There are no scientific studies that say porn is addictive, right?

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Research is beginning to confirm that pornography addiction is a true addiction, like gambling

This FAQ is quckly becoming obsolete as the current sate of the reserach supports porn addiction and porn-induced sexual dysunctions. For example, a few lists:

Incidentally, as of 2016, close to 30% of men who use porn are reporting problems, or testing as having problems. (The first of those two studies also reported that half of porn users have escalated to material they once found "uninteresting" or "disgusting." Escalation is evidence of "tolerance," an indication of addiction.)

Want to see papers that bear on internet porn's addictiveness? Here are recent neuroscience-based reviews of the literature, which focus on research on porn users:

  1. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update (2015). The review also critiques two recent headline-grabbing EEG studies which purport to have "debunked" porn addiction.
  2. Sex Addiction as a Disease: Evidence for Assessment, Diagnosis, and Response to Critics (2015), which provides a chart that takes on specific criticisms and offers citations that counter them.
  3. Neurobiology of Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Emerging Science (2016) Excerpt: "Given some similarities between CSB and drug addictions, interventions effective for addictions may hold promise for CSB, thus providing insight into future research directions to investigate this possibility directly."
  4. Should Compulsive Sexual Behavior be Considered an Addiction? (2016) Excerpt: "Overlapping features exist between CSB and substance use disorders. Common neurotransmitter systems may contribute to CSB and substance use disorders, and recent neuroimaging studies highlight similarities relating to craving and attentional biases. Similar pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments may be applicable to CSB and substance addictions"
  5. Neurobiological Basis of Hypersexuality (2016). Excerpt: "Taken together, the evidence seems to imply that alterations in the frontal lobe, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, septum, and brain regions that process reward play a prominent role in the emergence of hypersexuality. Genetic studies and neuropharmacological treatment approaches point at an involvement of the dopaminergic system."
  6. Compulsive Sexual Behaviour as a Behavioural Addiction: The Impact of the Internet and Other Issues (2016)  Excerpts: "more emphasis is needed on the characteristics of the internet as these may facilitate problematic sexual behaviour." and "clinical evidence from those who help and treat such individuals should be given greater credence by the psychiatric community."
  7. Cybersex Addiction (2015) Excerpts: In recent articles, cybersex addiction is considered a specific type of Internet addiction. Some current studies investigated parallels between cybersex addiction and other behavioral addictions, such as Internet Gaming Disorder. Cue-reactivity and craving are considered to play a major role in cybersex addiction. Neuroimaging studies support the assumption of meaningful commonalities between cybersex addiction and other behavioral addictions as well as substance dependency.
  8. Searching for clarity in muddy water: future considerations for classifying compulsive sexual behavior as an addiction (2016) - Excerpts: We recently considered evidence for classifying compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) as a non-substance (behavioral) addiction. Our review found that CSB shared clinical, neurobiological and phenomenological parallels with substance-use disorders. Although the American Psychiatric Association rejected hypersexual disorder from DSM-5, a diagnosis of CSB (excessive sex drive) can be made using ICD-10. CSB is also being considered by ICD-11.
  9. Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review with Clinical Reports (2016). - An extensive review of the literature related to porn-induced sexual problems. Involving US Navy doctors, the review provides the latest data revealing a tremendous rise in youthful sexual problems. It also reviews the neurological studies related to porn addiction and sexual conditioning via Internet porn. The doctors provide 3 clinical reports of men who developed porn-induced sexual dysfunctions.
  10. Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders: An Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution model (2016). - A review of the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders, including "Internet-pornography-viewing disorder". The authors suggest that pornography addiction (and cybersex addiction) be classified as internet use disorders and placed with other behavioral addictions under substance-use disorders as addictive behaviors.
  11. Neuroscientific Approaches to Online Pornography Addiction (2017) - Excerpt: In the last two decades, several studies with neuroscientific approaches, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), were conducted to explore the neural correlates of watching pornography under experimental conditions and the neural correlates of excessive pornography use. Given previous results, excessive pornography consumption can be connected to already known neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development of substance-related addictions.
  12. Neuroscientific Approaches to Online Pornography Addiction (2017) - Excerpt: In the last two decades, several studies with neuroscientific approaches, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), were conducted to explore the neural correlates of watching pornography under experimental conditions and the neural correlates of excessive pornography use. Given previous results, excessive pornography consumption can be connected to already known neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development of substance-related addictions.
  13. Is excessive sexual behaviour an addictive disorder? (2017) - Excerpts: Research into the neurobiology of compulsive sexual behaviour disorder has generated findings relating to attentional biases, incentive salience attributions, and brain-based cue reactivity that suggest substantial similarities with addictions. We believe that classification of compulsive sexual behaviour disorder as an addictive disorder is consistent with recent data and might benefit clinicians, researchers, and individuals suffering from and personally affected by this disorder.
  • See Questionable & Misleading Studies for highly publicized papers that are not what they claim to be.
  • See this page for the many studies linking porn use to sexual problems and decreased sexual & relationship satisfaction

Recent studies assessing brain structure & functioning of Internet porn users:

  1. Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated With Pornography Consumption: The Brain on Porn (2014) - A German fMRI study which found 3 significant addiction-related brain changes correlating with the amount of porn consumed. It also found that more porn use correlated with less reward circuit activation while viewing sexual photos. Researchers stated their findings indicated desensitization, and possibly tolerance, the need for greater stimulation.
  2. Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviours (2014) - The first in a series of Cambridge University studies found the same brain activity as seen in drug addicts and alcoholics. It also found that porn addicts fit the accepted addiction model of wanting "it" more, but not liking "it" more. The researchers also reported that 60% of subjects (average age: 25) had difficulty achieving erections/arousal with real partners, yet could achieve erections with porn.
  3. Enhanced Attentional Bias towards Sexually Explicit Cues in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviours (2014) - The second Cambridge University study. An excerpt: "Our findings of enhanced attentional bias... suggest possible overlaps with enhanced attentional bias observed in studies of drug cues in disorders of addictions. These findings converge with recent findings of neural reactivity to sexually explicit cues in [porn addicts] in a network similar to that implicated in drug-cue-reactivity studies and provide support for incentive motivation theories of addiction underlying the aberrant response to sexual cues in [porn addicts]."
  4. Novelty, Conditioning and Attentional Bias to Sexual Rewards (2015) - Compared to controls porn addicts preferred sexual novelty and conditioned cues associated porn. However, the brains of porn addicts habituated faster to sexual images. Since novelty preference wasn't pre-existing, porn addiction drives novelty-seeking in an attempt to overcome habituation and desensitization.
  5. Neural Substrates of Sexual Desire in Individuals with Problematic Hypersexual Behavior (2015) - This Korean fMRI study replicates other brain studies on porn users. Like the Cambridge University studies it found cue-induced brain activation patterns in sex addicts which mirrored the patterns of drug addicts. In line with several German studies it found alterations in the prefrontal cortex which match the changes observed in drug addicts.
  6. Sexual Desire, not Hypersexuality, is Related to Neurophysiological Responses Elicited by Sexual Images (2013) - This EEG study was touted in the media as evidence against the existence of porn addiction. Not so. This SPAN Lab study, like #5 below, actually supports the existence of porn addiction. Why? The study reported higher EEG readings (P300) when subjects were exposed to porn photos. Studies consistently show that an elevated P300 occurs when addicts are exposed to cues (such as images) related to their addiction. However, the study had no control group for comparison, which made the findings uninterpretable. In line with the Cambridge studies, the authors reported greater cue-reactivity to porn correlated with less desire for partnered sex. Nether finding matched the headlines. Read more.
  7. Modulation of Late Positive Potentials by Sexual Images in Problem Users and Controls Inconsistent with "Porn Addiction" (2015) - Another SPAN Lab EEG study comparing the 2013 subjects from the above study to an actual control group. The results: compared to controls porn addicts had less response to photos of vanilla porn. The lead author, Nicole Prause, claims these results debunk porn addiction, yet these findings align perfectly with Kühn & Gallinat (2014), which found that more porn use correlated with less brain activation in response to pictures of vanilla porn. In other words, "porn addicts" were desensitized and needed greater stimulation than non-addicts. Big surprise (read more).
  8. HPA Axis Dysregulation in Men With Hypersexual Disorder (2015) - A study with 67 male sex addicts and 39 age-matched controls. The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is the central player in our stress response. Addictions alter the brain's stress circuits leading to a dysfunctional HPA axis. This study on sex addicts (hypersexuals) found altered stress responses that mirror the findings with substance addictions.
  9. The Role of Neuroinflammation in the Pathophysiology of Hypersexual Disorder (2016) - This study reported higher levels of circulating Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) in sex addicts when compared to healthy controls. Elevated levels of TNF (a marker of inflammation) have also been found in substance abusers and drug addicted animals (alcohol, heroin, meth). There were strong correlations between TNF levels and rating scales measuring hypersexuality. 
  10. Methylation of HPA Axis Related Genes in Men With Hypersexual Disorder (2017) - This is a follow-up of #8 above which found that sex addicts have dysfunctional stress systems - a key neuro-endocrine change caused by addiction. The current study found epigenetic changes on genes central to the human stress response and closely associated with addiction. With epigenetic changes, the DNA sequence isn't altered (as happens with a mutation). Instead, the gene is tagged and its expression is turned up or down (short video explaining epigenetics). The epigenetic changes reported in this study resulted in altered CRF gene activity. CRF is a neurotransmitter and hormone that drives addictive behaviors such as cravings, and is a major player in many of the withdrawal symptoms experienced in connection with substance and behavioral addictions, including porn addiction.
  11. Compulsive sexual behavior: Prefrontal and limbic volume and interactions (2016) - Compared to healthy controls CSB subjects (porn addicts) had increased left amygdala volume and reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC. Reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex aligns with substance addictions. It is thought that poorer connectivity diminishes the prefrontal cortex's control over a user's impulse to engage in the addictive behavior. This study suggests that drug toxicity may lead to less gray matter and thus reduced amygdala volume in drug addicts. The amygdala is consistently active during porn viewing, especially during initial exposure to a sexual cue. Perhaps the constant sexual novelty and searching and seeking leads to a unique effect on the amygdala in compulsive porn users. Alternatively, years of porn addiction and severe negative consequences is very stressful - and chronic social stress is related to increased amygdala volume. Study #8 above found that "sex addicts" have a overactive stress system. Could the chronic stress related to porn/sex addiction, along with factors that make sex unique, lead to greater amygdala volume?
  12. Ventral striatum activity when watching preferred pornographic pictures is correlated with symptoms of Internet pornography addiction (2016) - Finding #1: Reward center activity (ventral striatum) was higher for preferred pornographic pictures. Finding #2: Ventral striatum reactivity correlated with the internet sex addiction score. Both findings indicate sensitization and align with the addiction model. The authors state that the "Neural basis of Internet pornography addiction is comparable to other addictions."
  13. Altered Appetitive Conditioning and Neural Connectivity in Subjects With Compulsive Sexual Behavior (2016) - A German fMRI study replicating two major findings from Voon et al., 2014 and Kuhn & Gallinat 2014. Main Findings: The neural correlates of appetitive conditioning and neural connectivity were altered in the CSB group. According to the researchers, the first alteration - heightened amygdala activation - might reflect facilitated conditioning (greater "wiring" to previously neutral cues predicting porn images). The second alteration - decreased connectivity between the ventral striatum and the prefrontal cortex - could be a marker for impaired ability to control impulses. Said the researchers, "These [alterations] are in line with other studies investigating the neural correlates of addiction disorders and impulse control deficits." The findings of greater amygdalar activation to cues (sensitization) and decreased connectivity between the reward center and the prefrontal cortex (hypofrontality) are two of the major brain changes seen in substance addiction. In addition, 3 of the 20 compulsive porn users suffered from "orgasmic-erection disorder"
  14. Compulsivity across the pathological misuse of drug and non-drug rewards (2016) - A Cambridge University study comparing aspects of compulsivity in alcoholics, binge-eaters, video game addicts and porn addicts (CSB). Excerpts: CSB subjects were faster to learning from rewards in the acquisition phase compared to healthy volunteers and were more likely to perseverate or stay after either a loss or a win in the Reward condition. These findings converge with our previous findings of enhanced preference for stimuli conditioned to either sexual or monetary outcomes, overall suggesting enhanced sensitivity to rewards (Banca et al., 2016).
  15. Can Pornography be Addictive? An fMRI Study of Men Seeking Treatment for Problematic Pornography Use (2017) - Excerpts: Men with and without problematic porn use (PPU) differed in brain reactions to cues predicting erotic pictures, but not in reactions to erotic pictures themselves, consistent with the incentive salience theory of addictions. This brain activation was accompanied by increased behavioral motivation to view erotic images (higher 'wanting'). Ventral striatal reactivity for cues predicting erotic pictures was significantly related to the severity of PPU, amount of pornography use per week and number of weekly masturbations. Our findings suggest that like in substance-use and gambling disorders the neural and behavioral mechanisms linked to anticipatory processing of cues relate importantly to clinically relevant features of PPU. These findings suggest that PPU may represent a behavioral addiction and that interventions helpful in targeting behavioral and substance addictions warrant consideration for adaptation and use in helping men with PPU.
  16. Conscious and Non-Conscious Measures of Emotion: Do They Vary with Frequency of Pornography Use? (2017) – Study assessed porn user’s responses (EEG readings & Startle Response) to various emotion-inducing images – including erotica. The study found several neurological  differences between low frequency porn users and high frequency porn users. An excerpt: Findings suggest that increased pornography use appears to have an influence on the brain’s non-conscious responses to emotion-inducing stimuli which was not shown by explicit self-report.
  17. Preliminary investigation of the impulsive and neuroanatomical characteristics of compulsive sexual behavior (2009) - Primarily sex addicts. Study reports more impulsive behavior in a Go-NoGo task in sex addicts (hypersexuals) compared to control participants. Brain scans revealed that sex addicts had greater disorganized prefrontal cortex white matter. This finding is consistent with hypofrontality, a hallmark of addiction.
  18. Self-reported differences on measures of executive function and hypersexual behavior in a patient and community sample of men (2010) - Patients seeking help for hypersexual behavior often exhibit features of impulsivity, cognitive rigidity, poor judgment, deficits in emotion regulation, and excessive preoccupation with sex. Some of these characteristics are also common among patients presenting with neurological pathology associated with executive dysfunction. These observations led to the current investigation of differences between a group of hypersexual patients (n = 87) and a non-hypersexual community sample (n = 92) of men using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version  Hypersexual behavior was positively correlated with global indices of executive dysfunction and several subscales of the BRIEF-A. These findings provide preliminary evidence supporting the hypothesis that executive dysfunction may be implicated in hypersexual behavior.
  19. Watching Pornographic Pictures on the Internet: Role of Sexual Arousal Ratings and Psychological-Psychiatric Symptoms for Using Internet Sex Sites Excessively (2011) - Results indicate that self-reported problems in daily life linked to online sexual activities were predicted by subjective sexual arousal ratings of the pornographic material, global severity of psychological symptoms, and the number of sex applications used when being on Internet sex sites in daily life, while the time spent on Internet sex sites (minutes per day) did not significantly contribute to explanation of variance in IATsex score. We see some parallels between cognitive and brain mechanisms potentially contributing to the maintenance of excessive cybersex and those described for individuals with substance dependence
  20. Pornographic picture processing interferes with working memory performance (2013) - Some individuals report problems during and after Internet sex engagement, such as missing sleep and forgetting appointments, which are associated with negative life consequences. One mechanism potentially leading to these kinds of problems is that sexual arousal during Internet sex might interfere with working memory (WM) capacity, resulting in a neglect of relevant environmental information and therefore disadvantageous decision making. Results revealed worse WM performance in the pornographic picture condition of the 4-back task compared with the three remaining picture conditions. Findings are discussed with respect to Internet addiction because WM interference by addiction-related cues is well known from substance dependencies.
  21. Sexual Picture Processing Interferes with Decision-Making Under Ambiguity (2013) - Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use.
  22. Cybersex addiction: Experienced sexual arousal when watching pornography and not real-life sexual contacts makes the difference (2013) - The results show that indicators of sexual arousal and craving to Internet pornographic cues predicted tendencies towards cybersex addiction in the first study. Moreover, it was shown that problematic cybersex users report greater sexual arousal and craving reactions resulting from pornographic cue presentation. In both studies, the number and the quality with real-life sexual contacts were not associated to cybersex addiction. The results support the gratification hypothesis, which assumes reinforcement, learning mechanisms, and craving to be relevant processes in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Poor or unsatisfying sexual real life contacts cannot sufficiently explain cybersex addiction.
  23. Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Considerations on Factors Contributing to Cybersex Addiction From a Cognitive-Behavioral View (2014) - Dysfunctional use of sex mediated the relationship of sexual excitability with cybersex addiction (CA). The results of the study show that there are factors of vulnerability to CA and provide evidence for the role of sexual gratification and dysfunctional coping in the development of cybersex addiction.
  24. Cybersex addiction in heterosexual female users of internet pornography can be explained by gratification hypothesis (2014) - Results indicated that Internet porn users rated pornographic pictures as more arousing and reported greater craving due to pornographic picture presentation compared with non-users. Moreover, craving, sexual arousal rating of pictures, sensitivity to sexual excitation, problematic sexual behavior, and severity of psychological symptoms predicted tendencies toward cybersex addiction in porn users. Being in a relationship, number of sexual contacts, satisfaction with sexual contacts, and use of interactive cybersex were not associated with cybersex addiction.
  25. Prefrontal control and internet addiction: a theoretical model and review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings (2015) - Consistent with this, results from functional neuroimaging and other neuropsychological studies demonstrate that cue-reactivity, craving, and decision making are important concepts for understanding Internet addiction. The findings on reductions in executive control are consistent with other behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling. They also emphasize the classification of the phenomenon as an addiction, because there are also several similarities with findings in substance dependency.  Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions.
  26. Implicit associations in cybersex addiction: Adaption of an Implicit Association Test with pornographic pictures. (2015) - Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving.
  27. Symptoms of cybersex addiction can be linked to both approaching and avoiding pornographic stimuli: results from an analog sample of regular cybersex users (2015) - Results showed that individuals with tendencies toward cybersex addiction tended to either approach or avoid pornographic stimuli. Additionally, moderated regression analyses revealed that individuals with high sexual excitation and problematic sexual behavior who showed high approach/avoidance tendencies, reported higher symptoms of cybersex addiction. Analogous to substance dependencies, results suggest that both approach and avoidance tendencies might play a role in cybersex addiction.
  28. Getting stuck with pornography? Overuse or neglect of cybersex cues in a multitasking situation is related to symptoms of cybersex addiction (2015) - Individuals with tendencies towards cybersex addiction seem to have either an inclination to avoid or to approach the pornographic material, as discussed in motivational models of addiction. The results of the current study point towards a role of executive control functions, i.e. functions mediated by the prefrontal cortex, for the development and maintenance of problematic cybersex use (as suggested by Brand et al., 2014). Particularly a reduced ability to monitor consumption and to switch between pornographic material and other contents in a goal adequate manner may be one mechanism in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction.
  29. Trading Later Rewards for Current Pleasure: Pornography Consumption and Delay Discounting (2015) - Study 1: Participants completed a pornography use questionnaire and a delay discounting task at Time 1 and then again four weeks later. Participants reporting higher initial pornography use demonstrated a higher delay discounting rate at Time 2, controlling for initial delay discounting. Study 2:  Participants who abstained from pornography use demonstrated lower delay discounting than participants who abstained from their favorite food. The finding suggests that Internet pornography is a sexual reward that contributes to delay discounting differently than other natural rewards. It is therefore important to treat pornography as a unique stimulus in reward, impulsivity, and addiction studies and to apply this accordingly in individual as well as relational treatment.
  30. Sexual Excitability and Dysfunctional Coping Determine Cybersex Addiction in Homosexual Males (2015) - Recent findings have demonstrated an association between CyberSex Addiction (CA) severity and indicators of sexual excitability, and that coping by sexual behaviors mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA symptoms. The aim of this study was to test this mediation in a sample of homosexual males.  Questionnaires assessed symptoms of CA, sensitivity to sexual excitation, pornography use motivation, problematic sexual behavior, psychological symptoms, and sexual behaviors in real life and online. Moreover, participants viewed pornographic videos and indicated their sexual arousal before and after the video presentation. Results showed strong correlations between CA symptoms and indicators of sexual arousal and sexual excitability, coping by sexual behaviors, and psychological symptoms. CA was not associated with offline sexual behaviors and weekly cybersex use time. Coping by sexual behaviors partially mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA. The results are comparable with those reported for heterosexual males and females in previous studies and are discussed against the background of theoretical assumptions of CA, which highlight the role of positive and negative reinforcement due to cybersex use.
  31. Subjective Craving for Pornography and Associative Learning Predict Tendencies Towards Cybersex Addiction in a Sample of Regular Cybersex Users (2016) - There is no consensus regarding the diagnostic criteria of cybersex addiction. Some approaches postulate similarities to substance dependencies, for which associative learning is a crucial mechanism. In this study, 86 heterosexual males completed a Standard Pavlovian to Instrumental Transfer Task modified with pornographic pictures to investigate associative learning in cybersex addiction. Additionally, subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures and tendencies towards cybersex addiction were assessed. Results showed an effect of subjective craving on tendencies towards cybersex addiction, moderated by associative learning.  Overall, these findings point towards a crucial role of associative learning for the development of cybersex addiction, while providing further empirical evidence for similarities between substance dependencies and cybersex addiction
  32. Exploring the Relationship between Sexual Compulsivity and Attentional Bias to Sex-Related Words in a Cohort of Sexually Active Individuals (2016) - This study replicates the findings of this 2014 Cambridge University study that compared the attentional bias of porn addicts to healthy controls. The new study differs: rather than comparing porn addicts to controls, the new study correlated scores on a sex addiction questionnaire to the results of a task assessing attentional bias (explanation of attentional bias). The study described two key results: 1) Higher sexual compulsivity scores correlated with greater interference (increased distraction) during the attentional bias task. This aligns with substance abuse studies. 2) Among those scoring high on sexual addiction, fewer years of sexual experience were related to greater attentional bias. The authors concluded that this result could indicate that more years of "compulsive sexual activity" lead to greater habituation or a general numbing of the pleasure response (desensitization). An excerpt from the conclusion section: "One possible explanation for these results is that as a sexually compulsive individual engages in more compulsive behaviour, an associated arousal template develops and that over time, more extreme behaviour is required for the same level of arousal to be realised. It is further argued that as an individual engages in more compulsive behaviour, neuropathways become desensitized to more ‘normalised’ sexual stimuli or images and individuals turn to more ‘extreme’ stimuli to realise the arousal desired."
  33. Mood changes after watching pornography on the Internet are linked to symptoms of Internet-pornography-viewing disorder (2016) - Excerpts: The main results of the study are that tendencies towards Internet Pornography Disorder (IPD) were associated negatively with feeling generally good, awake, and calm as well as positively with perceived stress in daily life and the motivation to use Internet pornography in terms of excitation seeking and emotional avoidance.  Furthermore, tendencies towards IPD were negatively related to mood before and after watching Internet pornography as well as an actual increase of good and calm mood. The relationship between tendencies towards IPD and excitement seeking due to Internet-pornography use was moderated by the evaluation of the experienced orgasm's satisfaction. Generally, the results of the study are in line with the hypothesis that IPD is linked to the motivation to find sexual gratification and to avoid or to cope with aversive emotions as well as with the assumption that mood changes following pornography consumption are linked to IPD (Cooper et al., 1999 and Laier and Brand, 2014).
  34. Problematic sexual behavior in young adults: Associations across clinical, behavioral, and neurocognitive variables (2016) - Individuals with Problematic Sexual Behaviors (PSB) exhibited several neuro-cognitive deficits. These findings indicate poorer executive functioning (hypofrontality) which is a key brain feature occuring in drug addicts. A few excerpts: From this characterization, it is be possible to trace the problems evident in PSB and additional clinical features, such as emotional dysregulation, to particular cognitive deficits…. If the cognitive problems identified in this analysis are actually the core feature of PSB, this may have notable clinical implications.
  35. Executive Functioning of Sexually Compulsive and Non-Sexually Compulsive Men Before and After Watching an Erotic Video (2017) - Exposure to porn affected executive functioning in men with "compulsive sexual behaviors", but not healthy controls. Poorer executive functioning when exposed to addiction-related cues is a hallmark of substance disorders (indicating both altered prefrontal circuits and sensitization). Excerpts: This finding indicates better cognitive flexibility after sexual stimulation by controls compared with sexually compulsive participants. These data support the idea that sexually compulsive men do not to take advantage of the possible learning effect from experience, which could result in better behavior modification. This also could be understood as a lack of a learning effect by the sexually compulsive group when they were sexually stimulated, similar to what happens in the cycle of sexual addiction, which starts with an increasing amount of sexual cognition, followed by the activation of sexual scripts and then orgasm, very often involving exposure to risky situations.
  36. Exposure to Sexual Stimuli Induces Greater Discounting Leading to Increased Involvement in Cyber Delinquency Among Men (2017) - In two studies exposure to visual sexual stimuli resulted in: 1) greater delayed discounting (inability to delay gratification), 2) greater inclination to engage in cyber-deliquency, 3) greater inclination to purchase counterfeit goods & hack someone's Facebook account. Taken together this indicates that porn use increases impulsivity and may reduce certain executive functions (self-control, judgment, foreseeing consequences, impulse control). Excerpt: These findings provide insight into a strategy for reducing men's involvement in cyber delinquency; that is, through less exposure to sexual stimuli and promotion of delayed gratification. The current results suggest that the high availability of sexual stimuli in cyberspace may be more closely associated with men's cyber-delinquent behavior than previously thought.
  37. Predictors for (Problematic) Use of Internet Sexually Explicit Material: Role of Trait Sexual Motivation and Implicit Approach Tendencies Towards Sexually Explicit Material (2017) - Excerpts: The present study investigated whether trait sexual motivation and implicit approach tendencies towards sexual material are predictors of problematic SEM use and of the daily time spent watching SEM. In a behavioral experiment, we used the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) for measuring implicit approach tendencies towards sexual material. A positive correlation between implicit approach tendency towards SEM and the daily time spent on watching SEM might be explained by attentional effects: A high implicit approach tendency can be interpreted as an attentional bias towards SEM. A subject with this attentional bias might be more attracted to sexual cues on the Internet resulting in higher amounts of time spent on SEM sites.

Together these brain studies found:

  1. The 3 major addiction-related brain changes: sensitization, desensitization, and hypofrontality.
  2. More porn use correlated with less grey matter in the reward circuit (dorsal striatum).
  3. More porn use correlated with less reward circuit activation when viewing sexual images.
  4. More porn use correlated with disrupted neural connections between the reward circuit and prefrontal cortex.
  5. Addicts had greater prefrontal activity to sexual cues, but less brain activity to normal stimuli (matches drug addiction).
  6. 60% of compulsive porn addicted subjects in one study experienced ED or low libido with partners, but not with porn: all stated that internet porn use caused their ED/low libido.
  7. Enhanced attentional bias comparable to drug users. Indicates sensitization (a product of DeltaFosb).
  8. Greater wanting & craving for porn, but not greater liking. This aligns with the accepted model of addiction - incentive sensitization.
  9. Porn addicts have greater preference for sexual novelty yet their brains habituated faster to sexual images. Not pre-existing.
  10. The younger the porn users the greater the cue-induced reactivity in the reward center.
  11. Higher EEG (P300) readings when porn users were exposed to porn cues (which occurs in other addictions).
  12. Less desire for sex with a person correlating with greater cue-reactivity to porn images.
  13. More porn use related with lower LPP amplitude when viewing sexual photos: indicates habituation or desensitization.
  14. Dysfunctional HPA axis which reflects altered brain stress circuits, which occurs in drug addictions (and greater amygdala volume, which isassociated with chronic social stress).
  15. Epigenetic changes on genes central to the human stress response and closely associated with addiction.
  16. Higher levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) - which also occurs in drug abuse and addiction.

What about neurological studies that debunk porn addiction? There are none. While the lead author of Prause et al., 2015 claimed her lone EEG study falsified pornography addiction, six peer-reviewed papers disagree: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. The neuroscientists on these six papers state that Prause et al. actually found desensitization/habituation (consistent with the development of addiction) as less brain activation to vanilla porn (pictures) was related to greater porn use. Unbelievably, the Prause et al. team boldly claimed to have falsified the porn addiction model with a single paragraph taken from this 2016 "letter to the editor." In reality the Prause letter falsified nothing, as this extensive critique reveals: Letter to the editor “Prause et al. (2015) the latest falsification of addiction predictions" (2016).


While we wait for further brain studies on porn users, over 240+ brain studies have already confirmed that "Internet addicts" develop the same major brain changes that occur in all addictions  However, these studies did not separate out porn addiction from other types of Internet addictions. Who uses the Internet for only porn? In fact, researchers have already looked into the brains of over-eaters, Internet users and video gamers (and drug addicts). In each case, researchers have discovered that non-drug stimuli at sufficient intensity cause three major brain changes caused by addiction - desensitization, sensitization, and hypofrontality. (Also see: Internet Addiction Summaries, Recent Internet Addiction Brain Studies Include Porn, and Internet Addiction Studies Containing Excerpts About Porn).

Why are there not even more studies on porn users? Sexual politics once obscured the increased vulnerability of those pursuing cybersex/porn. A 2006 Dutch study found that erotica had the highest addictive potential of all Internet applications. No wonder. Internet erotica is an extreme version of a natural reward that we're all wired to pursue: apparent mating opportunities.

Meanwhile, the “not sufficient scientific evidence” argument is not a sound argument where there has not been much in-depth study. Keep in mind that the tobacco companies long used the "little scientific evidence" argument to defend against the overwhelming circumstantial evidence that cigarettes were lethal. In fact, they hired doctors to do commercials assuring smokers that "Smoking is good for your lungs."

Science marches faster with less controversial behavioral addictions. Every month, new studies appear showing addictive processes in the brains of others who have used supernormal versions of natural rewards to excess (gamblers, over-eaters, video gamers etc.). This is why, in 2011, the 3000 doctors of the American Society for Addiction Medicine (ASAM) came out with a public statement clarifying that behavioral addictions (sex, food, gambling) are fundamentally like substance addictions in terms of brain changes.

We all have the brain reward circuitry that makes food and sex rewarding. In fact, this is a survival mechanism. In a healthy brain, these rewards have feedback mechanisms for satiety or ‘enough.’ In someone with addiction, the circuitry becomes dysfunctional such that the message to the individual becomes ‘more’, which leads to the pathological pursuit of rewards and/or relief through the use of substances and behaviors.— The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM)

But ‘porn addiction’ isn’t in the APA's DSM-5, right? When the APA last updated the manual in 2013 (DSM-5), it didn’t formally consider “internet porn addiction,” opting instead to debate “hypersexual disorder.” The latter umbrella term for problematic sexual behavior was recommended for inclusion by the DSM-5’s own Sexuality Work Group after years of review. However, in an eleventh-hour “star chamber” session (according to a Work Group member), other DSM-5 officials unilaterally rejected hypersexuality, citing reasons that have been described as illogical.

Just prior to the DSM-5’s publication in 2013, Thomas Insel, then Director of the National Institute of Mental Health, warned that it was time for the mental health field to stop relying on the DSM. Its "weakness is its lack of validity," he explained, and "we cannot succeed if we use DSM categories as the "gold standard." He added, "That is why NIMH will be re-orienting its research away from DSM categories." In other words, the NIMH planned to stop funding research based on DSM labels (and their absence).

The World Health Organization appears poised to set right the APA’s excessive caution. The next edition of its diagnostic manual, the ICD, is due out in 2018. The beta draft of the new ICD-11 includes a diagnosis for “Compulsive sexual behavior disorder,” as well as one for “Disorders due to addictive behaviors.”

Moreover, there’s a growing body of research linking porn use or porn/sex addiction to sexual dysfunctions, lower brain activation to sexual stimuli, and lower sexual satisfaction. And plenty of anecdotal evidence of problematic porn use. Self-reports of distressed users—more and more of them in their twenties or even younger—recount:

There is sometimes an outdated assumption among non-addiction experts that these users are a tiny minority with preexisting conditions that make them uniquely vulnerable to addiction ('impulsives' or 'novelty-seekers,' perhaps). Yet new research is not bearing that assumption out. Moreover, when porn users stop overstimulating their brains, many bounce back to excellent emotional health. This suggests that "normal" brains are vulnerable to today's hypersexual stimulation.

The fact that not everyone who uses porn uses it to a point where it interferes with his life doesn’t prove it cannot cause addiction. Not everyone who uses alcohol becomes an alcoholic, yet alcohol is unquestionably potentially addictive. Some experts meanwhile hesitate to label compulsive Internet porn use as an addiction because past research hasn't sufficiently revealed the withdrawal and tolerance phenomena. However, it’s considered likely that the “missing” research is due to methodological challenges rather than the absence of the phenomena themselves. In the absence of formal research, here are numerous self-reports of withdrawal symptoms and evidence of tolerance culled from anonymous online posts of recovering users:

The upper limit of natural dopamine release is sex. In theory, porn cannot be higher than sex. Obviously, most people have sex without becoming addicted to it. This is very confusing, and one reason why most psychologists once denied that porn addiction existed. However, it's likely that

  1. chronic use (many hits on demand, like smoking packs of cigarettes, which is very addictive—more so than heroin use, in fact, because the latter happens with less frequency even though the buzz is bigger), and
  2. overriding natural satiation mechanisms

both contribute to dopamine dysregulation and addiction. Moreover, as youngsters start out on streaming porn, their brains appear to be wiring sexual arousal to the unique attributes of screens: voyeurism, endless novelty, ease of escalation to more extreme stimulation, particular fetishes, etc. Even if they don't become addicts, many users are reporting sexual difficulties with real partners: Studies linking porn use or porn/sex addiction to sexual dysfunctions, lower brain activation to sexual stimuli, and lower sexual satisfaction.

With respect to the first point, there are likely to be more Internet porn addicts in the making than sex addicts, because a porn user can obtain constant hits of dopamine merely by clicking for free, whereas a sex addict must go through an entire seduction or other ritual. With respect to the second point about overriding normal satiety, consider obese people for a moment. Brain research shows that most are addicted to food, i.e., that their dopamine receptors have declined. Yet eating fattening or sweet food releases only half as much dopamine as sex/masturbation. Overriding feelings of fullness/satiety (eating when you're not really hungry, masturbating when you're not really horny) appears to cause dopamine dysregulation in some.

Dopamine levels in response to food and sex

There's also something called 'sensitization' at work in addicts' brains, and multiple studies listed at the top of this page have found evidence of sensitization in porn users.

Time for informed choices

Now that so many Internet users have unrestricted access to today’s porn they need to be able to make informed choices about its effects. Informed choice calls for in-depth research about the longer-term effects of the frequent use of hypersexual materials. Meanwhile, it is wise to make personal experiments by removing internet porn from your life for a few months and draw your own conclusions.

It would be good if researchers asked porn users to remove porn to isolate its effects. More research also needs to ask:

  • How many users are showing symptoms, in which age groups?
  • What percentage of the general population, without pre-existing disorders, become addicted or develop porn-related pathologies?
  • How many compulsive Internet porn users had no other addiction prior to use?
  • How long does it typically take heavy users to progress from asymptomatic to symptomatic? (In this regard, most of the users who have offered recovery self-reports firmly believed Internet porn was harmless for years before their symptoms gradually became too severe to ignore.)
  • Are porn users inadvertently rewiring their sexual tastes as they use?
  • Are youthful erectile dysfunction and numbed clitorises from vibrator use (which women report) related to porn-use related brain changes?
  • Is there a trend toward compulsive use, such that the percentage of porn addicts rises as stimuli grow more extreme? (Particularly important now that virtual reality porn has arrived.)
  • To what extent are pubescent/adolescent brains more vulnerable to porn addiction than adult brains?
  • How long does it generally take the brains of those adversely affected to bounce back to normal sensitivity when they quit, and what turning points reflect which neurochemical events?

Fifty years ago, as our diet was flooded with junk-food, our culture assumed that self-control would protect people against obesity—except for an unlucky few who were predisposed to become fat due to genetic vulnerability. Today, 79% of Americans have a BMI of 25+ (18.5-24.9 is normal, 30 obese), and about half of those are already at 30+. And the USA is only the eighth fattest country. As our diets have changed, so have our appetites. Our ability to register satiety has declined. Can we assume self-control is adequate protection against this phenomenon in the case of supernormally stimulating, streaming porn consumption?

Just as our ancestors didn’t have access to plentiful, cheap food calculated to titillate human taste buds, they also didn’t have access to novel sexual titillation at a swipe or click. Numbed brains seek more stimulation, so the ubiquitous options to goose the brain by swiping/clicking to porn or gulping a soda constitute a risk that past generations didn’t face. It’s likely that “unnatural” versions of natural reinforcers may put at risk more of the user population than do other addictive substances/behaviors.

A rapidly changing reality, such as the recent lightening-like transition from porn magazines to streaming online pornography, can leave research behind the curve. Perhaps the necessary brain research on porn users and recovered porn users could help both sides of the noisy porn debate to see which fears are well grounded and which make the effects of porn more dangerous by making its use risky or forbidden.

Comments

Addiction is the use of something where you can no longer manage the use and the resulting behavior.

Unmanageability:

--Do you use it to escape life or cope with life?
--Has your social life suffered ? Have you deliberately made excuses not to do something with friends or gf in order to stay home and PMO ?
--Does it interfere with normal day-to-day activities, getting to bed at a decent hour, getting to work on time (because you PMO before work, school or social events and end up being late)
--Can you avoid doing it when you are alone, or not? Do you deliberately schedule a time to do so  ? Do you feel guilt and shame after but can't keep from repeating ?
--Has it become a "ritual"on the computer (after completing all of the work, checking email, checking the news, then you fap) or are you able to stop and leave.
--Have you spent an entire day(s) looking , stopping only to use the bathroom or eat ?
--Do you feel you "deserve" to do be able to do so ? 
--Have the scenes you remember become a regular part of your masturbation , without the computer?
--Do you use what you have viewed as part of your fantasy in sex with your woman or are you in the moment, can you block out the memory, are you serving the needs of the partner  ?

Those are some questions I can come up with as to it not being manageable--

Think back honestly and what "got you off" before and what it takes now. If it is always something a little bit more "interesting" than before (the old scenes don't do anything), you are developing tolerance . That is the pornography "hook"