 'nete ho feta ntle le taolo ea mefuta "(Spector & Brannick, 2011, leq. 296). Kea tseba hore pejana mosebetsing oa ka, e 'ngoe le e' ngoe ea tsona e ne e sebetsa ho nna.

Mathata a "ntho e ngoe le e ngoe ntle le teba ea kichine" ho laola ho kenyelletsoa ho fapaneng (Becker, 2005, leq. 285) a mangata. Empa tse peli tse amanang haholo le tsela eo taolo e sebelisoang ka eona litlamorao tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ke:

  1. Monyetla oa phoso ea Mofuta oa II o ntse o eketseha ka lebaka la phapano ea 'nete e arotsoeng ho tsoa litšoantšong tsa bootsoa - sephetho sa khokahano (Becker, 2005). Becker o boetse a hlokomela hore liphoso tsa Mofuta oa I li ka eketseha haeba litsamaiso li amahanngoa le se boletsoeng esale pele eseng moelelo. Leha ho le joalo, ha ke tsebe sena e le bothata litšoantšong tsa bootsoa. Potso e lula e le hore na lipalopalo tsa bohlokoa tsa bootsoa-liphetho tsa bivariate li hokahana kamora ho li laola Zpapatso infinitum.
  2. Monyetla oa ho lahleha ka botlalo le / kapa ho se utloisise "litlamorao-tsa litlamorao" litlamong tsa bootsoa- sephetho se eketseha ka mokhoa o makatsang (Campbell & Kohut, 2017, leq. 8). Khatelo-pele ea tsebo ha e emisoe feela empa e foufatsoa nako le nako ha phapang e boleloa ka mokhoa o fosahetseng ka "ho ferekanya" ha mofuta oa boraro, ha e le hantle, e le sebui, mokena-lipakeng, kapa mookameli tsamaisong ea litlamorao tsa bonono (Spector & Brannick, 2011). Ke lebaka le leng leo ka lona Meehl (1971) a ileng a supa mokhoa oa hajoale oa ho feto-fetoha ha maemo a boraro litlamong tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa (ke hore, tse etselitsoeng taolo ka mokhoa o makatsang e le lits'oants'o, eseng tse tlang pele, babuelli, kapa batsamaisi) joalo ka "motlatsi oa mokhoa" o lebisang ho "haholo" likhopolo tse fosahetseng ”(leq. 147).

Ka linako tse ling mathata ana a ka kopana. Mohlala, haeba seo ha e le hantle mokena-lipakeng se etsisoang e le taolo, ho se utloisisane ho ntseng ho etsahala hoa eketseha joalo ka monyetla oa phoso ea Mofuta oa II mabapi le litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tse seng li sa khonehe.

Bolumeli le ho batla maikutlo ke mehlala ea mantlha. Mefuta ena e nkuoa habobebe e le pherekano e ka bang teng e tlamehang ho "laoloa" athe haele hantle ho na le bopaki ba hore ke karolo ea ts'ebetso ea litlamorao tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Perry (2017, 2019; bona hape Perry & Hayward, 2017) o fumane lithutong tse 'maloa tsa bolelele ba nako ho latela mehlala e fapaneng eo litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li bonang esale pele li fokotseha bolumeling ba bacha le batho ba baholo. Kahoo, ho fapana le tumelo e ferekanyang likamano lipakeng tsa, ka mohlala, litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li sebelisa le maikutlo a boithabiso mabapi le thobalano (mohlala, Peter & Valkenburg, 2006), e kanna ea ba mokena-lipakeng (litšoantšo tsa bootsoa → e fokotseha bolumeling → maikutlo a matle mabapi le thobalano ea boithabiso).

Ho batla maikutlo ho boetse ho nahanoa e le tšobotsi e sa fetoheng e neng e ka ferekanya feela litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro. Tlaleho e nkiloeng habobebe ke hore ho batla maikutlo ho ka ama ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le (kenya sephetho sa kotsi ea thobalano mona) mme ka hona ea ba pherekano, empa e ke ke ea angoa ke ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Tlaleho ea boqapi e fana ka maikutlo a fapaneng, leha ho le joalo. Sebakeng sa mecha ea phatlalatso ea thobalano ka kakaretso, Stoolmiller, Gerrard, Sargent, Worth, le Gibbons (2010) ba fumanoe liphuputsong tsa bona tsa maqhubu a mane, tse ngata tsa nako e telele tsa bacha bao R-rated ho shebella baesekopo ho ileng ha bolela esale pele ho batla maikutlo, ha pejana maikutlo a batla ha ea ka ea bolela esale pele ho shebella lifilimi ka R. Stoolmiller et al. hlokomela hore liphetho tsa bona "li fana ka bopaki bo matla ba phello ea bophatlalatsi ba tikoloho molemong oa ho batla maikutlo" (leq. 1). Liphuputso tse latelang tsa lintlha tsena tse shebaneng le litaba tsa thobalano ka ho khetheha li fumane hore tlhahiso ea litaba tsa thobalano e boletse esale pele keketseho ea ho batla maikutlo, e leng se ileng sa bolela esale pele boitšoaro bo kotsi ba thobalano (O'Hara, Gibbons, Gerrard, Li, & Sargent, 2012). Sebakeng sa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ka ho khetheha, litlhahlobo tsa rona tsa morao-rao tse mabapi le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le thobalano e se nang likhohlopo li ile tsa lekoa ka ho hlaka hore na ho batla maikutlo ho ka nkoa e le pherekano kapa mokena-lipakeng (Tokunaga, Wright, & Vangeel, 2020). Lintlha li ts'ehetsa mohopolo oa boemeli, eseng mohopolo o ferekanyang.

Ho nahanoa hore "ho ne ho le teng" maikutlo a thobalano le ho ferekanya mekhatlo e ts'oanang le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Leha ho le joalo, ke sebelisa mehlala e mene ea naha ea batho ba baholo, mehato e 'meli ea tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​mehato e' meli ea maikutlo a thobalano, le mehato e 'meli ea boits'oaro ba thobalano, ke fumane phuputsong ea haufinyane hore maikutlo a thobalano ha a ferekanye litšoantšo tsa bootsoa-mekhatlo ea boits'oaro ba thobalano; ba ba buella (litšoantšo tsa bootsoa → maikutlo a thobalano → boitšoaro ba thobalano) (Wright, 2020b). Ka mokhoa o ts'oanang, tlhaiso-leseling ea rona ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro le lingoliloeng tse bontšang ho kopanela liphate e seng tsa botho e fumane hore litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li sebelisa mokhoa o boletsoeng esale pele oa boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba ho kopanela liphate ka maikutlo a batho bao e seng batho ba thobalano (ke hore, maikutlo a thobalano a se nang botho e ne e le mokena-lipakeng). Ha ho bopaki bo fumanoeng bakeng sa ho bolela esale pele hore mekhatlo lipakeng tsa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro le boitšoaro bo hlephileng ba thobalano e ferekantsoe ke maikutlo a thobalano (Tokunaga, Wright, & Roskos, 2019).

Empa mefuta e meng-ka mohlala, palo ea batho-e tlameha ebe e ferekanya feela, motho a ka 'na a araba ka matla. Ke khothaletsa hore le "lipalo" tsa "demographic" li hlahlojoe ka hloko. Nahana ka maikutlo a thobalano, phapang e nkuoeng habobebe joalo ka taolo litabeng tsa bootsoa. Lintlha tsa lipotso tsa lipotso li hlakile hore litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li ka ama tlhokomeliso le polelo ea boits'oaro bo fapaneng ba thobalano. Mohlala, monna oa thuto ea Giano (2019) ea kamoo liphihlelo tsa thobalano inthaneteng li bopang boitsebahatso ba banna ba bong bo tšoanang o itse:

Ke hopola lekhetlo la pele ha ke ea sebakeng sa marang-rang sa bootsoa 'me ka bona banna ba babeli ba etsa thobalano. Ke hopola ke nahana hore ha kea lokela ho buloa haeba ke ne ke se moshemane, empa ke ne ke le joalo. E ne e le ka motsotso oo ha ke hlokomela hore sena ke sa nnete - Ke mosodoma. E ne e boetse e le monate ebile e tšosa. (Leq. 8)

Ka mokhoa o ts'oanang, Bond, Hefner, and Drogos (2009) ba tlaleha hore "banna ba batona ba pele ba tsoa sethaleng ba sebelisitse litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tsa inthanete ho utloisisa le ho holisa maikutlo a bona a bong bo tšoanang" (leq. 34).

Ka kakaretso, ka mokhoa oa hajoale oa taolo litlamong tsa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro, (1) “matla a ka fokotsoa [a ka lebisang phosong ea Mofuta oa II (Becker, 2005, leq. 287) le (2)“ hoa khonahala hore [mefuta e meraro ea mefuta e potolohileng e laoloang] e bapala karolo ea bohlokoa ho fapana le ho ba karolo e ikhethileng marang-rang a likamano tseo mofuputsi a ithutang ka tsona, ”empa ka masoabi ha re tsebe sena (Becker et al., 2016, leq. 160).

Kohut et al. (2020) e tlalehile sephetho sa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le tlhekefetso ea thobalano ho tsoa mehlala e 'meli ea banna ba lilemong tsa bocha. Khetho ea bona le tokafatso ea taolo li latela mokhoa o hlahelletseng litlamong tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ebile ha se ntlha ea ka ea mantlha ea ho hatisa. Joalo ka ba bang ba bangata, ho kenyeletsoa le nna (bona Tokunaga et al., 2019 le Wright, 2020b, ntle le mabaka), ha ba ka ba tseba mohopolo ofe kapa ofe o ba tataisang ho khetholla litsamaiso. Ba mpa ba qotsa lillo tsa bona tsa nakong e fetileng (Baer, ​​Kohut, & Fisher, 2015) mabapi le lithuto tse fetileng "ho hloleha ho ikarabella bakeng sa pherekano e ka bang teng" (leq. 2) mme ba qala ho thathamisa mefuta e fapaneng eo lithuto tsa pejana li fumaneng hore li amana le ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa kapa tlhekefetso ea thobalano (mohlala, ho batla maikutlo, ho susumetsa maikutlo, ho khanna thobalano). Ha palo ea mefuta eo lithuto tsa pejana li fumaneng hore e hokahana le ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa kapa tlhekefetso ea thobalano e fumaneha habonolo ho makholo, ha ho hlake hore na mefuta e mehlano ea taolo e thathamisitsoeng e ile ea tsejoa joang har'a leoatle la menyetla.

Qetellong, Kohut et al. ba phethetse karolo ea bona ea taolo ka khang ea hore ho kenyelletsoa ha bona ho fane ka teko e matla ho feta kamoo ho neng ho ka ba joalo ntle le ho kenyeletsoa: “Ho hloleha ho laola bakeng sa lihahi tse susumetsang ts'ebelisano 'moho le litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso ea thobalano ho ka ama likhakanyo tsa litlamorao tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa sebelisa ho hlekefetsa batho ka tsa thobalano ”(leq. 3). Ha ho buuoe ka monyetla oa hore "pherekano" ena e kanna ea ba babuelli (mohlala, ho batla maikutlo - tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho eketsa maikutlo a ho batla, e leng ho eketsang tlhekefetso ea thobalano) kapa batsamaisi (mohlala, ho qhekella - tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tse bolelang ho hlekefetsoa ka thobalano, empa feela bakeng sa banna ba nang le maikutlo). Hape ha ho moo ho buuoang ka Bernerth and Aguinis '(2016) "likhothaletso tsa ts'ebetso e ntle bakeng sa ts'ebeliso ea ts'ebeliso e fapaneng," e leng "Stop" le eseng sebelisa taolo haeba mabaka a le mong feela a kenyellelitsoeng e ka ba (1) "ho fana ka liteko tse hlokolosi kapa tse thata tsa likhopolo tsa ka" kapa (2) "hobane lipatlisiso tsa pejana li fumana likamano tse matla pakeng tsa phapano ena le tse fapaneng thutong ea ka" (leq. 273).

Leha ho le joalo, leha e ne e le bothata, e ne e se litsamaiso tse ikhethileng kapa lebaka la bona la ho kenyeletsoa thutong ena e ileng ea qetella e ntsamaisitse (qetellong) ho ngola lengolo lena. Joalo ka ha ke amohetse, le nna ke bile molato oa eona. Che, ntlha ea bohlokoa e ne e le lipolelo tsa Kohut et al. mabapi le tlhaiso-leseling ea rona ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le boits'oaro bo mabifi (Wright et al., 2016) mabapi le tlhaiso-leseling ea morao-rao ea Ferguson le Hartley (2020). Ka lebaka la hore tšusumetso le bohlokoa ba litlhahlobo tsa meta li kholo ho feta thuto efe kapa efe, lipolelo tsena e bile tsona tšusumetso e kholo ea ho ngola.

Kohut et al. (2020, leq. 15) e boletse hore ts'ebeliso ea rona ea tlhahlobo ea litlhahlobo tsa bivariate (ho fapana le likamano tse tharo tse feto-fetohang) e felletse ka "monyetla o moholo oa mekhatlo" (re fumane hore ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e ne e le sesupo se matla sa tlhekefetso ka mantsoe le ka 'mele]. Ba tsoela pele ho re "litemoso tsa bona tsa Wright et al.ho itšetleha haholo ka boholo ba tšusumetso e matlafatsoang li netefalitsoe ke liphuputso tsa morao-rao tse bonts'ang hore hang ha mefuta e laoloang e se e tlalehiloe hantle, ts'ebeliso e litšila ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa hangata ha e amane ka tlhekefetso ea thobalano (Ferguson & Hartley, 2020) ”(leq. 16).

Lintlha tse peli tsa lipolelo tsena tse malimabe li hloka tokiso.

Taba ea mantlha, mohopolo oa hore likhokahano tsa bivariate li "tletse moea" ha likopanyo tse ntlafalitsoeng tsa covariate li supa mofuta oa nnete oa kamano eo ho buuoang ka eona ke papiso ea khale ea leshano leo Spector le Brannick (2011) ba le bitsitseng "molao-motheo oa tlhoekiso":

Tumelo e hlakileng ea hore lits'oants'o tsa lipalo-palo li ka fana ka likhakanyo tse nepahetseng tsa likamano lipakeng tsa mefuta ea lithahasello, eo re tla e bitsa "molao-motheo oa tlhoekiso," e atile haholo, 'me e amoheloa ka mokhoa o sebetsang, hoo re reng e tšoaneleha joalo ka nalane ea litoropo - ntho e' ngoe amoheloa ntle ho potso hobane bafuputsi le bahlahlobi ba mosebetsi oa bona ba bone hore e sebelisoa khafetsa hoo ba sa belaelle bonnete ba mokhoa ona. (leq. 288)

Meehl (1971) o boletse sena ka mohopolo o fosahetseng oa hore ho kenyelletsoa ha mefuta ea taolo ho lebisa sephethong se nepahetseng mabapi le sebopeho sa XY mokhatlo o botsitsoeng:

Motho a ke ke a beha molaoana oa mokhoa o itseng e le ho o bapala o bolokehile ha ho ka etsahala hore o hlahise mashano, ntle le haeba re na le filosofi e makatsang ea mahlale e reng re batla ka phoso ho lahla likhopolo tse ntle. (leq. 147)

Ke pheha khang ea hore likhopolo tse 'nileng tsa sebelisoa ho bolela esale pele hore ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e eketsa menyetla ea ho hlekefetsoa ka thobalano (mohlala, maemo a khale, ho ithuta ka boits'oaro, ho etsa boitšoaro bo hlephileng, ho ngola ka thobalano, ho theha ts'ebetso, matla a bong bo fapaneng) ke tse ntle tseo re sa lokelang ho li etsa. lahla ka phoso ka lebaka la ts'ebeliso e soabisang e atileng ea ts'ebeliso ea boits'oaro litlamong tsa bootsoa.

Sena se ikamahanya ka kotloloho le karolo ea bobeli e malimabe ea lipolelo tsena. Ho ea ka Kohut et al. (2020), "mefuta-futa ea taolo e tlalehiloe hantle" ke Ferguson le Hartley (2020). Joaloka Kohut et al. u se ke ua hlalosa hore na hobaneng ba bona ts'ebeliso ea Ferguson le Hartley e le "e nepahetseng" re tlameha ho ea mohloling ka kotloloho. Ha a etsa joalo, motho oa ferekana hore na Kohut et al. e lekotse lenane la taolo la Ferguson le Hartley e le "le nepahetseng," kaha ha ho na lethathamo le joalo. Ho buuoa feela ka taolo mabapi le lenane la "tlhahlobo ea ts'ebetso e ntle" moo lithuto tse fetotsoeng bakeng sa "bophelo bo botle ba kelello", "tikoloho ea lelapa" le "bong" li fuoang "1 point" (leq. 4). Se fumanoang ke khothatso e phetoang e phetoang e tsoang ho Ferguson le Hartley ea hore litsamaiso tsa bona tse sa hlalosoang le tse sa hlalosoang li "bohlokoa lithutong." Seo hape se fumanoeng ke hore "li-coefficients (βs) tse hlophisitsoeng tse sebelisitsoeng tlhahlobisong ea bona ea meta" li ne li baloa ho tloha boleng bo bolokileng haholo (mohlala, ho kenyelletsa palo e kholo ea litsamaiso tse loketseng tsa thuto) "(leq. 3).

Pele re khutlela potsong ea hore na ke khopolo-taba efe kapa likhopolo life Ferguson le Hartley (2020) ba sebelisitseng ho khetholla taolo ea "theoretically efanelekileyo" (kaha ha ho na khopolo ea boitsebahatso e boletsoeng pampiring ea bona), mona ke lipolelo tse 'maloa tse tsoang ho litsebi tsa mekhoa e amanang le ho khetholla “Boleng ba ho boloka mekhoa e tloaetsoeng” bakeng sa tlhahlobo:

Re nka maikutlo a tloaelehileng a hore lipalo tse kholo tsa li-CV [taolo ea mefuta-futa] ke mokhoa o betere, o thata ho feta ho kenyelletsa li-CV tse fokolang kapa tse se nang tsona. Maikutlo ana a ipapisitse le mohopolo o fosahetseng oa hore ho eketsa li-CV ho hlile ho hlahisa liteko tse ngata tsa boits'oaro le ho senola likamano tsa 'nete lipakeng tsa mefuta e khahlisang. (Becker et al., 2016, leq. 159)

Bafuputsi ba bangata… ba nka hore ho eketsa taolo ke ntho e khomaretseng 'me ho ka lebisa qetong eo bonyane e haufinyane le' nete ho feta ho e siea. Joalokaha Meehl (1971) a bolela, tloaelo ena ha e thata haholo. Ebile ke maemong a mangata ho se tsotelle. (Spector & Brannick, 2011, leq. 296)

Karabo ea bobeli e lokelang ho emisa ho nahanisisa ka taolo e potile moelelo oa liteko tsa boithuto tse thata, tse thata kapa tse thata. Ena ke leshano le qalileng ho theoa lilemong tse fetileng (Meehl, 1971; Spector & Brannick, 2011) ka bopaki bo lekaneng bo bokelletsoeng hajoale ho fihlela qeto ea hore ha ho letho le bolokang kapa le thata mabapi le ho kenyelletsa lipalo tsa lipalo (Carlson & Wu, 2012). (Bernerth & Aguinis, 2016, leq. 275)

Ka kakaretso, ho thata ho fumana hore na lenane la taolo le neng le le sieo la Ferguson le Hartley le ne le khethiloe joang e le "le nepahetseng" ntle le haeba le tataisoa ke mohopolo o tloaelehileng o soabisang oa hore "taolo e eketsehileng = sephetho se nepahetseng ho feta."

Mme qetellong, re khutlela potsong ea hore na re ka tiisetsoa ke tiiso ea Ferguson le Hartley (2020) ea hore litsamaiso tseo ba li kenyellelitseng tlhahlobisong ea bona ea litlhahlobo li nkuoe ka mohopolo. Kaha, joalo ka ha ke boletse, ha ba fane ka lenane la bona le felletseng la taolo kapa khopolo kapa likhopolo tse sebelisitsoeng ho khetholla litsamaiso tsena lithutong tsa mantlha tseo ba li hlahlobileng, ke batlile lithuto tse tloaelehileng tlhahlobisong ea rona ea litlhahlobo (Wright et al. , 2016) bakeng sa mantsoe "laola," "ferekanya," "covariate," le "theory" ho bona hore na ho na le khopolo e 'ngoe e reheletsoeng ho tataisa khetho ea taolo lithutong tsena tsa mantlha. Ha ke a fumana bopaki ba hore lithuto tsena li sebelisitse khopolo ho tataisa khetho ea bona ea taolo (mefuta e meraro ea lipatlisiso tsa kopano [mohlala, Malamuth, Addison, & Koss, 2000] ka linako tse ling e etsisoa joalo ka litsamaiso le linako tse ling e le batsamaisi). Ntho ea bohlokoa ka ho fetisisa bakeng sa "ts'ebeliso e ntle" ea taolo ea ts'ebeliso e fapaneng e atileng ho li-methodologists tse laoloang tsa taolo tse boletsoeng pejana ke tataiso e hlakileng ea mohopolo. Ntle ho eona, ts'ebeliso ea lits'oants'o e na le monyetla o moholo oa ho baka liphoso tsa Type II le / kapa mohlala o fosahetseng.

Litlhahiso

O ka tloha kae moo? Ho na le menyetla e 'meli. Ke tla qala ka khetho ea ka ea bobeli.

Monyetla o mong ke oa hore bafuputsi ba hlahise litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho tsoela pele ho laola "likhohlano tse ka bang teng," empa ho etsa joalo ho latela litlhahiso tse tsoang ho li-methodologist tse laoloang (mohlala, Becker et al., 2016; Bernerth & Aguinis, 2016; Spector & Brannick , 2011). Tsena li kenyelletsa liphetho tsa ho tlaleha ka ntle le taolo, ka mokhoa o hlakileng ho kenyelletsoa taolo likhopolong le lipotsong tsa lipatlisiso, le ho beha taolo ho maemo a ts'oanang a ts'epahalo le bonnete a lebelletsoeng mehatong ea tsepamiso. Kea hlokomela, leha ho le joalo, hore tlhahiso ea # 1 ea Becker et al. (2016) ke "Ha o belaela, ba tlohele!"

Khetho ea ka ea pele ke hore bafuputsi ba nang le litlamorao tsa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba tlohele "paradigm" e ka 'nang ea ferekanya ka ho felletseng mme ba kenelle ho se ka bitsoang "" li-predictors, lits'ebetso le maemo a tšohanyetso "paradigm. Ka mantsoe a mang, ho fapana le ho nahana ka mefuta e meng ea boraro e le e sa amaneng le litšila tsa litlamorao tsa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro litumelong, maikutlong le boits'oarong, nka khetha haeba bafuputsi ba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ba ka kenya mefuta e meng ea boraro mefuteng ea lintho tse kang bahanyetsi, babuelli le batsamaisi. Khetho ena e tsamaellana le Slater's (2015) Reinforcing Spirals Model (RSM) ea ts'ebeliso ea media le litlamorao:

Litla-morao tsa mecha ea litaba li sekaseka liteko tsa ho lekola likamano tsa sesosa ka ho laola mefuta e meng e mengata e ka amehang ts'ebetsong ea sesosa, ho fokotsa ts'okelo ea litlhaloso tse fapaneng tsa maemo a boraro. RSM, ka lehlakoreng le leng, e ka fana ka maikutlo a hore temohisiso e eketsehileng e ka fumanoa ka ho kenyelletsa mefuta-futa, joalo ka liphapang tsa batho ka bomong le tšusumetso ea sechaba e le tse boletsoeng esale pele tsa ts'ebeliso ea media ho fapana le ho ba lipalo-palo. Motho a ka nahana ka phello e felletseng ea ts'ebeliso ea media joalo ka ha e akaretsoa ho litlamorao tsohle tse tobileng le tse sa tobang. Ka mantsoe a mang, RSM e fana ka maikutlo a hore litlhahlobo tsa litlamorao tsa mecha ea litaba li lekola, ka ho leka ho laola mefuta-futa eo e leng karolo ea ts'ebetso mme e seng mefuta ea boraro e fanang ka litlhaloso tse hlahisang tlholisano, ha e le hantle e kanna ea fokotsa litlamorao tse lokelang ho lebisoa ho karolo ea ts'ebeliso ea media. (leq. 376)

Leha saense ea kahisano e ipapisitse le likhopolo tse fokolang tse ke keng tsa qojoa ho feta mekhoa e meng ea ho tseba ka boits'oaro ba motho, haeba re itšepa, re tlameha ho amohela hore lithuto tsa rona li tsoa mehopolong e meng e ke keng ea netefatsoa kapa ea thetsoa ho khotsofatsa litsebi tse 100% . Ke hlahile ka 1979. Ho na le bo-rasaense ba kahisano ba neng ba lumela hore litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li ke ke tsa ama basebelisi ba tsona pele ke hlaha mme ke netefatsa hore ho tla ba le bo-ramahlale ba kahisano ha ke se ke tsamaile (ka tšepo, bonyane lilemo tse ling tse mashome a mane kapa ho feta) ba tla lumela tšoanang.

Le ha e le monyetla o teng oa hore litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ke sebaka se le seng sa puisano moo melaetsa le moelelo li nang le tšusumetso e mpe, le hore khokahano efe kapa efe lipakeng tsa ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le litumelo, maikutlo le boits'oaro e lula e le bohata ebile e bakoa ke moemeli e mong ea ikemetseng le ea sa fetoheng, Ke lumela hore ho na le monahano o lekaneng oa thuto le bopaki bo matla ba ho nahana hore ha ho joalo. Ka hona, ke pheta Elsa hape ha ke kopa basebetsi-'moho le 'na hore "ba furalle' me ba otle lemati" ho "na litšoantšo tsa bootsoa li ntse li bolela esale pele (sephetho) kamora ho laola sinki ea kichineng?" atamela. Sebakeng seo, ke kopa hore re lebise tlhokomelo ea rona mefuteng ea boraro e khethollang khafetsa le mofuta oa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tse sebelisoang, mekhoa e lebisang liphellong tse itseng, le batho le maemo ao liphetho tsa ona li ka bang tlase haholo.

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  1. Wright, PJ, Tokunaga, RS, Kraus, A., & Klann, E. (2017). Litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro le khotsofalo: Tlhatlhobo ea meta. Patlisiso ea Puisano ea Batho, 43, 315-343. https://doi.org/10.1111/hcre.12108.

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