Litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro le liithuti tsa bocha

Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa le Bacha

Litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le tsa bacha li thathamisitsoe ka tlase ho kenyelletso ena. An (L) ka pela sehokela o bonts'a sengoloa, hangata ka thuto. Lingoloa le livideo tse amanang le YBOP li kanna tsa khahla:

Litlhahlobo tsa lingoliloeng le litlhahlobo tsa meta (ka letsatsi la phatlalatso):

Tšusumetso ea Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa Inthaneteng Lenyalong le Lelapeng: Tlhahlobo ea Lipatlisiso (2006) - Litlhaloso tse hlahang:

Ho hlahloba ts'ebetso ea tsamaiso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tsa Inthanete, leha ho le joalo, ke sebaka seo ho seng bonolo ho se etsa 'me setsebi sa lipatlisiso tsa mekhoa e metle li lekanyelitsoe. Tlhahlobo ea lipatlisiso tse teng li ne li etsoa 'me mekhoa e mengata e mpe e senotsoe. Le hoja boholo bo ntse bo sa tsejoe ka tšusumetso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa Inthaneteng ka manyalo le malapa, lintlha tse fumanehang li fana ka ntlha e qalang ea baetsi ba melao, barupeli, litsebi le bafuputsi.

Tšusumetso e tobileng ho Bana le bana ba lilemong tsa bocha Ho hlahisoa hore liphello tse latelang li na le tšusumetso e kholo ho bana le bacha ba sebelisang kapa ba kopana le litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ka bobona:

1. Ho sa tsotellehe mekhoa e sa lumelloeng ke molao, bacha ba na le phihlelo e bonolo ea boitsebiso bo litšila ba bootsoa 'me sena se ka ba le liphello tse sithabetsang, tse ferekanyang, tse hlekefetsang, le / kapa tse lemalang.

2. Bacha ba atisa ho qobelloa, ba qhekelloa, ba khelosoa, kapa "ts'oaetso e kenngoe" ho sheba litšoantšo tse hlalosang thobalano ka inthaneteng.

3. Lipatlisiso li bontša hore ho shebella litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho ka ba le maikutlo a sa feleng ho bacha le hore hangata maikutlo ana a hlalosoa a sebelisa maikutlo a kang ho nyonya, ho tšoha, ho hlajoa ke lihlong, bohale, tšabo le masoabi.

4. Ho sebelisa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro tsa Inthanete le / kapa ho kenya letsoho moqoqong oa thobalano ho ka senya tsoelo-pele ea sechaba le thobalano ea bacha ebile ho senya katleho ea bona likamanong tse tlang.

5. Litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro bocheng li 'nile tsa amahanngoa le ho kopanela liphate pele ho ho kopanela liphate, hammoho le menyetla e eketsehileng ea ho kopanela liphate le liphate le batho bao ba sa kopaneleng le bona.

Litla-morao tsa Media Litabeng tsa Boitšoaro ba botona le botšehali ho lekola tleleime ea Causality (2011) - Litlhaloso tse hlahang:

Boithuto ba tšusumetso ea mecha ea litaba e ka sehloohong boits'oarong ba bacha ba ho lieha ho bokellana le ha ho na le bopaki ba nako e telele ba litaba tsa thobalano tse ngata mecheng ea litaba. Boemo ba litaba tsa thobalano bo fetohile haholo lilemong tsa morao tjena, leha ho le joalo, ha bafuputsi ba tsoang lithutong tse ngata ba arabile mohala oa ho sebetsana le sebaka sena sa bohlokoa sa borui ba bong ba batho ba thobalano. Morero oa khaolo ena ke ho hlahloba sehlahisoa se bokelletsoeng mabapi le litlamorao tsa boitšoaro ba thobalano ho bona hore na mosebetsi ona o tiisa sephetho sa mabaka. Litekanyetso tsa ho hloka taolo ea causal tse boletsoeng ke Cook le Campbell (1979) li sebelisoa ho fihlela sepheo sena. Ho phethoa hore lipatlisiso ho fihlela joale li fetisa tšitiso ea tlhahlobo e 'ngoe le e' ngoe le hore mecha ea litaba e ka ba le tšusumetso e matla ea boits'oaro ba bacha ba United States.

Tšusumetso ea Litšoantšo Tsa Bootsoa Inthaneteng ho Bacha: Tlhahlobo ea Lipatlisiso (2012) - Ho tloha sephethong:

Ho eketseha ha marang-rang ke bacha lilemong ho thehile menyetla e neng e sa lebelloa ea thuto ea thobalano, ho ithuta le kholo. Ka lehlakoreng le leng, kotsi ea ho lemala e hlahang lingoliloeng e lebisitse bafuputsi ho etsa lipatlisiso mabapi le ho pepesetsoa bocha ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tsa inthaneteng ka morero oa ho hlakisa likamano tsena. Ka kakaretso, lithuto tsena li fana ka maikutlo a hore mocha ea sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa a ka ba le litumelo le litumelo tse sa utloahaleng tsa thobalano. Har'a lintho tse fumanoeng, litekanyetso tse phahameng tsa maikutlo a boitšoaro bo bobe ba ho kopanela liphate, takatso ea thobalano, le teko ea pele ea thobalano li amana le tšebeliso e mpe ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa hangata…. Leha ho le joalo, liphumano tse sa fetoheng li hlahile li hokahanya tšebeliso ea bongoana ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tse bonts'ang pefo le likhahla tsa boitšoaro bo bobe ba thobalano.

Lingolo li bontša kamano e teng lipakeng tsa tšebeliso ea bacha ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa le boitlhahlobo. Banana ba tlaleha ba ikutloa ba le betere ho feta basali bao ba ba bonang linthong tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro, athe bashemane ba tšaba hore e kanna eaba ha ba sa le betere kapa ba khona ho etsa joaloka banna ba mecha ea litaba. Bacha ba boetse ba tlaleha hore ts'ebeliso ea bona ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e fokotsehile ha boits'epo ba bona le nts'etsopele ea sechaba li eketseha. Ho feta moo, lipatlisiso li fana ka maikutlo a hore bacha ba sebelisang litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​haholo-holo tse fumanehang inthaneteng, ba na le litekanyo tse tlase tsa khokahano ea sechaba, keketseho ea mathata a boits'oaro, litekanyetso tse phahameng tsa boits'oaro, litekanyetso tse phahameng tsa matšoao a sithabetsang, le ho fokotsa tlamahano ea maikutlo le bahlokomeli.

Sehlopha se Secha sa ho lemalla thobalano (2013) - Le ha e ne e se tlhahlobo ea tekheniki, e ne e le e 'ngoe ea litokomane tsa pele tsa ho khetholla basebelisi ba boitšoaro bo litšila ba bootsoa ba banyenyane le lihlooho tsa "khale" tsa CSB. Qeto:

Ho etsoa tlhahiso ea hore bokhoba ba thobalano bo ka khetholloa ka mekhoa e 'meli e ikhethang ea boits'oaro. Ho thoe motho ea lemaletseng "phetseng mehleng" o khetholloa ka ho pepesehela lits'oants'o tse ts'oanang tsa thobalano kahare ho setso se nang le thobalano haholo, empa "lekhoba la" khale "le khannoa ke khatello ea maikutlo, tlhekefetso, kamano e senyehileng, bofokoli ba taolo ea tšusumetso, lihlong -litlhahlobo tse thehiloeng ho lona, ​​le mathata a maikutlo. Le ha ka bobeli ba ka arolelana lineano tse tšoanang (boits'oaro bo qobelloang, mathata a maikutlo, ho holofala ha likamano), etiology le likarolo tse ling tsa kalafo li kanna tsa fapana.

"Ho itlosa bolutu ka ho kopanela liphate" ea ho kopanela liphate, le hoja ho phehisana khang haholo, ho hlokomelisitsoe ka ho fetisisa lipatlisisong, lefapheng la litsebi le moetlong o tloaelehileng. Mekhoa ea phekolo, ha e sa jele setsi, e fapane ebile e fumaneha, esita le ho isa tekanyo ea hore koetliso ea litsebi tsa botšehali ba ho kopanela liphate e netefalitsoeng e etsoa ho pholletsa le United States, e leng ho lumellang litsebi tsa bophelo bo botle ba kelello hore li fumane bopaki bo bongata bo botle ba ho kopanela liphate.

Bokhoba ba thobalano ba "sejoale-joale" ke ntho e sa hlahlojoeng haholo, haholoholo ho bana le bacha. Lipatlisiso le lingoliloeng lia fokola 'me, ho khahlisang, hangata li phatlalatsoa ho tsoa linaheng tse kantle ho United States (He, Li, Guo, & Jiang, 2010; Yen et al., 2007). Patlisiso ka basali ba banyane le bokhoba ba thobalano ha e eo. Kalafo e khethehileng ea litsebi tsa bana le bacha ba koetlisitsoeng bokhobeng ba thobalano e tloaelehile haholo. Leha ho le joalo palo e kholo ea bana, bacha le batho ba baholo ba hloka kalafo e joalo e khethehileng, 'me sechaba sa litsebi se lieha ho arabela. Lipatlisiso, lipuisano le thuto li hlokahala ka potlako ho fihlella ka nepo litlhoko tsa ba banyenyane hara batho ba rona ba loantšanang le boits'oaro bo qobelloang ka thobalano.

Na litaba tsa thobalano lichabeng tse ncha li amana le boitšoaro ba likamano tsa thobalano ho bacha? Tlhahlobo e hlophisitsoeng le tlhahlobo ea meta (2016) - Ho tloha sephiri:

Results: Lithuto tse leshome le metso e mene, kaofela li le karolo ea sebopeho, li ile tsa fihlella litekanyetso tsa ho kenyeletsoa. Lithuto tse tšeletseng (barupeluoa ba 10 352) ba ile ba hlahloba ho pepeseha ha bacha ho li-SEWs mme ba robeli (barupeluoa ba 10 429) ba ile ba hlahloba litšoantšo tse litšila. Ho bile le phapang e kholo lithutong tsohle mabapi le litlhaloso tsa litlhaloso le sephetho. Litlhahlobo tsa Meta li fumane hore ho pepesetsoa SEW ho ne ho amana le thobalano e se nang likhohlopo; Ho romellana litšoantšo tse litšila ho romellana melaetsa ho ne ho tsamaellana le ho romellana thobalano, liketso tsa thobalano tsa morao-rao, tšebeliso ea joala le lithethefatsi tse ling pele ho likamano tsa botona le botšehali, le balekane ba bangata ba morao-rao ba thobalano. Boholo ba lithuto bo ne bo e-na le liphetoho tse fokolang bakeng sa li-confounders tsa bohlokoa.

Nahanisisa: Lithuto tse amanang le maemo a fapakaneng li bonts'a kamano e matla lipakeng tsa ho pepesetsoa litaba tsa thobalano mecha ea phatlalatso e ncha le boits'oaro ba thobalano ho bacha. Lithuto tsa nako e telele li ka fana ka monyetla o moholo oa ho fetoha bakeng sa ho ferekanya, le kutlwisiso e nepahetseng ea litsela tse tlasa mekhatlo e hlokometsoeng.

Mecha ea phatlalatso le ho kopanela liphate: Puso ea Boipheliso ba Puso, 1995-2015 (2016) - Ho tsoa ho tse sa feleng:

Sepheo sa tlhahlobo ena e ne e le ho etsa lipatlisiso tsa lipatlisiso tsa lipatlisiso tsa ho kopanela liphate mecheng ea litaba. Sepheo se ne se lebisitsoe ho lipatlisiso tse hatisitsoeng litabeng tsa lipuo tsa Senyesemane pakeng tsa 1995 le 2015. Kakaretso ea lingoliloeng tsa 109 tse nang le lithuto tsa 135 li ile tsa hlahlojoa. Liphuputso tsena li fane ka bopaki bo tsitsitseng ba hore bohlahlobi ba laboratori le kakaretso ea letsatsi le leng le le leng ho tse kenyelletsoeng letsatsi le leng le le leng li amana ka ho toba le liphello tse ngata, ho kenyelletsa le maemo a phahameng a ho se khotsofale ha 'mele, ho ikemela ho hoholo, tšehetso e kholo ea litumelo tsa thobalano le litumelo tsa thobalano, mamello e kholo ea thobalano ho basali. Ho feta moo, tlhahiso ea liteko ho tsena li lebisa basali le banna ho ba le maikutlo a fokolang a bokhoni ba basali, boitšoaro le botho.

Bacha le Litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro: Tlhahlobo ea Lilemo tsa 20 tsa Phuputso (2016) - Ho tsoa ho tse sa feleng:

Morero oa tlhahlobo ena e ne e le ho hlophisa lipatlisiso tse matlafatsang tse phatlalalitsoeng liphatlalatsong tsa puo ea Senyesemane lipakeng tsa 1995 le 2015 mabapi le ho ata, bobuelli, le litlamorao tsa ts'ebeliso ea bacha ba litšoantšo tsa bootsoa. Patlisiso ena e bontšitse hore bacha ba sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​empa litekanyetso tsa batho ba hlekefetsang li ne li fapana haholo. Bacha ba neng ba sebelisa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa khafetsa e ne e le banna, ka nako ea tsoelo-pele e tsoetseng pele haholo, batho ba batlang menyaka ebile ba na le likamano tse fokolang tsa lelapa kapa tse nang le mathata. Tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso e ne e amahanngoa le maikutlo a lumelloang ho feta tekano a ho kopanela liphate ebile e amana le litumelo tse matla tsa bong ba botona kapa botšehali. Ho ne ho boetse ho bonahala ho amana le ho hlaha hoa likamano tsa botona le botšehali, boiphihlelo bo boholo le boits'oaro ba ho itlosa bolutu ka thobalano, le tlhekefetso e eketsehileng ea thobalano, ka bobeli mabapi le ho tsilatsila le ho hlekefetsoa.

Litloaelano tsa nako e telele pakeng tsa tšebeliso ea boitsebiso ba ho kopanela liphate le boikutlo ba bacha le mekhoa ea bocha: Tlhahlobo ea litlaleho tsa lithuto (2017) - Litlhaloso tse hlahang:

Tlhahlobo ena e ile ea lekola lithuto tsa nako e telele tse hlahlobang litlamorao tsa thepa e pepesitsoeng ka thobalano menahanong ea bacha, litumelong le boits'oarong.

Morero oa thuto ena e ne e le ho fana ka tlhahlobo ea nalane ea lithuto tse telele tse lebisitsoeng ho litlamorao tsa tšebeliso ea litheko tsa thobalano ho batho ba lilemong tsa bocha. Likamano tse 'maloa tse ikhethileng pakeng tsa lintho tse amanang le thobalano le maikutlo a bacha, litumelo le boits'oaro li tlalehiloe lithutong. Lintho tse senotsoeng ka thobalano li ne li bonahala li ama maikutlo a mangata a amanang le thobalano, litumelo tse amanang le bong, ho na le monyetla oa ho ba le likamano tsa botona le botšehali le boitšoaro bo bobe ba thobalano.

Liphuputso tse ntlafalitsoeng li fumane hore ts'ebeliso ea lingoloa tse hlakileng tsa thobalano e ka ama maikutlo le litumelo tsa bacha tse fapaneng, joalo ka thobalano (Peter & Valkenburg, 2008b), khoao ea thobalano (Peter & Valkenburg, 2010a; van Oosten, 2015), the ho hanela basali ka thobalano (Peter & Valkenburg, 2009a), khotsofalo ea thobalano (Peter & Valkenburg, 2009b), maikutlo a thobalano le boithabiso (Baams et al., 2014; Brown & L'Engle, 2009; Peter & Valkenburg, 2010b), maikutlo a karolo ea tekano ea bong (Brown & L'Engle, 2009) le leihlo la 'mele (Doornwaard et al., 2014).

Liphello tsa Phatlalatso ea Phatlalatso ea Thobalano ho Batho ba lilemong tsa bocha le ho hlaha ho batho ba baholo le ho hlekefetsoa ka thobalano Maikutlo le Boitšoaro: Tlhahlobo e Bohlokoa ea Lingoliloeng (2017) - Abstract:

Pefo ea thobalano (DV) le pefo ea thobalano (SV) ke mathata a atileng har'a bacha le batho ba baholo ba hlahang. Sehlopha se ntseng se eketseha sa lingoliloeng se bonts'a hore ho pepesetsoa mecha ea litaba e buang ka thobalano (SEM) le mecha ea litaba e hlekefetsang ka thobalano (SVM) e kanna ea ba likotsi tsa DV le SV. Morero oa sengoloa sena ke ho fana ka tlhahlobo e hlophisehileng le e hlakileng ea lingoliloeng mabapi le tšusumetso ea ho pepesetsoa SEM le SVM mabapi le maikutlo le boits'oaro ba DV.

Ka kakaretso lithuto tse 43 tse sebelisang mehlala ea batho ba lilemong tsa bocha le tse sa tsoa hlaha li ile tsa hlahlojoa, 'me ka kakaretso liphumano li fana ka maikutlo a hore (1) ho pepesehela SEM le SVM ho amana hantle le litšōmo tsa DV le SV le ho amohela maikutlo a eketsehileng ka DV le SV; (2) ho pepesehela SEM le SVM ho amana hantle le tlhekefetso ea 'nete le e lebelletsoeng ea DV le SV, tlolo ea molao, le ho se kenelle ha motho ea emeng. (3) SEM le SVM li ama haholo maikutlo le boits'oaro ba banna ba DV le SV ho feta maikutlo le boits'oaro ba basali ba DV le SV; le (4) maikutlo a seng a ntse a le teng a amanang le DV le SV le likhetho tsa media a lekola likamano lipakeng tsa tlhahiso ea SEM le SVM le maikutlo le boits'oaro ba DV le SV.

Liphuputso tsa nako e tlang li lokela ho loanela ho sebelisa meralo ea bolelele le liteko, li hlahlobe ka hloko batsereganyi le batsamaisi ba tlhahiso ea SEM le SVM liphethong tsa DV le SV, li shebane le litlamorao tsa SEM le SVM tse fetang ts'ebeliso ea banna ea pefo khahlano le basali, le ho hlahloba hore na mananeo a ho bala le ho ngola a media a ka sebelisoa ka boikemelo kapa ka kopanelo le mananeo a teng a thibelo ea DV le SV ho matlafatsa katleho ea boiteko bona ba mananeo.

Litšoantšo tse manyala tsa bootsoa lilemong tsa bocha: Sebelisa: Tlhahlobo ea Litokomane tsa Ts'ebetso ea Litsela Tsa Phuputso 2000-2017. (2018) - Lintlha tse qotsitsoeng tse tsoang likarolong tse amanang le litlamorao tsa bootsoa ho mosebelisi:

Sepheo sa tlhahlobo ena e hlophisitsoeng ea lingoliloeng ke ho etsa 'mapa thahasello ea lipatlisiso tšimong le ho hlahloba hore na liphetho tsa bohlokoa li hlahile libakeng tsa lipatlisiso tsa lipatlisiso.

Boikutlo ka Thobalano - Ka kakaretso, lithuto tsa 21 li ile tsa hlahloba maikutlo a bocha ba bacha le boitšoaro ba bona mabapi le thobalano kamanong le PU. Ha ho makatse hore ebe maikemisetso a ho sebelisa litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso a kopantsoe haholo le maikutlo a tloaelitsoeng a nahanang ka PU le tšusumetso e kholo menahanong ea thobalano ea bacha le boits'oaro ba thobalano.

Nts'etsopele - Ho shebiloe hangata, ho shebella litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho ama ho ntlafala ha melao ea boitšoaro, haholo-holo ho tsa bolumeli nakong ea bohlankana. Ha ho makatse hore ebe ho shebella litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso ho bontšitsoe hore ho na le phello ea bochaba, ho fokotsa tumelo ea bacha nakong e telele, ntle le bong.

Bofetoheli - Ho pepesehela litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro / tse litšila ho bonahala e le ntho e tloaelehileng har'a bacha, e amanang le boits'oaro bo kotsing, mme ho basali haholoholo, e amana le nalane ea tlhekefetso. Leha ho le joalo, lithuto tse ling li ile tsa fihlela qeto ea hore ho pepesetsoa litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso ho ne ho se na setsoalle le boitšoaro bo kotsi ba ho kopanela likobo le hore ho ikemisetsa ho pepesetsoa litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ho ne ho sa bonahale eka ho na le tšusumetso ho boits'oaro bo bobe ba thobalano ho bacha ka kakaretso. Ntle le tsena, liphumano tse ling li bonts'itse hore ho pepesehela PU ka boomo, ho amana le mathata a boitšoaro bo phahameng har'a bacha, ho hlekefetsoa ka thobalano le ho hlekefetsa ka thobalano marang-rang le tšubuhlellano ea bashanyana mabapi le khatello ea thobalano le tlhekefetso e amanang haholo le ho shebella litšoantšo tsa bootsoa khafetsa.

Litšoaneleho tsa Bophelo ba kelello - Ka mokhoa o felletseng, mme leha lithuto tse ling li sa netefatse kamano e lipakeng tsa bophelo bo botle ba kelello le PU, boholo ba liphetho bo fetohela ho PU e phahameng nakong ea bohlankana e tloaetse ho amana le maikutlo a phahameng (mohlala. khatello ea maikutlo) le mathata a boitsoaro. Moleng oo, Luder et al a. o ile a fana ka maikutlo a fapaneng le phapang pakeng tsa tekano pakeng tsa PU le ponahalo e tebileng ea banna le ba nang le kotsi e kholo. Tlhaloso ena e ne e le tumellanong le lithuto tsa longitudinal tse senolang hore maemo a futsanehileng a kelello a ne a ameha ho nts'etsopetsong ea ho sebelisoa ka mokhoa o qobelloang ka litaba tsa ho kopanela liphate Inthaneteng ho bashanyana ba lilemong tsa bocha.

Maqhama a Sechaba - Ka kakaretso, ho bonahala ho na le tumellano ea hore hangata bacha ba sebelisang marang-rang bakeng sa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ba na le litšobotsi tse ngata tse fapaneng ho tsoa ho bacha ba sebelisang marang-rang bakeng sa tlhaiso-leseling, puisano ea sechaba le boithabiso.

Sebopeho sa Tšebeliso ea Marang-rang - Litšobotsi tsa ts'ebeliso ea marang-rang li ile tsa etsoa lipatlisiso ho 15 lithutong tsa 57 tse kenyellelitsoeng tlhahlobisong ea hona joale. Sena se fana ka maikutlo a hore litšobotsi tse tloaelehileng tsa bacha ba pepesitsoeng ke litšoantšo tsa bootsoa tsa inthaneteng le tlhaselo ea thobalano li kenyeletsa maemo a holimo a ts'ebeliso ea papali ea inthanete, boits'oaro bo kotsi ba marang-rang, khatello ea maikutlo le liphihlelo tsa cyberbullying, le ho itlhahisa ka boithatelo ka boithaopo ba bootsoa marang-rang.

Boitšoaro ba Bacha ba Bacha - Boitšoaro bo bobe ba ho kopanela liphate mabapi le thobalano mabapi le PU bo entsoe lipatlisisong tsa 11, le lithuto tsohle li tlaleha liphello tse kholo. Thuto e entsoeng ke Doornward, et al a. e fumane hore bashanyana ba lilemong tsa bocha ba nang le boitšoaro bo qobelloang ba ho kopanela likobo, ho kenyelletsa le tšebeliso ea thepa e hlakileng ea inthanete, ba tlaleha maemo a tlase a boitšepo, maemo a phahameng a khatello ea maikutlo le maemo a phahameng a takatso ea thobalano e fetelletseng. Moelelong oo, liphuputso tse ling li bonts'itse hore bashanyana ba fumanoeng ba sebelisa ts'ebeliso ea lits'oants'o tsa thobalano le liwebsaete tseo batho ba etsang metsoalle ho tsona, ba amohetse tumello e ngata ho feta ea balekane ba bona. Ntle le moo, bashanyana ba bonts'ang hangata ba sheba litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso ba ne ba tloaetse ho etsa bootsoa ho tloha bonyenyaneng ba bile ba kopanela liketsong tse fapaneng tsa thobalano.

Tšebeliso ea lisebelisoa tsa Inthanete tse hlalosang thobalano le liphello tsa bona bophelong bo fokolang ba bacha: bopaki ba morao-rao ba lingoliloeng (2019) - Ho tloha sephiri:

Ho phenyekolloa lingoliloeng ho ile ha etsoa ka PubMed le ScienceDirect ka March 2018 le potso "(litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro kapa litšoantšo tsa Inthanete tse hlalosang takatso ea ho kopanela liphate) LE (mocha kapa OR ngoana OR mocha) LE (phello kapa boitšoaro kapa ho phela hantle)". Litholoana tse hatisitsoeng pakeng tsa 2013 le 2018 li ile tsa hlahlojoa 'me tsa bapisoa le bopaki bo fetileng.

Ho latela lithuto tse khethiloeng (n = 19), kopano lipakeng tsa tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro marang-rang le litlamorao tse 'maloa tsa boitšoaro, kelello le maikutlo sechabeng - qalo ea thobalano ea pelehi, ho kopanela le balekane ba bangata le / kapa ba bang, linako tse ling, ho beha likotsi tsa thobalano, ho etsa mesebetsi e litšila ea bong, ho se sebetse hantle pono ea 'mele, ho ba mabifi, matšoao a ho tšoenyeha kapa a sithabetsang, tšebeliso ea litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso - hoa tiisoa.

Tšusumetso ea litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro Inthaneteng 'meleng oa bana e bonahala e le ea bohlokoa. Taba ena e ke ke ea hlola e hlokomolohuoa 'me e tlameha ho etsoa ke mehato e mengata ea lefatše le e mengata. Ho matlafatsa batsoali, matichere le litsebi tsa bophelo bo botle ka mananeo a thuto a lebisang tlhokomelo ea taba ena e tla ba lumella hore ba thuse bana ho ntlafatsa tsebo ea ho nahana ka litšoantšo tsa bootsoa, ​​ho fokotsa tšebeliso ea eona le ho fumana thuto ea maikutlo le ho kopanela liphate e loketseng haholo litlhoko tsa bona tsa tsoelo-pele.

Ho sheba litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ka lense tsa litokelo tsa bana (2019) - Lintlha tse 'maloa:

Litholoana tse mpe tse bontšitsoeng li kenyelelitsoe, empa ha li felle feela ho: (1) maikutlo a mabe mabapi le basali (Brown & L'Engle, 2009; Peter & Valkenburg, 2007; Peter & Valkenburg, 2009; Häggstrom-Nordin, et al., 2006) ; (2) tlhekefetso ea thobalano ho batho ba bang ba tlase (Ybarra & Mitchell, 2005; Malamuth & Huppin, 2005; Alexy, et al., 2009); (3) tlhekefetso ea sechaba (Mesch, 2009; Tsitsika, 2009); (4) ho ameha ka thobalano (Peter & Valkenburg, 2008a); le (5) ho qobelloa (Delmonico le Griffin, 2008; Lam, Peng, Mai, le Jing, 2009; Rimington le Gast, 2007; van den Eijnden, Spijkerman, Vermulst, van Rooij, le Engels, 2010; Mesch, 2009).

Liphuputso tse ling li bonts'a hore litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro li sebelisetsoa ho koetlisa le ho hohela bana likamanong tse hlekefetsang batho ka tsa thobalano (Carr, 2003; "Boitlhopho ka Marang-rang," le, 2015; Ofisi ea Machaba a Kopaneng ea Lithethefatsi le Tlōlo ea Molao, 2015). Lipuisano tsa bafani ba litšebeletso tse ka pele ba sebetsang le bahlaseluoa ba tlhekefetso ea thobalano ea bana tse entsoeng ka Mots'eanong oa 2018 hore bafani ba bona se bonahalang e le keketseho ea liketsahalo tsa tlhekefetso ea lithaka tsa bana hara bana le hore moetsi oa molao hangata o pepeselitsoe litšoantšo tsa bootsoa liketsahalong tsena tse ngata. (Binford, Dimitropoulos, Wilson, Zug, Cullen, & Rieff, ha e phatlalatsoe).

Ntle le lingoliloeng tse shebaneng feela le litlamorao tse ka hlahisoang ke ho pepesetsoa ha bana litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso, ho na le sehlopha se sengata haholo sa lingoliloeng tse nahanang phello ea ho pepesetsoa litšoantšo tsa bootsoa ho batho ba baholo, ho kenyeletsoa le batho ba baholo. Joalo ka lipatlisiso tse shebileng ho pepesetsoa hoa bana litšoantšong tsa bootsoa, ​​lithuto tsena li boetse li supa kamano lipakeng tsa ho pepesetsoa litšoantšo tse litšila tse tsosang takatso ea boitšoaro bo bobe le ho senyeha hampe sechabeng, ho kenyelletsa ho itšehla thajana, boitšoaro bo bobe, khatello ea maikutlo, maikutlo a ho ipolaea, le ho hloleha ha thuto (Tsitsika, 2009; Bloom et al., 2015; Campbell, 2018).

Liphuputso tsa ho pepesehela ha banana litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ha bana ba fana ka maikutlo a hore li ama boits'oaro ba bona (Brown & L'Engle, 2009).

Bashemane ba pepesetsoeng litšoantšo tse litšila tse ts'oanang le bana ba bontša litlamorao tse tšoanang. Ba fetisa matšoenyeho mabapi le ts'ebetso le ho se khotsofale ha 'mele ("Ts'ireletso ea Bana Inthaneteng," 2016; Jones, 2018).

Ho bonahala ho na le kamano pakeng tsa ho pepesehela litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro le maikutlo a bong ka basali (Hald, Kuyper, Adam, & de Wit, 2013; Hald, Malamuth, & Yuen, 2010).

Bana ba bong ka bobeli ba pepeselitsoeng litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ba na le monyetla oa ho lumela hore liketso tseo ba li bonang, joalo ka thobalano ea ka morao le thobalano ea sehlopha, li tloaelehile hara lithaka tsa bona (Livingstone & Mason, 2015). Bacha ba bong ka bobeli ba pepeselitsoeng litšoantšo tse manyala tse hlephisang boitšoaro ba na le monyetla oa ho etsa thobalano pejana (Brown & L'Engle, 2009; Owens, et al. 2012), ba na le balekane ba bangata (Wright & Randall, 2012; Moroallo, 2009, leq. 389), hape ba kopanela liphate tse lefshoang (Svedin Akerman, & Priebe, 2011; Wright & Randall, 2012).

Likarolo tsa boko ba bocha le boikutlo ba tsona bo ikhethang bakeng sa lintho tsa ho kopanela liphate (2019) - Litlhaku tse 'maloa:

Paradigms e ikhethang ea boko ba bocha e kenyelletsa tse latelang: 1) K'homphieutha e sa butsoang ea "preortal cortex" le "circuits" tsa limbic le striatal tse arabelang haholo (Dumontheil, 2016; Somerville & Jones, 2010; Somerville, Hare, & Casey, 2011; Van Leijenhorst et al. , 2010; Vigil le al., 2011); 2) Nako e phahameng ea methapo ea pelo (McCormick & Mathews, 2007; Schulz & Sisk, 2006; Sisk & Zehr, 2005; Vigil et al., 2011); 3) Sisteme ea dopamine e fetelletseng (Andersen, Rutstein, Benzo, Hostetter, & Teicher, 1997; Ernst et al., 2005; Luciana, Wahlstrom, & White, 2010; Somerville & Jones, 2010; Wahlstrom, White, & Luciana, 2010) ; 4) Axis e tsebahalang ea HPA (Dahl & Gunnar, 2009; McCormick & Mathews, 2007; Romeo, Lee, Chhua, McPherson, & McEwan, 2004; Walker, Sabuwalla, & Huot, 2004); 5)

Maemo a eketsehileng a testosterone (Dorn et al., 2003; Vogel, 2008; Mayo Clinic / Mayo Medical Laboratories, 2017); 6) Tšusumetso e ikhethang ea lihormone tsa steroid (cortisol le testosterone) kholong ea boko nakong ea bocha ba bocha (Brown & Spencer, 2013; Peper, Hulshoff Pol, Crone, Van Honk, 2011; Sisk & Zehr, 2005; Vigil et al., 2011).

Blakemore le basebetsi-'moho le bona ba entse hore tšimo e ntlafatsoe ke boko ba lilemong tsa bocha 'me e hlalositse hore lilemo tsa bocha li lokela ho nkoa e le nako e utloisang bohloko ka lebaka la ho hlophisa boko bo hlollang bo etsoang (Blakemore, 2012). Likarolo tsa boko tse fetohang phetoho e kholo nakong ea bocha li kenyelletsa taolo ea kahare, ho pota-pota ka bongata le ho rera (Blakemore, 2012).

Blakemore le Robbins (2012) ba hokahanya bocha le ho nka liqeto tse kotsi mme ba supa tšobotsi ena ho karohano lipakeng tsa nts'etsopele e potlakileng, e ts'oanang ea taolo ea tšusumetso le taetso ea karabelo nakong ea bocha ha e bapisoa le nts'etsopele ea tsamaiso ea moputso, eo hangata e arabelang haholo Meputso bongoaneng .. ...

Ts'ebeliso ea khafetsa le khafetsa ea libaka tsa marang-rang tsa bootsoa li ne li amahanngoa haholo le tlhekefetso ea sechaba har'a bacha ba Bagerike (Tsitsika et al., 2009). Ts'ebeliso ea litšoantšo tsa bootsoa e kentse letsoho ho liehisa litheolelo, kapa tloaelo ea motho ea ho theola litholoana tsa nako e tlang molemong oa meputso ea hanghang (Negash, Sheppard, Lambert, & Fincham, 2016). Negash le basebetsi-'moho le eena ba sebelisitse sampole e neng e le lilemo tse mahareng tsa 19 le 20, eo mongoli a e totobalitseng ba ntse ba nkuoa e le bacha.… ..

Re fana ka kakaretso ea mohlala oa ho sebetsa, re nahanne ka li-paradigms tse ikhethang tsa boko ba bacha le litšoaneleho tsa boitsebiso ba ho kopanela liphate. Ho kopana ha libaka tse ka sehloohong tse amanang le bokooa bo ikhethang ba bocha le lintho tse hlalosang thobalano ke habohlokoa.

Kamor'a ho pepesehela lisebelisoa tsa thobalano, ho ts'oaroa ha amygdala le axis ea HPA ho ne ho tla ntlafatsoa ho mocha, ha ho bapisoa le motho e moholo. Sena se ka lebisa ho khutsufatso ea mokokotlo oa pele le ts'ebetso e matlafalitsoeng ea sehlopha sa basal bongoaneng. Boemo bona, ka hona, bo ne bo ka beha tšebetsong ts'ebetso ea botsamaisi, bo kenyeletsang thibelo le boitšoaro, mme bo ntlafatsa ho potlaka. Hobane kelello ea ngoana ea lilemong tsa bocha e ntse e ntlafala, e thusa le ho feta ha neuroplasticity. Cortex ea pele e tla “itsamaela ka thipa,” ka mantsoe a mang, e khanna mohopolo o poteletseng o reretsoeng ho holisa tlhabollo e tlatselletsang.

Haeba ho se leka-lekane ha neuroplasticity ho tsoela pele nako e telele, sena se ka etsa hore potoloho e fokolang ea 'mele e utulle potoloho e potolohileng haholoanyane, e ka emisang mocha hore a tsoele pele ho ikhotsofatsa le ho se tsilatsile. Bokaholimo ba bongoana, kapa setsi sa thabo sa bokong, bo ka ba le tshusumetso e fetelletseng ha e bapisoa le ea motho e moholo. Maemo a ntseng a eketseha a dopamine a ka fetolela ho maikutlo a matlafalitsoeng a amanang le dopamine, joalo ka ho ithabisa le ho lakatsa (Berridge, 2006; Volkow, 2006)….

Ka lebaka la fensetere ea mokhatlo ea ntlafatso nakong ea bocha, cortisol le testosterone li ka ba le tšusumetso e ikhethang mokhatlong o hlophisitsoeng oa boko kapa ts'ebetsong ea tlhaho ea lipotoloho tse fapaneng tsa methapo. Phello ena e ke ke ea fumanoa ho motho e moholo hobane fensetere ena e hlophisitsoeng ea mokhatlo e koetsoe. Ho pepesehela cortisol khafetsa ho na le monyetla, nakong ea tlhophiso ea bocha, ho khanna methapo ea pelo e lebisang ho ts'ebetsong ts'ebetso ea kelello le ho khona ho imeloa kelellong le ha motho e moholo (McEwen, 2004; Tsoory & Richter-Levin, 2006; Tsoory, 2008; McCormick & Mathews, 2007; 2010).

Ho tiea ha kamora ea ho kena bohlankaneng kapa boroetsaneng, bonyane ka karolo e 'ngoe, ho latela boholo ba ponahalo ea testosterone nakong ea kholo ea kholo ea bocha (De Lorme, Schulz, Salas-Ramirez, & Sisk, 2012; De Lorme & Sisk, 2013; Neufang et al., 2009; Sarkey, Azcoitia, Garcia- Segura, Garcia-Ovejero, le DonCarlos, 2008). Amygdala e matla e hokahane le maemo a phahameng a maikutlo le boits'oaro bo sotlehileng (Amaral, 2003; Lorberbaum et al., 2004; De Lorme & Sisk, 2013)… ..

Menehelo ea Mesebetsi e Kopanetsoeng ea ho Kopanela liphate Mecheng ea Boikhohomoso, Litloaelo tsa Lithaka, le Boits'oaro ba Botona le Botšehali: Tlhahlobo ea Meta (2019) - Litlhaloso tse hlahang:

Lilemo tse mashome tsa lipatlisiso li hlahlobile phello ea ho pepesehela litšoantšo tse sa hlalosoang ka thobalano mecheng ea litaba. Ho na le litlhahlobo tse lekanang feela tsa meta tabeng ena, e leng ho bontšang hore ho pepesehela "mecha ea phatlalatso ea litaba tse ts'oanang" ho na le phello e fokolang boitšoarong ba thobalano. Ho na le meeli e fokolang ea tlhahlobo ea methapo e teng, 'me morero oa tlhahlobo ea meta-morao e ntlafalitsoeng e ne e le ho hlahloba mekhatlo pakeng tsa ho pepesehela mecha ea litaba tsa thobalano le ba sebelisang boitšoaro ba thobalano.

Ho ne ho phenyekolloa lingoliloeng ka ho feletseng ho fumana lihlooho tse amehang. Thuto e 'ngoe le e' ngoe e ne e ngotsoe bakeng sa mekhatlo e pakeng tsa litaba tsa thobalano le e 'ngoe ea liphello tse tšeletseng tse akarelletsang boikutlo ba ho kopanela liphate (maikutlo a ho lumella maikutlo, lithaka tsa lithaka le likhopolo tsa botona kapa botšehali) (boitšoaro bo bobe ba thobalano, lilemo tsa ho kopanela liphate le boitšoaro bo bobe ba ho kopanela liphate).

Ka kakaretso, tlhahlobo ena ea meta e bonts'a likamano tse sa fetoheng le tse matla lipakeng tsa ho pepesehela litaba le maikutlo a thobalano le boitšoaro bo nkang mehato e mengata ea sephetho le mecha ea litaba e mengata. Media e hlahisa boitšoaro ba thobalano e le ntho e atileng haholo, ea boithabiso le e se nang kotsi ea [3], 'me bohlahlobo ba rona bo fana ka maikutlo a hore liqeto tsa thobalano tsa bashebelli li kanna tsa boptjoa, ka karolo e itseng, ka ho shebella mefuta ena ea litšoantšo. Seo re se fumaneng se fapane hantle le tlhahlobo ea meta e fetileng, e hlahisitseng hore phello ea mecha ea litaba mabapi le boitšoaro ba thobalano e ne e le lefeela kapa e le sieo [4]. Tlhatlhobo ea pejana ea meta e sebelisitseng boholo ba phello ea 38 mme e fumane hore mecha ea phatlalatso ea "sexy" e ne e fokola ebile e amana haholo le boitšoaro ba thobalano (r = .08), athe metaanalysis e sebelisitse nako e fetang ea 10 makhetlo a mangata a boholo ba phello (n = 394) mme e fumane phello e batlang e le habeli ka boholo (r = .14).

Ntlha ea pele, re fumane litšebelisano tse ntle pakeng tsa ho pepesehela litaba tsa thobalano le bacha 'le bacha ba baholo' ho lumella maikutlo le maikutlo a thobalano a liphihlelo tsa lithaka tsa bona tsa thobalano.

Ea bobeli, ho pepesehela litaba tsa litaba tsa thobalano ho ne ho amana le ho amoheloa ha litšōmo tse tloaelehileng tsa ho beta.

Qetellong, ho pepesa litaba tsa thobalano ho fumanoe ho bolela esale pele boitšoaro ba thobalano ho kenyeletsa lilemo tsa tlhahlobo ea thobalano, phihlelo ea thobalano le boitšoaro bo kotsi ba ho kopanela liphate. Liphetho tsena li fetotsoe ka mekhoa e mengata le ho fana ka ts'ehetso ea tiiso ea hore mecha ea phatlalatso e kenya letsoho liketsahalong tsa thobalano tsa bacha ba shebang.

Leha tlhahlobo ea meta e bonts'itse litlamorao tse kholo tsa ho pepesetsoa mecha ea litaba tsa thobalano ka maikutlo le boitšoaro ka mefuta eohle e fapaneng ea lithahasello, litlamorao tsena li ile tsa emisoa ke tse 'maloa tse fapaneng. Haholo-holo, litlamorao tsa bohlokoa bakeng sa lilemo tsohle li ne li bonahala; leha ho le joalo, litlamorao e ne e le kholo ho feta ea bacha lilemong tsa bocha le ho batho ba baholo ba ntseng ba hlaha, mohlomong ba bonts'a 'nete ea hore barupeluoa ba baholo ba kanna ba ba le boiphihlelo ba ho bapisa, ba nnete ba lefatše ho feta barupeluoa ba banyenyane [36, 37]. Ntle le moo, phello e bile matla ho banna ha ho bapisoa le ba batšehali, mohlomong hobane tlhahlobo ea thobalano e lumellana le bongoli ba bong ba botona [18] le hobane banna ba batona ha ba fuoe kotlo e nyane ho feta litlhaku tsa basali bakeng sa ho qala thobalano [38].

Liphumano tsena li na le litlamorao tse kholo bakeng sa bophelo bo botle ba 'mele le kelello ba batho ba lilemong tsa bocha le ba baholo. Ho lemoha litekanyetso tse phahameng tsa thobalano le lithaka tsa thobalano ho ka eketsa maikutlo a khatello ea kahare ea ho etsa liteko tsa thobalano [39]. Phuputsong e 'ngoe, ho pepesehela litaba tsa litaba tsa thobalano lilemong tsa bocha ho ile ha bonoa ho ntšetsa pele ts'ebetso ea thobalano ka likhoeli tse 9e17 [40]; ka lehlakoreng le leng, liteko tsa pele li ka eketsa likotsi tsa bophelo bo botle ba kelello le 'mele [37].

Matšoao a maholo a fumanoang mona a tšoana le a libaka tse ling tse ithutoang tsa kelello ea mecha ea litaba, tse kang phello ea mecha ea litaba ho pefo [41], boitšoaro bo hlephileng [42], le setšoantšo sa 'mele [43]. Nthong e 'ngoe le e' ngoe ea tsona, le hoja litlaleho tsa mecha ea litaba li sebelisa likarolo feela tsa likarolo tse fapaneng tsa liphello tsa thahasello, mecha ea phatlalatso e phetha karolo ea bohlokoa. Litšoantšiso tsena li fana ka maikutlo a hore litaba tsa litaba tsa thobalano ke tse nyenyane, empa e le se bohlokoa ho nts'etsopele ea maikutlo a boitšoaro bo bobe ho bacha le batho ba baholo ba hlahang.

Phatlalatso ea Litšoantšo tsa Bootsoa tsa Bana le Bacha (2020) - Tafole tse peli tsa mantlha li akaretsa tlhahlobo ena:

Bacha, Likamano tsa botona le botšehali le lilemo tsa bootsoa (2020) - Litlhaloso tse hlahang:

Lethathamong le ka tlaase ho (L) le hlahisa sehlooho se seholo ka thuto.