Addict Behav. 2015 Feb;41:12-9. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.09.006. Epub 2014 Sep 9.
- 1Department of Psychiatry, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.
- 2Department of Psychiatry, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: [email protected].
- 3Department of Psychiatry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, MA, USA.
- 4Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.
- 5The Brain Institute, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and alcohol dependence (AD) have been reported to share clinical characteristics including craving and over-engagement despite negative consequences. However, there are also clinical factors that differ between individuals with IGD and those with AD in terms of chemical intoxication, prevalence age, and visual and auditory stimulation.
We assessed brain functional connectivity within the prefrontal, striatum, and temporal lobe in 15 patients with IGD and in 16 patients with AD. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were assessed in patients with IGD and in patients with AD.
Both AD and IGD subjects have positive functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), cingulate, and cerebellum. In addition, both groups have negative functional connectivity between the DLPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex. However, the AD subjects have positive functional connectivity between the DLPFC, temporal lobe and striatal areas while IGD subjects have negative functional connectivity between the DLPFC, temporal lobe and striatal areas.
AD and IGD subjects may share deficits in executive function, including problems with self-control and adaptive responding. However, the negative connectivity between the DLPFC and the striatal areas in IGD subjects, different from the connectivity observed in AD subjects, may be due to the earlier prevalence age, different comorbid diseases as well as visual and auditory stimulation.
Alcohol dependence; Brain connectivity; Immaturity; Internet gaming disorder