The comparison of temperament and character between patients with internet gaming disorder and those with alcohol dependence (2017)

J Ment Health. 2017 Jan 28:1-6. doi: 10.1080/09638237.2016.1276530.

Lee YS1, Son JH1, Park JH1, Kim SM1, Kee BS1, Han DH1.



The differences in prevalence, natural history, and disease progression between Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and substance use disorder contribute to the controversy over IGD as a diagnosis under substance-related and addictive disorders.


The purpose of the current study was to assess the temperament and character of subjects with IGD in comparison with those with alcohol dependence (AD).


Temperament and character were assessed using Cloningernt temperament and character inventory (TCI). The severity of IGD or AD, depressed mood, anxiety, attention and impulsiveness were assessed using each of the six scales.


Among patients with AD, after controlling for other variables, the severity of AD was positively correlated with harm avoidance (HA) score and depressed mood. Among patients with IGD, after controlling for other variables, the severity of IGD was positively correlated with novelty seeking (NS) score, impulsiveness and attention.


There were significant differences in temperament and character between the IGD and AD groups as measured using the TCI. These results suggest that IGD and AD need to be categorized separately in a diagnostic classification system and benefit from different treatment approaches.


Internet gaming disorder; alcohol dependence; harm avoidance; novelty seeking; temperament and character inventory

PMID: 28132570

DOI: 10.1080/09638237.2016.1276530