Smartphone addiction may be associated with adolescent hypertension: a cross-sectional study among junior school students in China (2019)

BMC Pediatr. 2019 Sep 4;19(1):310. doi: 10.1186/s12887-019-1699-9.

Zou Y1, Xia N1, Zou Y2, Chen Z1, Wen Y3.



Hypertension in children and adolescents is on the rise worldwide, especially in China. The prevalence of hypertension is related to many factors, such as obesity. In the era of smart phones, it is important to study the negative health effects of mobile phones on blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hypertension and its association with smartphone addiction among junior school students in China.


A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted, including total 2639 junior school students (1218 boys and 1421 girls), aged 12-15 years old (13.18 ± 0.93 years), enrolled in the study by random cluster sampling. Height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured following standard protocols, and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Overweight/obesity and hypertension were defined according to sex- and age-specific Chinese children reference data. The Smartphone Addiction Scale short version (SAS-SV) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to assess smartphone addiction and sleep quality among the students, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to seek associations between smartphone addiction and hypertension.


The prevalence of hypertension and smartphone addiction among participants were 16.2% (13.1% for females and 18.9% for males) and 22.8% (22.3% for females and 23.2% for males), respectively. Obesity (OR = 4.028, 95% CI: 2.829-5.735), poor sleep quality (OR = 4.243, 95% CI: 2.429-7.411), smartphone addiction (OR = 2.205, 95% CI: 1.273-3.820) were significantly and independently associated with hypertension.


Among the junior school students surveyed in China, the prevalence of hypertension was high, which was related to obesity, poor sleep quality and smartphone addiction. These results suggested that smartphone addiction may be a new risk factor for high blood pressure in adolescents.


Adolescent hypertension; Body mass index; Obesity; Sleep quality; Smartphone addiction

PMID: 31484568

DOI: 10.1186/s12887-019-1699-9