Overlapping of different addictions including alcohol, tobacco, internet and gambling (2014)

Alcohol Alcohol. 2014 Sep;49 Suppl 1:i10. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agu052.37.

Osaki Y1, Kanda H2, Higuchi S3, Matsumoto H4, Yuzuriha T5, Horie Y6, Kimura M3, Yoshimoto H7.



This study aimed to describe the epidemiological features of internet addiction and the relationship among other popular addictive behaviors in Japanese population.


Subjects were Japanese adults randomly selected from throughout Japan. Of the 7,052 adults approached, 4,153 (response rate, 58.9%) responded to the 2013 survey. The questionnaire included screening tests for alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, internet addiction, gamble addiction. The results were compared with the results from 2008 nationwide survey.


The prevalence of addiction was higher among males than females across all addictive behaviors. The peak of age distribution tends to younger generation for internet addiction. In order to assess the co-occurrence pattern of four addictive behaviors was analyzed. For male, most prevalent situation was alcohol use disorder only, followed by gambling addiction only, nicotine dependence only, internet addiction only. For female, most prevalent situation was internet only, followed by gambling addiction only, alcohol use disorder only, nicotine dependence only. The patterns of associations among the four addictive behaviors were different for men and women. Significant associations among four additive behaviors were found among women, while among men, internet addiction was associated only with nicotine addiction, but not with other behaviors.