School avoidance and social phobia triggered by haloperidol in patients with Tourettes disorder.(1988)

Am J Psychiatry. 1981 Dec;138(12):1572-6.

Mikkelsen EJ, Detlor J, Cohen DJ.


Fifteen patients with Tourette’s disorder developed school and work avoidance syndromes when treated with low doses (mean 2.5 mg/day) of haloperidol for short periods of time (mean, 8 weeks). The phobic syndromes disappeared completely with discontinuation or reduction of the haloperidol dose. Haloperidol’s effects on dopaminergic functioning support a role for catecholamines in the pathogenesis of phobic syndromes. It is not known whether phobias are precipitated by haloperidol only in patients with Tourette’s disorder as a consequence of the specific metabolic alterations in this disorder or are a medication side effect in other psychiatric disorders as well.