Patterns, influencing factors and mediating effects of smartphone use and problematic smartphone use among migrant workers in Shanghai, China (2019)

Int Health. 2019 Oct 31;11(S1):S33-S44. doi: 10.1093/inthealth/ihz086.

Wang F1, Lan Y2, Li J2, Dai J2, Zheng P2, Fu H2.



With the popularization of smartphones in China, the conditions of smartphone use (SU) and problematic smartphone use (PSU) among migrant workers are unknown. This study explored the patterns and influencing factors of SU and PSU in migrant workers in Shanghai, China. Furthermore, the mediation effects of PSU in the link between SU and some psychological factors were also examined.


Questionnaires containing the Mobile Phone Addiction Index, Patient Health Questionnaire, World Health Organization Five-item Well-being Index and other items, including demographics, sleep quality, job stress and SU, were distributed to 2330 migrant workers by trained investigators in six districts of Shanghai from June to September 2018.


Of the 2129 returned questionnaires, 2115 were valid. SU and PSU varied according to certain demographics. Many demographics, psychological factors, sleep quality and main smartphone applications were influencing factors for SU and PSU. PSU played a mediating role in the link between daily SU time and psychological factors, including depression, mental health and job stress.


The health influences of SU and PSU on migrant workers in Shanghai merit significant attention. Additionally, it is necessary to develop and target intervention strategies according to the workers’ various characteristics and SU patterns.


mental health; migrant; problematic smartphone use; smartphone use

PMID: 31670820

DOI: 10.1093/inthealth/ihz086